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Coastal Glider Overview Oceanology International -- March 2014 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Coastal Glider Overview Oceanology International -- March 2014 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coastal Glider Overview Oceanology International -- March 2014 1

2 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider [CG] Specifications Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 2

3 Some Background Legacy Gliders –Developed for measuring oceanographic properties in the open ocean at low costs –Unmanned robotic vehicle with a sensor suite to collect oceanographic parameters of interest –Low power and slow moving but very efficient glide patterns to increase life times in deep ocean basins Alaska Native Technologies [ANT] developed the Littoral Glider for coastal military/environmental applications with funding from ONR –Developed glider with larger payload and speed capability –Overcomes many of the shortcomings of the legacy gliders Exocetus [x-o-seat-us] Development LLC formed in May 2012 and purchased all the assets and intellectual properties of ANT on 9 Oct 2012 –Manufacturing facility in Anchorage, AK –Markets are scientific/research, oil & gas and military 3

4 Underwater Glider Operation Energy only needed at top and bottom of each ‘yo’ to change buoyancy Wings provide forward motion during sinking and floating No external moving parts needed to control glider, control managed through changes in position of an internal mass 4

5 Why Gliders? Gliders are truly transformational –Low Power Buoyancy changes drive vehicle up / down Wings provide lift to drive forward –Hence, long endurance per small size –Autonomous Proven command, control and navigation even in bad weather through GPS, Iridium link in one antenna Control through internet –Small Two-person deployable Platform independent (Catacraft size to Research Vessel) –Inexpensive, $180K to $230K, depending on sensor package 5

6 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider Specifications Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 6

7 CG Is Superior To Legacy Gliders -- CG Is Superior To Legacy Gliders -- In Coastal Waters Adaptive Ballasting –CG can operate from fresh to salt water without manual re- ballasting (10 – 37 ppt) –CG can operate in estuary environments Speed Requirements –CG has a commanded speed range from 0.7 to 2.0 knots Environmental Parameters –CG can operate in water depths as shallow as 3 m (w/ reduced navigational and speed capabilities) Performance – CG has greater space and power for installing many sensors 7

8 Coastal Glider 8

9 Glider Major Systems/Subsystems Buoyancy Engine (BE) Pitch/Roll System Control System Communications System (in EB) Power System 9

10 Coastal Glider Components Tail Section Assembly Electronics Bay Assembly Roll Cage Assembly Main Board Seal Kit Pitch and Roll Assembly Buoyancy Engine Altimeter Hull Assembly CTD Sensor Main Board Battery Pack 10

11 Coastal Glider Functional Analysis What does a glider do? –Receives a Mission –Executes that Mission Launch Transit/Maneuver/Navigate Collect/Store Data Transmit Data –Keeps itself safe –Ends Mission (Recovery) 11

12 Functional Block Diagram Communications Navigation Processor Guidance Navigation & Vehicle Control SW User Selected Sensors Main Battery Power Converters Ultra-Capacitors Buoyancy Engine BE Pump BE Valve BE Meas. Roll System Pitch System CG Comms WIFI/ 802.11 Iridium SatComs Freewave LOS GPS Lift Bag Stamp Processor Lift Bag Navigation Sensors Altimeter IMU Depth Batt. V&I Internal T&P Data Storage Science Computer Sensor Processing 12

13 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider [CG] Specifications Available Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 13

14 Glider Specifications ParameterSpecification Length, Diameter3.0 m (10 ft) Including antenna, 32.3 cm (12.75 in) diameter Weight in Air< 250 lbs (120 kg), Payload weight 10 lbs (4.5 kg) (nominal) Operating Depth10 m (33 ft) min. - 200 m (656 ft, ~ 110 fathoms) max. Horizontal Velocity Maximum: 2 knots (Ability to station keep in 2 knot current) Minimum: ~ 0.7 knots Exterior Surface All wetted surfaces are either 316 SS, fiberglass, or treated 6061-T6 aluminum All wetted aluminum surfaces are treated with Endura™ 100R-V/CR process - outer 0.001” is chemically altered to a 0.002” thick porous alumina ceramic Primary Power 3.85 KW-hr Alkaline (462 ‘C’ Cell Batteries) 14.1 KW-hr Lithium (342 ‘D’ Cell Batteries) Glider is ‘Power Agnostic’ (i.e. Accepts All Voltages Between 18 and 33 VDC) Lithium Battery Options (Rechargeable) Being Explored Base Sensors Acoustic Altimeter (Tritech -- model PA200) CTD/SVTP (AML Oceanographic – model Micro-X) Communications Satellite communications (Iridium) Freewave (VHF) Line-Of-Sight (900 MHz) Wi-Fi LAN deck / near ship for rapid data download GPS ARGOS-3 (future) 14

