Presentation on theme: "VA/US Review of Unit 4: SOL 8-10 Industrialization, Globalization, and World War I."— Presentation transcript:
VA/US Review of Unit 4: SOL 8-10 Industrialization, Globalization, and World War I
Western Movement Following the Civil War, the westward movement of settlers intensified into the vast region between the Mississippi River and Pacific Ocean. The years immediately before and after the Civil War were the era of the American cowboy, marked by long cattle drives for hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in the West, the only way to get cattle to the market. Many Americans had to rebuild their lives after the Civil War and moved west to take advantage of the Homestead Act of 1862, which gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land.
Western Movement Southerners, including African Americans, in particular, moved west to seek new opportunities after the Civil War. New technologies, (for example, railroads and the mechanical reaper), opened new lands in the West for settlement and made farming profitable by increasing the efficiency of production and linking resources and markets. By the turn of the century, the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains region of the American West were no longer a mostly unsettled frontier, but were fast becoming a region of farms, ranches, and towns. The forcible removal of the American Indians from their lands continued throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century as settlers continued to move west following the Civil War.
Immigrants-And Their Organization 1871 Most immigrants from northern and western Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, and Sweden) 1921 Most immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia and present-day Hungary and Yugoslavia, as well as Asia-China and Japan).
Contributions of Immigrants Helped build the Transcontinental Railroad. Worked in the textile Mills in the Northeast and the clothing industry. Labored in the coal mines in the East. Immigrants (from various countries) Slavs, Italians, Poles Chinese Workers
Answer What was the main reason most of these immigrants came to America? What were the working conditions for most of the immigrants? They were seeking freedom and better lives for their families. At work they often faced low pay and dangerous working conditions. How did most of the immigrants from Europe enter America? What was the first view of America for many of the immigrants? The entered through Ellis Island in new York, often seeing the Statue of Liberty as their first view of America.
Answer What does the term “melting pot” mean? Many countries melding into an American way of life. With most of the immigrants settling into ethnic neighborhoods in he growing cities, the immigrants and their children worked hard to learn English, adopt American customs, and become American citizens. What were essential in assimilating immigrants into American Society? Public Schools
Answer What were some of the conflicts and hostilities with immigrants? There was fear and resentment that immigrants would take jobs for lower pay than American workers. There was also prejudice based on religious and cultural differences. Mounting resentment led Congress to limit immigration through what two acts? Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
Growth of Cities-And States As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers. Factories in large cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived in harsh conditions into tenements and slums. The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for new public services, such as sewage and water systems and public transportation. New York city was the first city to begin construction of a subway system around the turn of the twentieth century, and many cities built trolley or streetcar lines. As the population moved westward, many new states in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains were added to the United States. By the early twentieth century, all the states that make up the continental United States today, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, had been admitted.
Modern Industrial Economy During the period from the Civil war to World War I, the united States underwent an economic transformation that involved the development of an industrial economy, the expansion of big business, the growth of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and industrial conflict. Technological Change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities.
Who were the Inventors? Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison Cornelius Vanderbilt John D. Rockefeller Henry Ford Wright Brothers Andrew Carnegie J.P. Morgan Telephone Light bulb Railroads Oil Assembly Line Manufacturing Airplanes Steel Finance
Some Reasons for Economic Transformation Laissez-faire capitalism (meaning that the government should interfere the least amount possible in economic affairs) and special considerations (e.g. land grants to railroad builders). The increasing labor supply (from immigrants and migration from farms). America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers.
Discrimination and Segregation Laws limited freedom for African Americans. After reconstruction, many Southern state governments passed “Jim Crow” laws forcing separation of the races in public places. Intimidation and crimes were directed against African Americans (with lynching among other tactics). African Americans looked to the courts to safeguard their rights. In Plessey v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14 th Amendment, upholding the “Jim Crow” laws of the era. During the early twentieth century, African Americans began the “Great Migration” to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South.
African American Responses Ida B. Wells Led anti-lynching crusades and called on the federal government to take action Booker T. Washington Believed the way to equality was through vocational education and economic success; he accepted social separation. W.E.B. Dubois Believed that education was meaningless without equality. He supported political equality for African Americans by helping to form the NAACP Remember this: Initials!!!!!!!!!! W.E.B = NAACP
Issues and Accomplishments of the Progressive Movement Reconstruction through the early twentieth century was a time of contradictions for many Americans. Agricultural expansion was accomplished through wars against the Plains Indians, leading to new federal Indian policies. Industrial development raised the standard of living for millions of Americans, but also brought about the rise of national labor unions and clashes between industry and labor. Social problems in rural and urban setting gave rise to third- party movements and the beginning of the Progressive Movement. The Progressive Movement used government to reform problems created by industrialization. Examples include: Theodore Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” Woodrow Wilson “New Freedom.”
Progressive Movement Causes of Progressive Movement Excesses of the Gilded Age Income disparity, lavish lifestyle. Practices of robber barons. Working Conditions for Labor Dangerous working conditions Child labor Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits. Company towns Employment of women.
Goals of the Progressive Movement Government controlled by the people. Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation. Elimination of social injustices.
Progressive Accomplishments In local governments: New forms to meet needs of increasing urbanization (commission-style and city-manager-style) In state governments: Referendum Initiative Recall In elections: Primary elections Direct election of U.S. Senators (17 th Amendment) Secret Ballot In child labor: Muckraking: literature describing abuses of child labor Child Labor Laws
Impact of Labor Unions Organizations Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor (AFL) Samuel Gompers is the leader American Railway Union Eugene V. Debs is the leader International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union. Strikes Haymarket Squares Homestead Strike Pullman strike GAINS: Limited work hours Regulated work conditions
Antitrust Laws Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Prevents any business structure that “restrains trade” (monopolies). Clayton Anti-Trust Act: Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from the Sherman Act.
