Presentation on theme: "Disability and Voluntarism 1965 - 1995 – an effective force in policy making? Gareth Millward Centre for History in Public Health London School of Hygiene."— Presentation transcript:
Disability and Voluntarism 1965 - 1995 – an effective force in policy making? Gareth Millward Centre for History in Public Health London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Simplified Timeline DIG 1965199519901985198019751970 RADAR CCD BCRD DA BCODP Spastics Society CS & Disabled Persons Act Disabled Persons (SCaR) Act Disability Discrimination Act UPIAS OPCS Survey Disabled Persons Act International Year of Disabled People CORAD Civil Rights Bills Disabled Persons (Employment) Act 1944 SJC New invalidity benefits Disability Working and Living Allowances Rights Now! SCOPE Personal Capacity Assessments
The social model of disability UPIAS’s Fundamental Principles (1974) Disabled People’s International and BCODP (1981) Michael Oliver The Politics of Disablement (1990)
Medical Model Medical Condition ImpairmentHandicapDisability Adapted from ICIDH, WHO, 1980 Impairment – a functional limitation Disability – a social function that cannot be performed due to impairment Handicap – a social disadvantage suffered due to disability
Social model Disability is a social issue Impairment only becomes disability because society makes it so A fair society would allow impaired people the same chances to live autonomously as non- impaired people
Types of Groups For/of Individual/Federal Cause/Services Lobbyist/Awareness Impairment specific/pan impairment Single cause/general rights
For/ofInd/FedCause / Services Lobby / Aware Imp / Pan- Imp Single / General DIGOfIndCauseLobbyPan-ImpSingle DAOf & ForFedCauseLobbyPan-ImpSingle UPIASForIndCauseAwarePan-ImpGeneral SS / ScopeForIndServicesAwareImpGeneral BCODPOfFedCauseAwarePan-ImpGeneral RADARForFedCause/Serv.LobbyPan-ImpGeneral ITA / DDAOfIndCauseLobbyPan-ImpSingle
Insider/Outsider Big charities – definitely “in”, but not actively attempting to adjust conceptions of disability DIG, DA, RADAR – “experts” BCODP – not in, though perhaps not trying?
The role of individuals A small network of agitators, highly skilled and highly motivated. Personal relationships important in discussions between “offices” However – also very similar demographics. A certain “type” of disabled person.
Some disabled individuals... OrgImp.Edu.Career Megan du BoissonDIGMSGood Mary GreavesDIG / CCD / RADAR? – wheelchairPG equiv.Civil service, economist Peter LargeDIG / RADAR / ADPTeenager – polioUniCivil service Bert MassieRADAR et alBaby – polioUniPro. Campaigner Peter MitchellRADARPolioGoodCampaigner Denny DenlyDDAPolioGoodArmy, campaigner Stephen BradshawSIASpinal injuryGood Vic FinkelsteinUPIASSpinal injuryPG equiv.Academic Mike OliverBCODP? – wheelchairPG equiv.Academic
Networks Jack Ashley Victoria Scott Nicholas Scott DIG Mary Greaves Peter Townsend DHSS RADAR DA Alf Morris APDG Peter Mitchell Peter Large
Unity? Late 60s – Early 70s – Incomes Later 80s – Early 90s – Civil Rights The rest? Publications from DA and RADAR
Effective? Kingdon (1984) and “policy streams” PoliticsProblemSolution Adapted from Buse, Mays, Walt, Making Health Policy (2005) Policy Window
Effective? Excellent manipulation of “problem” and “politics” Poor at influencing “solution” The Times, 15 th November 1971, p. 1.
Voluntary organisations “discovered” disability for the government However, social model – rights – is not a measurable legal tool But “need” can be measured – if functional limitations are equated with “need” http://www.crippencartoons.co.uk
Outcome Examples DDA employment sections did not apply to businesses employing fewer than 20 people New capacity tests looked at medically ascertainable functional limitations – not disease nomenclature Benefits paid more equally based on need – but still at levels far too low to alleviate poverty
Conclusions... Style, type, aims and background of both individuals and organisations The networks – how, why and when interactions take place Times of unity, broadly times of change Extent, scope and efficiency of said change more problematic