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MATHEMATICS-I

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CONTENTS Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree Linear Differential Equations of Second and Higher Order Mean Value Theorems Functions of Several Variables Curvature, Evolutes and Envelopes Curve Tracing Applications of Integration Multiple Integrals Series and Sequences Vector Differentiation and Vector Operators Vector Integration Vector Integral Theorems Laplace transforms

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TEXT BOOKS A text book of Engineering Mathematics, Vol-I T.K.V.Iyengar, B.Krishna Gandhi and Others, S.Chand & Company A text book of Engineering Mathematics, C.Sankaraiah, V.G.S.Book Links A text book of Engineering Mathematics, Shahnaz A Bathul, Right Publishers A text book of Engineering Mathematics, P.Nageshwara Rao, Y.Narasimhulu & N.Prabhakar Rao, Deepthi Publications

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REFERENCES A text book of Engineering Mathematics, B.V.Raman, Tata Mc Graw Hill Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. A text Book of Engineering Mathematics, Thamson Book collection

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UNIT-V CHAPTER-I:APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION CHAPTER-II:MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

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UNIT HEADER Name of the Course: B.Tech Code No:07A1BS02 Year/Branch: I Year CSE,IT,ECE,EEE,ME,CIVIL,AERO Unit No: V No. of slides:17

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S. No. ModuleLectureNo. PPT Slide No. 1 Introduction, Length, Volume and Surface area L1-58-11 2 Multiple integrals, Change of order of integration L6-1012-15 3 Triple integration, Change in triple integration L11-1216-19 UNIT INDEX UNIT-V

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Lecture-1 APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION Here we study some important applications of integration like Length of arc, Volume, Surface area etc., RECTIFICATION: The process of finding the length of an arc of the curve is called rectification. Length of an arc S=∫[1+(dy/dx) 2 ] 1/2

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Lecture-2 LENGTH OF CURVE(RECTIFICATION) The process of finding the length of an arc of the curve is called rectification. We can find length of the curve in Cartesian form, Polar form and Parametric form. Length of curve in cartesian form: S=∫[1+(dy/dx )2 ] 1/2 Length of curve in parametric form: S=∫√(dx/dθ) 2 +(dy/dθ) 2 dθ S=∫√(dx/dθ) 2 +(dy/dθ) 2 dθ

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Lecture-3 ARC LENGTH Polar form: If r=f(θ) and θ=a, θ=b then S=∫√r 2 +(dr/dθ) 2 dθ If θ=f(r) and r=r 1, r=r 2 then S=∫√1+r 2 (dθ/dr) 2 dr

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Lecture-4 VOLUME If a plane area R is revolved about a fixed line L in its plane, a solid is generated. Such a solid is known as solid of revolution and its volume is called volume of revolution. The line L about which the region R is revolved is called the axis of revolution.Volume of the solid can be found in 3 different forms Cartesian form, Polar form and Parametric form. Volume of the solid about x-axis=∫пy 2 dx

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Lecture-5 FORMULAE FOR VOLUME Cartesian form: Volume of the solid about x-axis=∫пy 2 dx Volume of the solid about y-axis=∫пx 2 dy Volume of the solid about any axis=∫п(AR) 2 d(OR) Volume bounded by two curves= ∫п(y 1 2 -y 2 2 )dx

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Lecture-6 SURFACE AREA The surface area of the solid generated by the revolution about the x-axis of the area bounded by the curve y=f(x).We can find revolution about x-axis,y-axis,initial line, pole and about any axis. Example: The Surface area generated by the circle x 2 +y 2 =16 about its diameter is 64π

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Lecture-7 MULTIPLE INTEGRALS Let y=f(x) be a function of one variable defined and bounded on [a,b]. Let [a,b] be divided into n subintervals by points x 0,…,x n such that a=x 0,……….x n =b. The generalization of this definition ;to two dimensions is called a double integral and to three dimensions is called a triple integral.

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Lecture-8 DOUBLE INTEGRALS Double integrals over a region R may be evaluated by two successive integrations. Suppose the region R cannot be represented by those inequalities, and the region R can be subdivided into finitely many portions which have that property, we may integrate f(x,y) over each portion separately and add the results. This will give the value of the double integral.

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Lecture-9 CHANGE OF VARIABLES IN DOUBLE INTEGRAL Sometimes the evaluation of a double or triple integral with its present form may not be simple to evaluate. By choice of an appropriate coordinate system, a given integral can be transformed into a simpler integral involving the new variables. In this case we assume that x=r cosθ, y=r sinθ and dxdy=rdrdθ

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Lecture-10 CHANGE OF ORDER OF INTEGRATION Here change of order of integration implies that the change of limits of integration. If the region of integration consists of a vertical strip and slide along x-axis then in the changed order a horizontal strip and slide along y-axis then in the changed order a horizontal strip and slide along y-axis are to be considered and vice-versa. Sometimes we may have to split the region of integration and express the given integral as sum of the integrals over these sub- regions. Sometimes as commented above, the evaluation gets simplified due to the change of order of integration. Always it is better to draw a rough sketch of region of integration.

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Lecture-11 TRIPLE INTEGRALS The triple integral is evaluated as the repeated integral where the limits of z are z 1, z 2 which are either constants or functions of x and y; the y limits y 1, y 2 are either constants or functions of x; the x limits x 1, x 2 are constants. First f(x,y,z) is integrated w.r.t. z between z limits keeping x and y are fixed. The resulting expression is integrated w.r.t. y between y limits keeping x constant. The result is finally integrated w.r.t. x from x 1 to x 2.

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Lecture-12 CHANGE OF VARIABLES IN TRIPLE INTEGRAL In problems having symmetry with respect to a point O, it would be convenient to use spherical coordinates with this point chosen as origin. Here we assume that x=r sinθ cosф, y=r sinθ sinф, z=r cosθ and dxdydz=r 2 sinθ drdθdф Example: By the method of change of variables in triple integral the volume of the portion of the sphere x 2 +y 2 +z 2 =a 2 lying inside the cylinder x 2 +y 2 =ax is 2a 3 /9(3π-4)

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