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Protection of personal rights in the Czech New Civil Code For the purpose of International Conference on New Civil Codes in Hungary and the Czech Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "Protection of personal rights in the Czech New Civil Code For the purpose of International Conference on New Civil Codes in Hungary and the Czech Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protection of personal rights in the Czech New Civil Code For the purpose of International Conference on New Civil Codes in Hungary and the Czech Republic on 20th June 2014 Prague, Faculty of Law 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.1

2 Personal rights in New Civil Code (NCC) General protection 81 - 83 Image and privacy 84 – 90 Name 77 - 80 Right to mental and physical integrity 91- 103 The rights of an individual admitted to a health care facility without his consent 104 - 110 Disposing of human body parts 111 - 112 Protection of human body after the death 113 - 117 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.2

3 Remedies Part IV. – Relative rights; Devision III Obligations arising out from the delict: – Non – material harm in S. 2951 – Harm done to natural personal rights in S. 2957 – 2971 Pecuniary damages Moral damages Secundary victims Aggravated damages 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.3

4 General protection in Old Civil Code (Act. n. 40/1964 Coll.) § 11 – general provision of protection An individual shall have the right to protection of his or her personhood in particular: life and health civic honour human dignity privacy name expressions of personal nature § 13 remedy 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.4

5 General protection in NCC Personal rights including all his natural rights are protected. Every person is obliged to respect the free choice of an individual to live on his own. Enjoy particular protection: Life and dignity his or her health the right to live in a favourable environment Respect Honour Privacy Expressions of personal nature 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.5

6 Right to name S. 77-79 NCC right to use own name, protect own name protection of pseudonym protection of a person who cannot defend due to incapability, lack of legal capability or missing, close relatives are able to bring a claim instead family name - surname remedies 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.6

7 Image rights S. 84-85; 87-90 the concept is based on an autonomy of will and freedom to decide Capturing the image Distribution Consent conclusively presumed to also consent to its reproduction and distribution in the usual way, as he could reasonably expect under the circumstances. revocable at any time the image right is protected even outside the intimate sphere similar protection for expressions of personal nature 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.7

8 Privacy S. 86, 90 ban of the infringement of the privacy without legal reason demonstrative listing of possible infringement: disturb private places of a person without his or her consent intrude the private life – intrusion into private premises watch or record a private life use of such a private recording or other recording of the intimate life by third person or distribute such a personal recording to public all written expression of the person is protected in the same scope the legal reason to interference into the private life has to be proportionate and not in contrary to legitimate interest of the person 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.8

9 Exemptions from the required consent S. 88 – 89 consent official purpose purposes of science or art purposes of press, motion picture, radio, television or other similar news services for a legal protection protect other rights or legally protected interests of others 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.9

10 Post-mortem protection Extension to close relatives moral and pecuniary damages in case of an infringement related to the person connected with some company, the company might be able to bring a claim with the consent of the natural person 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.10

11 Unjust enrichment S. 3004 Bad faith Infringement of personal rights Financial advantage Without consent Copyright concept: – Double price of the remuneration – judges´discretion to award higher remuneration 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.11

12 Remedy S. 2951 odst. 2 Non-material harm – primary moral satisfaction – Pecuniary satisfaction if moral is not satisfactory S. 2956 – Non – material harm is considered a mental suffering 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.12

13 Remedy S. 2957 Conditions to consider for assessing adequate damages: – To recover circumstances of special regard: – Aggravated damages? Intention to harm causing harm using deceit, threats, abuse victim multiplying the effects by making it public discrimination with regard to the victim's sex, health, ethnic origin, faith or other similarly compelling reasons. Victim´s of fear of loss of life or serious injury, if any, threat or fear caused by another cause 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.13

14 Remedy S. 2971 Special circumstances: unlawful act, gross negligence, breach of important legal obligaton, damage caused itentionally from a desire to destroy, harm obligation to pay pecuaniary damages to any person who suffers due to the infringement of the right close person 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.14

15 Procedural Law Court of first instance – lower Court Court of Appeal – regional Courts Unspecialized judges Preliminary injunctions Not publicly available lower court judgements 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.15

16 Image rights Public interest - not stated in Act ? 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.16

17 European Court of Human Rights Von Hannover 1, appl. n. 59320/00 – 24.9.2004 Von Hannover 2, appl. n. 40660/08, 60641/08 – 7.2.2012 Von Hannover 3, appl. n. 8772/10 – 19.9.2013 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.17

18 Criteria Contribution to general interest Subject of the news and the fame of the person Role, function and nature of the act of the person Previous behaviour of the person Content, scope and form of the publication Impact of the publication Circumstances of taking the pictures 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.18

19 Cartoon 3 30 Cdo 517/2011 dating 26.4.2012 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.19

20 Impact on Czech law A.Š. 30 Cdo 3770/2011 dating 12.12.2012 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.20

21 Impact on Czech law Public interest? Proportionality test? 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.21

22 Conclusion Case law Wider scope of the civil delicts Conditions for damages No defence exept legal licenses 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.22

23 Thank you JUDr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M. ondrejova.e@gmail.com +420 777 086 287 Czechdefamationlaw.wordpress.com 21.6.2014JUdr. Eva Ondřejová, LL.M.23


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