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Unit 1 – Section B Looking at Water and Its Contaminants.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 – Section B Looking at Water and Its Contaminants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 – Section B Looking at Water and Its Contaminants

2 HW Read & take notes on sections B.1 B.2 Answer questions (1-3) on pg. 28, be prepared to discuss them. B.3

3 B.1 Physical Properties of Water Matter – is anything that occupies space All solids, liquids and gases are classified as matter. Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the chemical make-up of a substance. Density which is the mass of a given material within a given volume is an example of a physical property.

4 B. 1 Physical Properties of Water (continued) Other examples of physical properties: – Freezing point \ melting point – Appearance – Texture – Color – Odor – boiling point, – Solubility – polarity, and many others.

5 B.1 Physical Properties of Water (continued) Many substances dissolve readily in water, many liquids are water solutions, such water-based solutions are called aqueous solutions. Examples: cola, saltwater, rain

6 B. 2 Density Answer questions (1-3) on pg. 28, be prepared to discuss them.

7 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions A mixture is two or more substances combined that retain their individual properties. Examples: foul water (from our lab) More specifically the foul water was an example of a heterogeneous mixture because the composition is not the same, or uniform throughout the mixture.

8 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) Another example of a heterogeneous mixture is called a suspension, this is when solid particles may settle out or be removed as we did by filtration. Example: coffee

9 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) When particles of a heterogeneous mixture are even smaller and do not settle out – the solution may appear cloudy. This scattering of light is known as the Tyndall effect. The type of mixture is know as a colloid. Examples: whole & low-fat milk, cream Butterfat particles not visible to naked eye, but may be seen under high magnification and appear as suspended globules.

10 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) Tyndall Effect Image source :

11 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) When particles of a heterogeneous mixture are even more small and cannot be seen even using magnification and they do not scatter light (the Tyndall effect). This is known as a homogeneous mixture. A mixture uniform throughout.

12 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) All solutions are homogeneous mixtures. Examples: vinegar, rubbing alcohol, food coloring

13 B. 3 Mixtures and Solutions (continued) In a salt solution the salt is the solute (dissolved substance) and the water is the solvent (dissolving agent). All solutions consist of one or more solutes and a solvent. Examples: sugar (solute) into tea (solvent)

14 B.1-B.3 Quiz

15 HW Read & take notes on sections B.4 B.5 Illustrate and complete questions (1-7) on pgs , be prepared to discuss them.

16 B. 4 Particulate View of Water Exploring at the level of atoms and molecules is considered the particulate level. All matter is composed of atoms. Matter made up of only one kind of atom is known as an element. Examples: Helium (He), Gold (Au) Let’s Meet the Elements!

17 B. 4 Particulate View of Water (continued) A substance composed of two or more atoms linked chemically in certain fixed proportions is a compound. Examples: water (H 2 O), salt (NaCl) Chemists have identified > 24,000,000 compounds

18 B. 4 Particulate View of Water (continued) Compounds and elements are represented by their chemical formula. Examples: of familiar formulas ammonia (NH 3 ), baking soda (NaHCO 3 ) chalk (CaCO 3 ) sugar (C 12 H 22 O 11 )

19 B. 4 Particulate View of Water (continued) Each element and compound is considered a substance because each has a uniform and definite composition. The smallest unit of a molecular compound that retains the properties of that substance is a molecule. Examples: oxygen (O 2 )  2 atoms of oxygen ammonia (NH 3 )  1 atom of nitrogen & 3 atoms of hydrogen

20 B. 5 Pictures in the Mind Macroscopic world – a world filled with large- scale readily observable things. A model is any simplification, substitute or stand-in for what you are actually studying or trying to predict.

21 B. 5 Pictures in the Mind (continued) Sample: Draw a model of two gaseous compounds in a homogeneous mixture. A homogeneous mixture is uniform throughout so it needs to be: Intermingled Evenly distributed

22 B. 5 Pictures in the Mind (continued) Illustrate and complete questions (1-7) on pgs , be prepared to discuss them.

23 B.4-B.5 Quiz

24 HW Notes on B.6 and Answer B.7 questions (1-3) on pgs , be prepared to discuss them.

25 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations Each element is assigned a chemical symbol. – Understood by scientist throughout world – First letter capitalized Examples: carbon (C), calcium (Ca) The symbols for the 5 most common elements in the Universe 1.H 2.He 3. O 4.C 5.Ne

26 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations (continued) All known elements are organized into the periodic table of elements.

27 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations (continued) Chemical formulas represent the different chemical substances. Example: sugar C 12 H 22 O 11 Chemical symbol represents each chemical present A subscript indicates how many atoms are present in one unit.

28 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations (continued) Chemical equations summarize the details of a particular chemical reaction. Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, causing atoms to rearrange into new substances. Example: hydrogen and oxygen become water. 2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O

29 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations (continued) The original starting substances in a chemical reaction are called reactants. 2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O The new substance(s) formed are the products.