15 Operating Environments ParameterGlider Operating Range Air Temp28° F (-2.2° C) to 125° F (51.7° C) Sea Temp28° F (-2.2° C) to 100° F (37.8° C) Sea State Launch: Sea State 0 – 3 Operate: Not SS limited Current< 2 knots any direction Salinity10 - 37 ppt Nominal (27 ppt variation without need to re-ballast) Water Depth Shallow > 10 ft (~ 3 m) Deep < 100 fathoms (~ 200 m) 15

16 Coastal Glider Operational Capabilities 1.Heading Maneuver (Heading, Speed, Time) 2.Waypoint Maneuver (Waypoint, Arrival Time) 3.Communications Maneuver (Surface, Nose Down) 4.Station-Keeping Maneuver (Waypoint, Radius) 5.Drift/Reposition Maneuver (Waypoint, Radius) 6.Surface Maneuver (Recovery Mode) 7.Hover Maneuver (Depth, Depth Tolerance, Time) 8.Loiter Maneuver (Radius, Time) 9.Sleep Maneuver (Time) 10.Emergency Rise Maneuver (Depth, Heading) 11.Emergency Dive Maneuver (Depth, Heading) 16

17 Duration Vs Power Spar Hover Fly 3.85 kWatt-hrs – Alkaline 14.1 kWatt-hrs – Lithium 18 days flight - Alkaline 40 days hover - Alkaline 17

18 Battery Specifications Alkaline Primary –462 ‘C’ cells in 18s/2p configuration –33 VDC nominal; 18 VDC Cut-off –3,850 W-hrs (14 mJ) –~70 lbs (~32 kg) Lithium Primary –342 ‘D’ cells in 12s/3p configuration –32 VDC nominal; 18 VDC Cut-off –14,100 W-hrs (67 mJ) –~70 lbs (~32 kg) Rechargeable Lithium Ion [underdevelopment] –735 “18650” cells in 7s/15p configuration –30 VDC nominal with 18 VDC cutoff –8,200 W-hrs (29.5mJ) –~70 lbs (~32 kg) 18

19 Buoyancy Engine [BE] Design BE designed to have a range of 0 to 6.25 inches of travel (approx. 5 L; 11.7 lbs) –5L is 4.7% of CG mass –Legacy gliders have approx 0.5 L or less than 1% of vehicle mass Designed maximum speed requires +/- 3.2 lbs (6.4 lbs total) and a glide slope of 35 degrees Remaining 5.3 lbs ‘reserved’ for adaptive ballasting (range of 27 ppt) Reserve can be used for speed if full adaptive ballasting is not necessary 19

20 Buoyancy Engine System 20

21 Pump (Off) Valve (O) Filter Hydraulic System Schematic BE Ingest “Accumulator” 21

22 Pump (On) “Accumulator” Valve (C) Filter Hydraulic System Schematic BE Expel 22

23 CG BE Overview The CG BE is both Variable and Adaptive : –Variable aspects allows for variable speed: The amount the glider ingests and expels at each deflection is determined by the commanded speed Larger commanded speeds result in larger BE displacements and therefore larger changes to the net buoyancy Larger displacement require the BE to run longer and result in higher BE duty cycles –Adaptive aspect allows the LG to self-ballast: As water density changes, the glider adjusts the ‘Neutral Buoyancy Position’ (NBP) of the BE This is done continuously The result is a low duty cycle adjustment to the BE during ascent/descent Added drag on the glider (e.g. from a tethered modem) ‘looks like’ density variations and result in BE adjustments during ascent/descent 23

24 BE Adaptive Speed 0.0 inch BE Range 6.25 inch 1 knot @ 1019 kg/m^3 1.8 in 3.9 in 2 knot @ 1019 kg/m^3 1.1 in 4.6 in 24

25 BE Adaptive Ballasting 0.0 inch BE Range 6.25 inch 1 knot @ 1027 kg/m^3 0.7 in 2.8 in 1 knot @ 1010 kg/m^3 3.0 in 5.1 in 25

26 CG Spider Plot 26 15.0° Optimum Speed

27 Electronics Bay (EB) Sensors integrated with other electronics and deployed as a single unit in EB Reduced deployment risk, increased reliability Six-liter volume available in EB for payloads (acoustics, mission specific electronics boards, etc.) Electronics Bay: EB EB External Comms Board 6 L Space Available EB Internal CTD Sensor 27