Women’s Suffrage Was a forerunner of modern protest movement. Benefitted from strong leadership. Susan B. Anthony Encouraged women to enter the labor force during World War I. Resulted in 19 th Amendment to the Constitution.
American Foreign Policy Many twentieth century American foreign policy issues have their origins in America’s emergence as a world power at the end of the nineteenth century. America’s intervention in World War I ensured its role as a world power for the remainder of the century. The growing role of the United States in international trade displayed the American urge to build, innovate, and explore new markets. International Markets Open Door Policy: Secretary of State John Ha proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China. Dollar Diplomacy: President Taft urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America. He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments. “Global Economy” Growth in international trade- late 1800’s to WWI: the first era of true “global economy”
Latin America Spanish American war: Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States United States asserted right to intervene in Cuban affairs. Panama Canal: Theodore Roosevelt played a major role in the construction of the Panama Canal. The United States encouraged Panama’s independence from Colombia. Parties negotiated a treaty to build the canal.
America in World War I War began in Europe in 1914 when Germany and Austria-Hungary went to war with Britain, France, and Russia. America remained neutral for three years when there was a strong sentiment not to get involved in a European war. America reluctantly entered the war as a result of continuing German submarine warfare (violating freedom of the seas) and because of American ties to Great Britain. Americans wanted to “make the world safe for democracy” was sad by Woodrow Wilson. America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat. Wilson tried to eliminate the causes of the war with his Fourteen Points. The key ideas for his points were self-determination (self- rule), freedom of the sea, League of Nations, and a mandate system.
America in World War I With the Treaty of Versailles England and France insisted on punishment for Germany, national boundaries were redrawn creating many new nations, and a League of Nations was created. The League of nations debate in the united States included objections to decisions being made by an international organization rather than by the united States leaders. The Senate failed t approve the Treaty of Versailles.
Key Domestic Events of the 1920s and 1930s Mass Media and Communications Radio- broadcast jazz and Fireside Chats. Movies- provided escape from the Depression. Newspapers and Magazines- shaped cultural norms and sparked fads. Challenges to Traditional Values Traditional religion- Darwin’s Theory and Scopes Trial. Traditional role of women- Flappers, 19 th Amendment Open Immigration- Rise of new Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Prohibition- smuggling alcohol and speakeasies.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Causes Business was booming, but investments were made with borrowed money. There was excessive expansion of credit. Business failures led to bankruptcies. Bank deposits were invested in the market. When the market collapsed, the banks ran out of money. Consequences Clients panicked, attempting to withdraw their money from the banks, but there was nothing to give them. There was no new investments.
The Great Depression Causes Stock Market crash of 1929 and collapse of stock prices. Federal Reserve’s failure to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s banking system in the late 1920s and early 1930s, leading to severe contraction in the nations supply of money in circulation. High protective tariffs that produced retaliatory tariffs in the other countries, strangling world trade (tariff Act of 1930, popularly called the Hawley- Smoot Act. Impact Unemployment and homelessness Collapse of financial system (bank closings) Decline in demand for goods. Political unrest (growing militancy of labor unions) Farm foreclosures and migration.
Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal Roosevelt rallied a frightened nation in which one in four workers was unemployed. He is famous for his quote- “We have notion to fear but fear itself.” Relief measures provided direct payment to people for immediate help. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Recovery programs such as this were designed to bring nation out of the depression over time. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) Reform measures corrected unsound banking and investment practices. Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC) Social Security Act offered safeguards for works. The legacy of the New Deal influenced the public’s belief in the responsibility of government to deliver public services, to intervene in the economy, and to act in ways that promote the general warfare.
1. The family shown in this picture is most likely on the way to--- A.Find factory work in the Northeast B.Claim a homestead in the West C.Work as indentured servants in Virginia D.Prospect for gold in California Pioneers, 1886
2. The Great Migration of the early 20 th century refers to the movement of --- A.European immigrants to western cities B.European immigrants to northeastern cities C.African-Americans from the South to northern cities D.African-Americans from the Midwest to eastern cities
3. Which economic factor completes this diagram? A.Laissez-faire Policies B.High interest rates C.Low consumer demands D.Strict price controls Growing Labor supply Limited Liability Corporations Abundant Natural Resources --------?--------- Industrialization of America
4. This event was a result of the passage of the --- A.Interstate Commerce Act B.17 th Amendment C.Sherman Anti-trust Act D.19 th Amendment Standard Oil Company to Break Up Supreme Court declares it an Unlawful Monopoly
5. During the Industrial Revolution, new technology affected the economy of the United States by--- A.Increasing worker productivity B.Limiting profits C.Decreasing urban population D.Generating tax revenues
6. President William Howard Taft developed the Dollar Diplomacy policy to support--- A.United States citizens traveling to Europe B.Equal trading rights in Japan C.United States businesses investing in Latin America D.Trade with the Philippines
7. By the late 1890s, many American business leaders believed their best chance for future growth depended on --- A.Tighter governmental regulation B.The increasing growth of labor unions C.Laws abolishing the use of child labor D.The establishment of foreign markets
8. What is the correct order of these events? A.1, 3, 4, 2 B.2, 4, 3, 1 C.3, 2, 1, 4 D.4, 1, 2, 3 Major Economic Developments in the 1920s 1.Stock market crash 2.Excessive stock speculation 3.Increased availability of credit 4.Failure of the banking system
9. Which individual helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)? A.James Meredith B.W.E.B. DuBois C.Thurgood Marshall D.Booker T. Washington
10. The United States failed to join the League of Nations because--- A.The President vetoed the Treaty B.Membership was restricted to European countries C.The Senate rejected the Treaty D.Membership was limited by European leaders