30 B. 6 Symbols, Formulas and Equations (continued) A handful of elements exist as two bonded elements of the same atom, these are called diatomic molecules. Example: hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and oxygen gas (O 2 )

31 B. 7 Symbols, Formulas and Equations – Developing Skills 1. a. Name the element represented by each of the symbols I.P II.Ni III.Cu IV.Co V.Br VI.K VII.Na VIII.Fe b. Which elements in questions 1a have symbols that correspond to their English name? c. Which is more likely to be the same throughout the world – an element’s symbol or its name? Phosphorous Nickel Copper Cobalt Bromine Potassium Sodium Iron

32 B. 7 Symbols, Formulas and Equations – Developing Skills (continued) 2. Name and number the elements a)H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 b)CaCl 2 c)NaHCO 3 d)H 2 SO 4 Hydrogen Peroxide = 2 hydrogens and 2 oxygens Calcium Chloride = 1 calcium and 2 chlorines Sodium hydrogen carbonate = 1 sodium, 1 hydrogen, 1 carbon & 3 oxygens Sulfuric acid = 2 hydrogens, 1 sulfur & 4 oxygens

33 Joke Break A man walks into a bar and orders a glass of H 2 O, then drinks it. Another man walks into the same bar and order a glass of H 2 O 2, he drinks it and dies BACK

34 B. 7 Symbols, Formulas and Equations – Developing Skills (continued) 3. The burning of methane CH O 2  CO H 2 O Sentence - b)Compound/element inventory Methane and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is an element all the rest are compounds

35 B. 7 Symbols, Formulas and Equations – Developing Skills (continued) 3. The burning of methane CH O 2  CO H 2 O c)Atom Inventory – d)Model 1 carbon, 4 hydrogens + 4 oxygens  1 carbon, 4 hydrogens + 4 oxygens +  +

36 B.6-B.7 Review NH 3 ammonia How many molecules? ______________ How many elements? _______________ How many atoms? __________________ What element has the most atoms in this formula?______________ What is the common name of this formula?______________

37 B.6-B.7 Review NaHCO 3 baking soda How many molecules? ______________ How many elements? _______________ How many atoms? __________________ What element has the most atoms in this formula?______________ What is the common name of this formula?______________

38 How many molecules? ______________ How many elements? _______________ How many atoms? __________________ What element has the most atoms in this formula?______________ What is the common name of this formula?______________ B.6-B.7 Review CaCO 3 chalk

39 B.6-B.7 Quiz

40 HW Notes/read B.8 & B.9 and Create the table as directed on pg. 41, be prepared to discuss your answers.

41 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter How do the atoms of molecules stick together?

42 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter (continued) Like charges repel ++--

43 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter (continued) Unlike charges attract +-

44 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter (continued) Electrically neutral (uncharged) atoms contain equal number of (+) protons and (-) electrons. Example: electrically neutral sodium has 11 p + and 11e -

45 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter (continued) In addition to electrons and protons most atoms contain one or more electrically neutral neutrons.

46 B. 8 The Electrical Nature of Matter (continued) The positive-negative attraction between protons in one atom and electrons in another atom provides the attachment that hold atoms together.

47 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds Earlier we learned about molecules, which make up one type of compound. Another type is made up of ions, which are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Example: Sodium easily loses one e - leaving it with a positive charge Na + and chlorine easily gains an e - leaving it with a negative charge Cl -

48 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds (continued) Ionic compounds are substances composed of positive and negative ions. Example: Table salt NaCl

49 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds (continued) Table salt (NaCl) consists equal numbers Na + and Cl - arranged in a 3-dimensional network called a crystal.

50 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds (continued) A negatively charged ion is called an anion. Example: Cl - A positively charged ion is called a cation. Example: Na +

51 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds (continued) An ion may be a single atom such as a cation (Na + ) or an anion (Cl - ). Ions may also be a group of bonded atoms such as, ammonium cation (NH 4 + ) or a nitrate anion (NO 3 - ), these are called polyatomic ions.

52 B.9 Ion and Ionic Compounds (continued) You write formulas for ionic compounds following 2 simples rules: 1.Cation 1 st, then anion. 2.Correct formula will contain fewest positive and negative ions in order to make the total electrical charge ZERO.

53 B. 10 Ionic Compounds – Developing Skills Create the table as directed on pg. 41, be prepared to discuss your answers.

54 B. 10 Ionic Compounds – Table #CationAnionFormulaName 1 CaSO 4 2Ca 2+ PO Ammonium nitrate 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 5 Magnesium hydroxide 6 Calcium carbonate

55 B. 10 Ionic Compounds – Table #CationAnionFormulaName 1Ca 2+ SO 4 2- CaSO 4 Calcium sulfate 2Ca 2+ PO 4 3- Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 calcium phosphate 3NH 4 + NO 3 - NH 4 NO 3 Ammonium nitrate 4Al 2 3+ SO 4 2- Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Aluminum sulfate 5Mg 2+ OH - Mg(OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide 6Ca 2+ CO 3 2- CaCO 3 Calcium carbonate

56 B.8-B.10 Quiz

57 B. 11 Water Testing - Lab


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