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54 – 49 BC: The Path to Civil War

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Presentation on theme: "54 – 49 BC: The Path to Civil War"— Presentation transcript:

1 54 – 49 BC: The Path to Civil War
Caesar Pompey

2 54 BC Death of Julia, Caesar’s daughter and Pompey’s wife.

3 53 BC Crassus killed at Carrhae (in Syria) End of the triumvirate

4 52 BC Politics in Rome characterised by violence and bribery: near-anarchy Forces of Clodius (standing for praetorship) and Milo (standing for consulship) fight on the Appian Way

5 52 BC Clodius killed, funeral pyre in Senate house gets out of control, burns Senate house down Mob seeks revenge against Milo

6 52 BC Pompey made sole consul to deal with the chaos
Law against public violence (Milo prosecuted) Law demanding 5 year interval between urban magistracies and provincial commands Law demanding candidates appear in person at elections.

7 51 BC Optimates and Metellus (consul) call for Caesar’s return from Gaul. Pompey objects on the grounds this would contradict the five year imperium he and Crassus granted Caesar in 55 BC. But says he would be open to the proposal after March 50 BC.

8 50 BC Caesar pays the debts of Curio, a young nobleman, in return for his political support Curio becomes consul Curio proposes a compromise where both Caesar and Pompey give up their commands (Caesar’s in Gaul, Pompey’s in Spain managed by legates) Guess how Pompey responds

9 50 BC In December, Curio brings on a vote in the senate on his proposal. Majority vote for it. The other consul, Marcellus, dismisses the senate

10 49 BC Two tribunes are Antony and Cassius (allied with Caesar). They seek to advance Caesar’s proposal. The consul, Lentulus, declares he will veto any such proposal. Senate, led by the optimates like Cato, pass a motion declaring Caesar must dismiss his army or be declared an enemy of the state

11 Antony & Cassius veto this motion but they are intimidated into fleeing (to Caesar in Gaul)
Caesar, by crossing the River Rubicon (the frontier between the province of Cisalpine Gaul and Rome) begins the civil war between himself and Pompey. 49 BC

12 Activity: Crossing the Rubicon
Read the quote and comment you have been assigned from pp Discuss it with your partner and form a view about whether Caesar was justified in crossing the Rubicon. Prepare to explain your conclusion to the class.

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