Annuity Objectives 2Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities In planning for financial security in retirement, an annuity can help satisfy two basic objectives: To accumulate retirement assets on a tax-deferred basis. To convert retirement assets into an income that you cannot outlive. If you're already contributing the maximum to IRAs and any employer- sponsored retirement plans and need to save more for retirement, a deferred annuity may be the answer to your retirement savings need. On the other hand, if you're near or at retirement, an immediate income annuity can be used to convert existing retirement assets into a lifetime income.
What Is an Annuity? 3Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities An annuity is a long-term savings plan that can be used to accumulate assets on a tax-deferred basis for retirement and/or to convert retirement assets into a stream of income. While both are insurance contracts, an annuity is the opposite of life insurance: Life Insurance Provides financial protection against the risk of dying prematurely. An Annuity Provides financial protection against the risk of living too long and being without income during retirement. There are two basic types of annuities, depending on whether you need to accumulate assets for retirement or whether you're at or near retirement and interested in creating a lifetime retirement income: Deferred Annuities Immediate Income Annuities An immediate income annuity is purchased with a single premium and income payments begin immediately or shortly after the premium is paid. A deferred annuity has two distinct phases: the accumulation or savings phase and the income phase. During the accumulation phase, you contribute premiums to the annuity, where they accumulate on a tax-deferred basis until needed for income purposes. During the income phase, the value of the annuity is converted into income payments.
How Are Annuity Premiums Invested? 4Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities A fixed interest annuity pays a fixed rate of interest on the premiums invested in the contract, less any applicable charges. The insurance company guarantees* that it will pay a minimum interest rate for the life of the annuity contract. A company may also pay an "excess" or bonus interest rate, which is guaranteed* for a shorter period, such as one year. Fixed Interest Annuities Variable Annuities During the accumulation phase of a variable annuity, premiums less any applicable charges are placed in a separate account of the insurance company, where the annuity owner can invest them in one or more stock and bond subaccounts. During the income phase of a variable annuity, the amount of each income payment may be fixed and guaranteed*, or it may be variable, changing with the value of the investments in the separate account. continued on next slide * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. Depending on your investment objectives and risk tolerance, there are a variety of ways that you can choose to invest your annuity premiums:
How Are Annuity Premiums Invested? 5Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Indexed Annuities * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. An indexed annuity has characteristics of both a fixed interest annuity and a variable annuity. Similar to a variable annuity, the insurance company pays a rate of return on annuity premiums that is tied to a stock market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Stock Price Index. Similar to fixed interest annuities, indexed annuities also provide a minimum guaranteed interest rate*, meaning that they have less market risk than variable annuities. Since the minimum guaranteed interest rate is, however, combined with the interest rate linked to a market index, indexed annuities have the potential to earn returns better than fixed interest annuities when the stock market is rising.
A Closer Look at Variable Annuities 6Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Deferred Variable Annuities: * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. A deferred variable annuity can be purchased either with a single premium or through a series of installment premiums. Premium Payments: During the accumulation phase, premiums less any applicable charges are placed in a separate account of the insurance company, where you can invest them in one or more subaccounts. Variable annuity subaccounts consist of stocks, bonds, money market instruments and other types of investments. The value of a deferred variable annuity is not guaranteed and will vary according to the performance of the subaccounts you select. Accumulation Phase: On the annuity starting date, you can elect to receive the value of the annuity in a single lump sum or you can select from a variety of annuity income options, which may be either fixed and guaranteed* or which may be variable, increasing or decreasing with the investment results of the separate account. Income Phase: continued on next slide
A Closer Look at Variable Annuities 7Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Immediate Variable Annuities: * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. An immediate variable annuity can be purchased with a single premium only. Premium Payments: The single premium less any applicable charges is converted into an income that begins immediately or shortly after the premium is paid and which will increase or decrease, depending on the investment results of the separate account. Income Phase:
Why Choose a Variable Annuity? 8Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities A variable annuity allows you to make your own investment decisions by providing a variety of professionally-managed subaccounts into which you can invest your annuity premiums. The earnings credited to your variable annuity then depend on the investment performance of the underlying subaccounts you select. With a variable annuity, you assume the investment risk in exchange for potentially higher returns. Your variable annuity investment holds the potential to produce higher returns than what is available on fixed interest annuities. On the other hand, your variable annuity investment can lose value if the selected subaccounts do not perform as well as anticipated. As a result, variable annuities are best suited for individuals who: A variable annuity may be right for you if you are comfortable with assuming market risk and can tolerate fluctuations in your annuity value. Prefer to invest in equities Want to make their own investment decisions Understand that assets can decline in value Are willing to assume the risk of loss of principal in exchange for the possibility of greater asset growth and a stronger hedge against inflation
Variable Annuity Investment Options 9Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities In purchasing a variable annuity, you should read the prospectus and determine if the investment subaccounts are consistent with your investment goals and risk tolerance. While there may be a relatively large number of investment subaccounts to select from, they generally fall into these categories: Domestic equity funds investing in the stock of U.S. corporations of various sizes based on market capitalization and valuation. International equity funds investing in the stock of foreign corporations. Investing internationally involves risks not associated with investing solely in the U.S., such as currency fluctuation, political risk, differences in accounting and the limited availability of information. Sector funds which focus their holdings within a specific industry sector, such as healthcare, consumer industries, technology, financial services, telecommunications, etc. Funds that concentrate in a specific sector or focus on a relatively small number of securities may be subject to greater volatility than a more diversified investment. continued on next slide
Variable Annuity Investment Options 10Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Specialty funds such as real estate-related investments. Real estate investing entails the risks of real estate business generally, including sensitivity to economic and business cycles, changing demographic patterns and government actions. Fixed income or bond funds which tend to be more conservative, focusing on income production while preserving capital. Short-term funds which provide low volatility by investing in money market instruments and short-term Treasury bills and certificates of deposit.
