2Medical gasesCompressedair (5 bar)N2O(Nitrous oxide )VacuumCompressed air(8 bar) or NitrogenAGSSO2CO2O2, and medical compressed air (5 bar) used for life support and respiratory therapy.N2O is an analgesic gas used in anesthesia machine.Vacuum (technically not gas), negative pressure to take out the expired air.AGSS (Anesthesia Gas Scavenging System), to take out N2O and filter it before being outdoors.Compressed air (8 bar) or Nitrogen, to operate pneumatic surgical tools.CO2 used for insufflations.Medical Gas Pipeline products are used in Hospitals, Universities and Research Labs, to process and monitor the delivery of medical gases from source systems to various operating and care areas of the facilities. Medical Gas Pipeline Products include, Air Compressors, Vacuum Systems, Medical Gas Outlets, Alarms, Manifolds, Zone Valves and Zone Valve Boxes. The Architectural Products include a variety of wall or floor mounted Headwall Systems designed and installed to continue the delivery of the medical gases and electrical services for delivery of these essential services in the high acuity areas of the facilities. These systems feature rail profiles which allow extremely effective equipment management concepts to better utilize floor space and provide flexibility in equipment movement.Since the ventilator is concerned to supply a mixture of air and oxygen, we will concentrate on oxygen supplies especially.
3Medical Gas pipeline system A pipeline system is a system that includes:The pipeline network,The control unit andThe terminal units where the medical gases or anesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems may be required.
4PIPED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM THREE Classes Of Pipeline Systems :Main LinesRisersBranch (Lateral) Lines
6Material Special copper pipes are used as copper has many good qualities: Corrosion resistanceNeutral with respect to medical gasesEase of handling (combining technique and installationGreat operational safety and durability
7Medical gas pipeline components Air compressorVacuum systemsMedical gas outletsAlarmsManifoldsZone valves & Zone valves boxesWall and floor mounting systemsRails for flexible equipment movement and utilize floor space
9Oxygen Supplying System Oxygen may be supplied as follows:Gas in cylindersCryogenic liquid in mobile vessels or stationary vessels
101. Gas in CylindersA cylinder manifold system shall have two banks (groups) of cylinders or cylinder bundlesThe banks alternately supply the pipeline,Each bank having its cylinders connected to a common header with a separate manifold pressure regulator.The secondary bank comes into operation automatically when content of the primary bank becomes exhausted.
122. Cryogenic liquid Systems Cryogenic tanks systems hold liquefied cryogenic gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen or helium) and dispense these gases in the form of a liquid or gas as required by the customer.Cryogenic tanks pressure vessels manufactured with an inner and outer vessel to hold cryogenic liquefied gases that have condensation points less than -150 ºC.Cryogenic Tank
13Oxygen system components Pressure regulatorsPressure relief valve
141. Pressure Regulators There are two types of regulators Operating pressure regulator: there are two operating regulators; one on every bank manifoldLine pressure regulatorThere are one or two line regulators on every manifold.Function: to maintain a constant pressure at maximum flow rate of the system.
152. Pressure Relief ValvePressure relief valves are installed downstream of all pressure regulatorsValves set at no more than 50% above the pressure regulator setting.Function: Fully relieving the pressure at the set point in case failure of regulator.All pressure relief valves have piping connections to allow release of to outside facility.
32Duplex filter (special Considerations) Air intakes should be located high enough in receiver to eliminate intake of particles of dust, smoke, dirt, and water.A double filtering line consisting, each, of air line ultra high efficiency filter and activated carbon filter normally used to remove particles as small as 0.01 micron with efficiency of %.The pressure drop across the carbon filter is often an indication of when the filter should be replaced.
33Vacuum SystemVacuum systems commonly utilize three pumping devices: the rotating mechanical pump, diffusion pump and cold trap.In addition to other system components, such as valves and baffles (control the action of pumps).
34Mechanical PumpRotating pumps have large gas handling capacities, but cannot achieve high vacuum (resulting pressure about 10-2 torr.Mechanical pumps remove the bulk "rough" of the air from a system which is initially at atmospheric pressure, and, once this is accomplished it "backs" the diffusion pump, since a diffusion pump cannot exhaust against atmospheric pressure.
35Diffusion Pump Reduces system pressure to 10-7 torr A diffusion pump has a maximum pressure against which it can exhaust. The mechanical pump provides this exhaust pressure for the diffusion pump.
36First stage CLOSED valves (dark) and OPEN valves (light). The regions with a darker shade are at a higher pressure.
37Second stage CLOSED valves (dark) and OPEN valves (light). The regions with a darker shade are at a higher pressure.
38Third stage CLOSED valves (dark) and OPEN valves (light). The regions with a darker shade are at a higher pressure.
39Distribution Systems for Medical Gases Distribution systems are used for internal clinic transfer of medical gases and vacuum from the plants to the terminal units.Special copper pipes are used as copper has many good qualities:Corrosion resistanceNeutral with respect to medical gasesBactericidal and fungicidal effectsEase of handling (combining technique and installationGreat operational safety and durability
40Terminal UnitsTerminal units permit the supply of medical equipment with medical gases and vacuum from the central gas supply system.They are suitable for installation in walls, wall lights, energy panel systems and supply units and they can be used in the medical areas.
41Area Control UnitArea control units serve as a shut-off device as well as control monitor for medical gases and they are integrated in the functional areas of the hospital.