Presentation on theme: "+ Khadija Andrews CEP 596 Dr Kayte Conroy Does a client’s race affect Vocational Rehabilitation Acceptance."— Presentation transcript:
+ Khadija Andrews CEP 596 Dr Kayte Conroy Does a client’s race affect Vocational Rehabilitation Acceptance
+ Written by: Reginald J. Alston, Debra A. Harley & Keith B. Wilson RACE AS A CORRELATE OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITION ACCEPTANCE: REVISITED
+ It is important to note that the research in the area of race as it affects VR services is very limited. As such the most recent articles found were from 2003. While this article is dated 2001, it is the most up to date study that I’ve found on my specific topic. This fact in itself is testament to the need for more research to be done in the area discussed.
+ “ By the year 2010, White Americans will find themselves in the minority in several US cities” (US Department of Labour, 1987)
+ Introduction The growing minority population in the US continues to affect research and services in the areas of Vocational Rehabilitation. As minority numbers continue to increase there will continue to be a need for rehabilitation services to persons of many different races. Race does seem to have some influence on disability rates. For example African Americans are more likely to present with disabilities than White Americans. Thus over time VR counselors will see more racial minorities that ever thus making this a critical topic.
+ Cultural Context African Americans and minorities seemingly are more reluctant to seek counseling services. This reluctance is believed to stem from a sort of “self fulfilling prophecy”. Many minorities believe that they will be treated differently if they go to treatment or that they will face prejudice in such environments. As such they often do not seek help; and when they do seek services they can sometimes have “stand off” approach. This negative attitude can at times lead to a counselor not providing the best service possible to the client. Thus harboring feelings by counselors of difficult minority clients and feelings by clients of unhelpful counselors.
+ Factors affecting counseling services A number of factors attribute to the underutilizations of services by African Americans. These include: 1. Economic constraints 2. Service access barriers i.e. transportation, lack of knowledge etc. 3. Attitudes of cultural mistrust by African Americans 4. Possible negative experiences in other counseling and mental health services. 5. Stigmatization by others in the African American Community because of receiving services.
+ Racism in our Culture “ Racial discrimination is a pervasive phenomenon among African Americans, who experience it in both blatant and subtle ways almost daily” (Constantine, 2007) Even though the intentions of VR services is to help the client, it does not mean that the system is removed from the phenomenon of racism. Most counselors are White Americans who may not be able to accurately identify with minority clients. As well racism can often be manifested unconsciously throughout the process.
+ Discussing Race during Counseling Many minority clients, more specifically African Americans may feel the need to discuss issues that affect them specifically during counseling. As such counselors who are comfortable and willing to discuss such issues with clients are likely to be seen as more competent and more effective by their African American clients. However this is an area that is still considered very taboo for some counselors. Thus they choose to stay away from such topics; while some counselors disregard or deny the issues facing minorities as a result of their race. This can cause great discord in the counseling relationship.
+ Discussing Race during Counseling While race discussions can be uncomfortable for both client and counselor they are necessary. Constantine (2007) puts it best: “ Such resistance not only makes it challenging to explore racial-cultural issues in counseling relationships, but it also can serve as an impediment to effective counseling processes and outcomes.”
+ Previous Research About Race From 1980 until 2001 there where 9 studies conducted in an effort to determine whether or not race affects VR acceptance rates in the US. 1. Watkins & Wright (1980) found that African American were accepted less for VR services that White Americans in most RSA regions. 2. Herbert & Martinez (1992) found that White American had significantly higher acceptance rates. As well African Americans were more likely to be found ineligible 3. Dziekan & Okocha (1993) reported the same results as Watkins and Wright. 4. Feist-Price (1995) reported similar results to all those above. 5. Wheaton (1995), in contrast, found that eligibility for White Americans and African Americans were not significantly different statistically.
+ Previous Research About Race 6. Peterson (1996) found that African Americans, White Americans, Hispanics and “others” have independent VR acceptance rates. 7. Wilson (1999) also reported finding no differences between African American and White Americans in VR acceptance 8. Wilson (2000) found that African Americans tended to be accepted less to VR services. He had tried to address some of the limitation present in previous studies. 9. Lastly in 2001 Alston, Harley & Wilson found very similar findings to that of Wilson in 2000 and the first four studies previously mentioned.
+ What causes these differences? Differences in acceptance rates as well as feelings towards counseling are multifaceted. Some of the most important reasons these issues are present include: 1. Lack of training of counselors in multi-ethnic counseling 2. Differences in world views between minority clients and non- minority counselors or vice versa. 3. Reluctance of counselors to acknowledge any stereotypes and biases they embrace. 4. Unfair judgment of non-minority counselors by African Americans because of previous negative encounters with non-minority persons. 5. Strained communication between minorities and non-minorities with regards to their differences in expectations and outcome.
+ Solutions to the Problem There are many things that can be done to bridge the gap between minorities and non-minorities in the VR field. These solutions include but are not limited to: 1. Greater training for counselors in the areas of multi cultural counseling solutions, cultural mistrust and communication techniques between minorities and non-minorities. 2. Educational programs implemented, in communities with large minority populations, to encourage and teach minorities about the benefits of counseling and services. 3. Encouraging and training for more minority counselors and minority persons to provide rehabilitation services throughout the US. 4. Further research to determine what other factors play a role in disparities between races in the VR system.
+ Future Research Much more research should be done in this area. As well there must be more done to ensure that similar studies control for other possible factors. Future research should: 1. Draw from a larger (possibly national) population for the experiment sample. 2. Control for cultural competence counselor ethnicity and stereotypes. 3. Focus not only on African Americans but other racial and ethnic minorities. 4. Focus on the differences in outcomes for those who are treated and accepted into VR services.
+ Personal Challenge As counselors our goals is always to be able to help our clients to the best of our ability. Thus let us all do our part to bridge the gap. Spend some time learning about multicultural counseling techniques. Read up on different cultures and their norms and customs. And lastly spend some time reading the current literature and research about race relations and counseling. Doing these things can only make you a better counselor !
+ References Constantine, Madonna G. (2007). Racial Microaggressions Against African American Clients in Cross Racial Counseling Relationships, Journal Of Counseling Psychology. 54(1), 1-16. Wilson, Keith B., Harley, Debra A., Alston, Reginald J. (2001). Race as a Correlate of Vocational Rehabilitation Acceptance: Revisited. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 67(3), 35-41.