Variable Annuity Asset Allocation 11Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities In developing an asset allocation strategy for a variable annuity, you should consider your objectives, investment risk tolerance and the number of years you have until you plan to retire. An advantage of variable annuities is that, subject to contract limitations, you can move funds between investment subaccounts on a tax-free basis (you do not pay taxes on accumulated earnings until you actually receive them). This means that you can change your initial asset allocation strategy in response to changing market conditions and your changing needs and time horizon. Historically, equities have outperformed other investments over time and have outpaced inflation. Equities, however, also experience the most market volatility. If your retirement horizon is out in the future, you may want to invest more of your annuity assets in equity funds since time is on your side to recover from possible market losses. On the other hand, if you're not comfortable with the market fluctuations associated with equity investments or you have fewer years until retirement, you may want to concentrate your annuity assets in more conservative investments, such as bond funds. Another alternative is to select so-called balanced funds, which invest in both stocks and bonds in order to produce income and capital growth consistent with a stated level of risk. Be sure to carefully read the variable annuity prospectus before you send or invest money.
Variable Annuity Features 12Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Variable annuities contain a number of features that can work to reduce your investment risk: Professional Management Variable annuity subaccounts are managed by investment professionals. Dollar Cost Averaging Rather than trying to anticipate market peaks and valleys, you invest a specific amount of money at regular intervals, regardless of market conditions. The objective of dollar cost averaging is to purchase fewer shares when stock prices are high and more shares when stock prices are low, resulting in a lower overall average price. Dollar cost averaging does not assure a profit and does not guarantee against loss in a declining market. Investors should consider their financial ability to continue purchases through periods of low price levels. Diversification Rather than "putting all your eggs in one investment basket," each variable annuity subaccount is diversified among a variety of investments. In addition, you have the opportunity to further diversify by investing in multiple subaccounts. The use of diversification and asset allocation as part of an overall investment strategy does not assure a profit or protect against loss in a declining market. continued on next slide
Variable Annuity Features 13Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. Asset Rebalancing Once you select the asset allocation you want among the available variable annuity subaccounts, your premiums payments will then be allocated in accordance with those percentages. As market conditions change, subject to contract terms you can reallocate your investments and future premium payments among different subaccounts or in different percentages. In fact, many variable annuities offer a feature that automatically maintains your original asset allocation strategy by periodically reallocating your annuity assets among different subaccounts, based on your original investment mix. Death Benefit Guarantee* The standard variable annuity death benefit guarantees* that if you die during the annuity accumulation phase, your beneficiary will receive the greater of the total amount invested in the annuity or the annuity value at the time of death. Some variable annuities go even further, by locking in investment gains for death benefit purposes every year or every few years.
Variable Annuity Living Benefit Riders 14Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit (GMWB) The GMWB rider guarantees that, regardless of stock market performance, all of the principal you have invested in the variable annuity will be returned to you through withdrawals of a fixed percentage of the principal over a specified period of time until the entire original investment has been returned to you. Variable annuities may offer several "living benefit" riders, all designed to provide guarantees. These include: Guaranteed Minimum Income Benefit (GMIB) After a vesting period, such as 10 years, the GMIB rider guarantees a minimum income benefit, regardless of market performance. If the value of the contract grows, the stream of income may be higher, but it can never be lower than the guaranteed amount. Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB) The GMAB rider guarantees that after a specified number of years, typically 10 years, the value of the variable annuity will be equal to or greater than the guaranteed accumulation amount. Variable annuity living benefit riders are optional and require payment of an additional fee. Be sure to carefully read the prospectus before purchasing a living benefit rider. In addition, the guarantees provided by these riders are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company.
