2 54 BCDeath of Julia, Caesar’s daughter and Pompey’s wife.
3 53 BCCrassus killed at Carrhae (in Syria)End of the triumvirate
4 52 BCPolitics in Rome characterised by violence and bribery: near-anarchyForces of Clodius (standing for praetorship) and Milo (standing for consulship) fight on the Appian Way
5 52 BCClodius killed, funeral pyre in Senate house gets out of control, burns Senate house downMob seeks revenge against Milo
6 52 BC Pompey made sole consul to deal with the chaos Law against public violence (Milo prosecuted)Law demanding 5 year interval between urban magistracies and provincial commandsLaw demanding candidates appear in person at elections.
7 51 BCOptimates and Metellus (consul) call for Caesar’s return from Gaul.Pompey objects on the grounds this would contradict the five year imperium he and Crassus granted Caesar in 55 BC. But says he would be open to the proposal after March 50 BC.
8 50 BCCaesar pays the debts of Curio, a young nobleman, in return for his political supportCurio becomes consulCurio proposes a compromise where both Caesar and Pompey give up their commands (Caesar’s in Gaul, Pompey’s in Spain managed by legates)Guess how Pompey responds
9 50 BCIn December, Curio brings on a vote in the senate on his proposal. Majority vote for it.The other consul, Marcellus, dismisses the senate
10 49 BCTwo tribunes are Antony and Cassius (allied with Caesar). They seek to advance Caesar’s proposal.The consul, Lentulus, declares he will veto any such proposal.Senate, led by the optimates like Cato, pass a motion declaring Caesar must dismiss his army or be declared an enemy of the state
11 Antony & Cassius veto this motion but they are intimidated into fleeing (to Caesar in Gaul) Caesar, by crossing the River Rubicon (the frontier between the province of Cisalpine Gaul and Rome) begins the civil war between himself and Pompey.49 BC
12 Activity: Crossing the Rubicon Read the quote and comment you have been assigned from ppDiscuss it with your partner and form a view about whether Caesar was justified in crossing the Rubicon.Prepare to explain your conclusion to the class.