Presentation on theme: "Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships"— Presentation transcript:
1Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships MARPOL 73/78 Annex VIRegulations forthe Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
2Ratification Process 19th MAY 2005 Protocol Requirements for entry into forceThe Protocol is Ratified by 15 signature States to MARPOL with a combined tonnage of 50% of World tonnageThe Current Status of Ratification is by 22 Countries (Signatories of MARPOL Convention)The Protocol was fully ratified in accordance with requirements on 18th May 2004 and has ENTERED INTO FORCE on19th MAY 2005
3Flag States Party to the Protocol Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Japan, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Norway, Panama, St Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Vanuatu.
4Non-Parties to the Protocol What happens then? All Ships are to comply irrespective of Flag State – Article 5, para 4 of MARPOL Convention – “no more favourable treatment”No PSC inspections unless Port State laws apply and allow e.g. EU Directive.Bunker Delivery documentation and sample – here is the difficulty – FSI 13 and MEPC 53.
5Why MARPOL Annex VI? Emission Gases from Ships Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – create OzoneSulphur Oxides (SOx) – create acidificationCarbon Dioxide (CO2) – is a GHGCarbon Monoxide (CO)Hydrocarbons (HC) – gas, soot and some particulatesThe concentration of the differing exhaust gases is variable according to the engine type, engine settings and fuel type.
6Overview of Content The Regulations in the Protocol The NOx Technical CodeThe Supporting Guidelines
7The RegulationsThere are 19 Regulations but the following Regulations will impact Vessel operation for ALL VESSELS ABOVE 400 grtRegulation 12 – Ozone Depleting SubstancesRegulation 13 – NOx emissionsRegulation 14 – Sulphur Oxide emissionsRegulation 15 – VOC emissionsRegulation 16 – Shipboard IncineratorsRegulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality control
8Regulation 12 Ozone Depleting Substances “Deliberate” Emissions of Ozone Depleting Substances (HFCs) are prohibitedNew installations can only use HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) until 1st Jan 2020.These substances, when removed from ships, must be delivered to reception facilities
9Regulation 13 – NOxFor all Engines (except emergency engines) installed on ships after 1st January 2000 of more than 130 kW must comply to this Regulation.The NOx emission is limited to 17 g/kW h for engines operating at 130 rpm but reducing to 9.8 g/kW h for 2000 rpm. Between these revs the limit is designated by equation:45 * n(-0.2) g/kW hExisting engines can become a “new” engine if substantially modified.
10Regulation 13 - NOxRegulation 13 requirements are fully defined by the NOx Technical Code – recommended technical reading.Certification of the engine on manufacture and checked on installation for settingsCertificates required for Ships – EIAPP & IAPPPSC Inspection of the engine byParameter Check method (Engine Technical File)Simplified measurement method
12Regulation 14 - SOxThe Worldwide sulphur cap on fuel oil is set at 4.5%.Sulphur Emission Control areas (SECAs)Areas – Baltic, North Sea and English ChannelSulphur Level of fuel – 1.5% or;Alternatively use an exhaust gas cleaning systemShip must have cleared all pipe systems and tanks and be using low sulphur fuel on entryRegulations for the 1st SECA comes into force on 19th May 2006.
13Shipboard Procedures for SECAs Plan in advance for entry and enter commencement date of preparation in Logbook together with bunker type quantities onboard.Logbook entry when entry requirements met and entry into SECA - remember Lat. & Long., date and time, together with bunker figures for each tank.Maintain daily record of bunker use and quantification of bunker tanks whilst in SECA.DO NOT COMMENCE SHIFT TO HIGH SULPHUR FUEL UNTIL EXIT FROM SECA. Log existing conditions for bunkers and Lat. & Long. with date and time.
14Regulation 15 - VOCsSubject to individual terminal regulations tankers may have to be equipped with Vapour return manifold.Notification of VOC control by a port to the IMO shall be 6 months before enforcement.Tankers can be can accept tankers upto 3 years after the date of VOC control enforcement by the Terminal.The standard for the design of VOC return manifold and operation is contained in MSC/Circ.585.
15Regulation 16 - Incinerators Incinerators installed after 1st Jan 2000 to meet regulations and must certified to meet the specifications in MEPC Resolution 76(40) (Appendix IV of Annex VI).Each incinerator must have a manufacturers operations manual.Crew responsible for the incinerator operation shall be trained and follow the operations manual.
16Regulation 16 – Use of Incinerators The following substances are prohibited from incineration:Annex I, II and III cargo residues and related packing material.PCBs.Garbage as defined by Annex V containing heavy metals.Petroleum Products containing halogens.PVC can only be incinerated in type approved incinerators.Flue gas temperatures shall be monitored and not less than 850 deg C for continuous feed and reach 600 deg C within 5 minutes for batch feed.
17Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality “Fuel oil shall be blends of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum refining”“Fuel oil shall be free from inorganic acid”“Fuel oil shall not include any added substance or chemical waste which either:Jeopardises the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery, orIs harmful to personnel, orContributes overall to additional air pollution”
18Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality Bunker Delivery Note (BDN)Becomes a Statutory documentMust be kept on board for 3 years for inspection and a copy may be taken for further examination by PSC.Must contain all data required by Appendix VName and IMO number of vesselPortDate of Commencement of deliveryDetails of fuel oil supplierProduct name, quantity , Density at 15 0C and Sulphur content % m/mA declaration that fuel supplied meets Regulation 14 and 18 requirements
19Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality Fuel Oil SamplingA sealed sample meeting the requirements in associated guidelines has to supplied to the ship by the bunker supplierFor each individual BDN a sample has to be taken at the vessel’s bunker receiving manifold. (see procedure in associated guidelines) – ISM Manuals ??The sample label has to be signed by both the bunker supplier’s representative and the vessel’s Chief Engineer.The sample size shall be not less than 400 mlsThe sample is not to be used for any commercial purposeThe sample is to be retained on board for at least 1 year for inspection by PSC as required
20Shipboard Procedures for BDN and Samples Adequate bunker manifold location for sampler attachmentExternal safe storage location for samples for 1 year periodLog book for sample retention and custody transferSafe storage for BDNs and other documents relating to bunkering onboard
21Port/Flag State Control Guidelines Proposed Guidelines from FSI 13 for MEPC 53 approval.Initial inspections and Primary survey parameters – then “Clear Grounds” for in-depth inspections“In depth” inspection parametersDetainable deficienciesNon-Party ship inspections
22Other Gas Emission Requirements Greenhouse Gas EmissionsGreenhouse Gas Emission Indexing of ShipsCO2 Equation used for “Voyage” CalculationsC. Con. Factor * FCi / (M Cargoi * Dist i )Where:C. Con Factor for HFO = 3.11C. Con Factor for MDO = 3.17Distance = Loaded + Ballast distance (nm)
23Other Regional Regulations United States of AmericaNOx Regulations applicable only to US flagged shipsCalifornia Air Resources Board (CARB)European Union – Directive 1999/32Current Directive in force from July 2000Subject to extension and amendments and due to come into force 2005
24The Future – Crystal Ball time!! Due to the introduction of new engine technology – e.g. HAM – pressure for further reduction in NOx emissionsInternational and Regional pressure for further reduction in SOx emissionsIntroduction of “Particulate” emission controlFurther considerations for VOC control