Variable Annuity Income Phase 15Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities When you are ready to begin receiving income from a deferred variable annuity, you can select from a variety of options, including: You can surrender your deferred variable annuity and receive the entire value in a lump sum payment. This option requires that income tax be paid on the variable annuity earnings in the year you receive them. In addition, a lump sum distribution does not solve the problem of outliving your retirement income. Lump Sum Distribution You can set up a systematic withdrawal plan, through which you receive a specified amount of money at regular intervals, such as $1,000 per month, until all assets have been withdrawn. With this option, you have the flexibility to change the payment schedule in the future. Since, for income tax purposes, earnings are considered withdrawn before principal, the likelihood is that the earlier withdrawals will be fully taxed at ordinary income tax rates. In addition, with this option there is no guarantee that you will not outlive your retirement income. Systematic Withdrawals continued on next slide
Variable Annuity Income Phase 16Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities You convert the value of your variable annuity into a lifetime income or into a stream of payments for a fixed period of time. There are a variety of annuity payout options for you to select from. Depending on the variable annuity contract, these options may be available on both a fixed basis and a variable basis: Annuitization A lump sum distribution or systematic withdrawals made prior to age 59-1/2 may be subject to a 10% federal tax penalty on the taxable amount of earnings withdrawn, unless one of the exceptions is met. Note: Talk to your licensed financial adviser about other options that may be available in the annuity contract you are considering. Other Options Fixed payments provide you with a fixed dollar income at regular intervals. Variable payments depend on the current value of the underlying variable annuity investments and will rise and fall based on investment performance. By assuming the risk that your income payments may decline, you have the possibility of higher annuity income and a stronger hedge against inflation. If the variable annuity contract permits, another alternative is to select a combination of fixed and variable annuity income payments. Fixed income payments then provide a predictable income, while variable income payments offer a hedge against inflation by taking advantage of potential growth in the stock market.
Annuity Income Options 17Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Life Income Option Payments are made for as long as the annuitant is alive. Payments cease at the annuitant’s death. This option produces the maximum guaranteed* lifetime income. At retirement, annuity income can be structured in a variety of ways, enabling you to select the income option that best satisfies your unique needs. While you can surrender a deferred annuity and receive a lump-sum payment equal to the annuity value, many people elect to convert the annuity value into a stream of retirement income using one of these income options: continued on next slide * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. Life Income with Period Certain Option Payments are made for as long as the annuitant is alive. If the annuitant dies before a specified number of payments have been received (e.g., 120 monthly payments), the remaining payments in the period certain are made to the beneficiary. Life Income with Refund Guarantee Option Payments are made for as long as the annuitant is alive. If the annuitant dies before payments equal to all or a specified portion of the purchase price have been received, the beneficiary receives the balance of the payments, up to the refund guarantee* amount.
Annuity Income Options 18Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Joint-and- Survivor Option This payout option covers two lives. The same payment can be received for as long as either of the two annuitants is alive or, alternatively, at the death of the first annuitant, the payment to the surviving annuitant can be structured to reduce to a specified percentage (e.g., 75%) of the payment received while both annuitants were alive. A joint-and-survivor payout can also include a period certain feature. * All guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. Period Certain Option (no guarantee of lifetime income) Payments are made for a specified number of years, such as 10 years or 20 years. Payments cease at the end of the period certain. If annuitant dies before receiving all guaranteed* payments, the beneficiary will receive the remaining payments. Flexibility While these are the five basic annuity income options, some annuity contracts offer additional flexibility…ask your licensed financial adviser about contract features that may add flexibility to your use of an annuity to provide retirement income.
How Are Variable Annuities Taxed? 19Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities During the Accumulation Phase: continued on next slide Earnings credited on the funds in a variable annuity are tax deferred, meaning that the earnings are not taxed while they remain in the annuity. Amounts can be transferred from one variable annuity subaccount to another within the annuity without incurring a tax liability. Withdrawals from a variable annuity during the accumulation phase are treated as withdrawals of earnings to the extent that the cash value of the annuity exceeds the total premiums paid and are taxed as income in the year withdrawn. To the extent that a withdrawal exceeds any earnings, that portion of the withdrawal is considered a non-taxable return of principal. In addition, a 10% penalty tax may be imposed on withdrawals made before age 59-1/2, unless certain conditions are met. The penalty tax is in addition to the regular income tax on the withdrawal. If the annuitant dies during the accumulation phase, the death benefit of the variable annuity is generally included in the annuitant’s estate, to the extent of the deceased annuitant’s proportional contribution to the annuity purchase price.
How Are Variable Annuities Taxed? 20Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities During the Income Phase: The annuity purchase price is returned in equal income-tax-free amounts over the expected payment period (based on the annuitant’s life expectancy). The portion of each payment in excess of the tax-free return of the purchase price is taxable in the year received. In summary, a portion of each annuity payment is received income tax free and the balance is taxable as received. At the annuitant’s death, the present value of any remaining annuity payments due is generally included in the annuitant’s estate, to the extent of the deceased annuitant’s proportional contribution to the annuity purchase price. A professional tax advisor should be consulted for more detailed information on annuity taxation in your situation.
Variable Annuity Advantages and Disadvantages 21Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Advantages: A variable annuity has the potential to produce higher returns than what is available on fixed interest annuities. Variable annuity earnings are tax deferred so long as they remain in the annuity. When compared to an investment whose earnings are taxed, tax deferral offers the potential for accumulating significantly higher amounts of money over time. An annuity can be used to provide a steady source of retirement income that you cannot outlive. Unlike an IRA or employer-sponsored retirement plan, there are no annual contribution limits to a variable annuity…you can contribute as much as you want. Subject to the terms of the contract, there is no required date by which you must being receiving annuity income payments, providing you with the flexibility to defer payments until you need the income. If you die while your annuity still has value, the annuity death benefit passes directly to your beneficiary without probate. In most states, an annuity is free from the claims of a creditor. A variable annuity can be a great way to save for retirement on a tax-deferred basis, in effect creating your own personal "pension" plan. As with any investment, however, there are also potential disadvantages that should be evaluated before purchasing a variable annuity. ++
Variable Annuity Advantages and Disadvantages 22Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Disadvantages: A variable annuity can lose value if the selected subaccounts do not perform as well as anticipated. Premiums for a non-qualified annuity are not tax deductible, meaning that they are made with after-tax dollars. While you can surrender or make withdrawals from a variable annuity before you begin receiving income payments, the surrender or withdrawal may be subject to a charge if made within a stated number of years after the annuity is initially purchased. Withdrawals will reduce the value of the death benefit and any optional benefits. If made prior to age 59-1/2, a surrender or withdrawal will be subject to a 10% federal penalty tax unless one of the exceptions to this tax is met. When received, investment gains are subject to ordinary income tax rates and not the lower capital gains tax rate. Once annuity income payments begin, annuity contracts vary in regard to whether the payment amount can be changed and/or whether amounts can be withdrawn from the contract. Ask your licensed financial adviser to explain whether the contract you are considering allows for annuity payments to be increased or decreased and whether withdrawals are available. ––
Variable Annuity Checklist 23Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities An annual annuity charge, which is expressed as a percentage of assets (e.g., 1% of the value of the annuity); An annual maintenance fee (e.g., $30); Mortality or insurance charges for death benefit features; The variable annuity fees and expenses an insurance company charges can include: Fees and Expenses Premium charges deducted when premiums are paid; Once you decide that a variable annuity is right for you, there are a number of factors you should consider in evaluating the specific annuity you will purchase. These include: Investment management fees in a variable annuity; and/or Surrender charges assessed when the annuity is surrendered or withdrawals are made in the early years of the contract. Carefully evaluate fees and expenses, since they will impact the amount of money ultimately available in the annuity. continued on next slide
Variable Annuity Checklist 24Understanding Annuities: A Lesson in Variable Annuities Since a variable annuity is an insurance contract, you need to be able to count on the financial strength and claims- paying ability of the insurance company from which you purchase an annuity. Ask for company rating information from respected sources, such as A.M. Best, Moody's or Standard & Poor's, before purchasing an annuity. The rankings are intended to reflect the financial strength and claims- paying ability of the insurance company and are not intended to reflect the investment experience or financial strength of the variable accounts, which are subject to market risk. Insurance Company Ratings Make sure you review the variable annuity prospectus and understand the terms and limitations of a variable annuity contract before you purchase it, including: Annuity Features the investment choices available and their historical performance (which should not be considered a representation of future performance); any limitations on reallocating funds between different subaccounts; the withdrawal and surrender options; how the death benefit is determined and paid; how any living benefit riders work and what they cost; the income payout options available.