28 Electronics Bay Specifications 7.5” ID x 12” length standard (~80% or 420 in ʌ 3 dry volume available for sensor integration) – Length can be extended 19.1 cm ID x 30.5 cm length standard (~80% or 7 L dry volume available for sensor integration) 12 VDC (3 amp max) power available via GPIO switch 5 VDC, and 3.5 VDC power available via expansion board 18 - 33 VDC unregulated raw battery power is available 5 Kg (11 lb) nominal payload capacity –Note: Additional payload capacity can be added by including syntactic foam in flooded areas (fore and/or aft) Plug plane separation from CG body eases payload swapping 28

29 Hull Penetrations The CG has (6) standard hull penetrations for sensor integration: –0.625 Dia Thru holes w/ 1.250 Dia Spot face. –Sized for a SubConn Standard Circular series bulkhead connector (6 – 12 contacts; e.g. BH10F connector ) Two penetrations are in the bow of the glider, above the BE, in the flooded nose cone: –One of these is utilized for the altimeter and the BE safety magnetic interlock; –The other is plugged. Four penetrations are in the stern of the glider, around the flange of the Electronic Bay : –These access the flooded tail cowling section; –One is used for the CTD/SVTP (if present); –One is used for the Emergency Lift Bag system; –Two are available and plugged. 29

30 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider Specifications Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 30

31 Coastal Glider Sensors -- Integrated to date Coastal Glider Sensors -- Integrated to date SeaBird GPCTD [aft cowling] RINKO Dissolved Oxygen [bow] WET Labs ECO FLNTU [bow] AML Micro CTD [stern] Ocean Sonics HF Smart Hydrophone [wings and vertical stern plane] Wilcoxon Vector Sensor VS-301 hydrophone [bow Narwhal] Reson TC-4033 [wings and vertical stern plane] 31

32 Wet Labs Hypoxia Sensor 32

33 RINKO-II Hypoxia Sensors Measurement Specifications Parameter Dissolved Oxygen SensorTemperature Sensor Measurement principle Phosphorescence lifetimeThermistor (optode) Response time 0.4 sec (63%)0.2 sec 0.9 sec (90%) Range 0 to 200%(0 to 20 mg/L)‐5 to45°C Resolution 0.01 to0.4%(2to8 μg/L)0.001 °C Accuracy ) ± 2% (at 1 atmosphere, 25 °C )± 0.02 °C Stability ±1% (24 hours) ±5% (1 month) 33

34 Hypoxia Sensors Placement Place both sensors in nose cone, extending the nose cone by 6 inches 34

35 SeaBird GPCTD Sensor MeasureCalibration Accuracy AccuracyResolution RangeRange (within cal range)(outside range) Conductivity (S/m): 0 to 9 0 to 6 ± 0.0003 better than ±0.0010 0.00001 (mS/cm)(0 to 90) (0 to 60) (± 0.003) (±0.010)(0.0001) Temperature (°C): -5 to +42 +1 to +32 ± 0.002 better than ±0.004 0.001 Pressure (depth) (dbar): 0 to 350 full scale ± 0.1% F.S. -- 0.002% F.S. Memory 8 Mbytes = 699,000 of CTP (194 hours at 1 Hz) Data Formats Real-time data and uploaded data are output (decimal or Hexadecimal characters) in units of Siemens/meter (conductivity), degrees C (temperature), decibars (pressure) Operating Power Requirements Supply Voltage: 8 to 20 VDC nominal (power calculations below assume 10.0 V) Quiescent current: 30 μA Continuous (1Hz) Sampling CTP only: 175 mW if real-time = no, 190 mW if real-time = yes (2.10 – 2.28 Watt-hours/day @ 50% duty) 35

36 Coastal Glider Hydrophones Ocean Sonics icListen HF Hydrophones on wings and stern plane Measures ambient noise in1/3 octave bands Fishing vessels and ferries For wind speed estimator Provides event detection Mammals, sea turtles and fish Vessel engine tonals Wilcoxon Vector Sensor VS-209 hydrophone on bow Narwhal Measures direction of surface vessels Measures direction of wind waves and swells Provides detection and direction of marine mammals 36

37 Analog hydrophone needs many parts, but Smart Hydrophone is Complete All functions are integrated Unit is calibrated Ocean Sonics Smart Hydrophone 37

38 Ocean Sonics icListen HF Smart Hydrophones Hydrophone Sensing Element ultra low noise [< SS0] and wide dynamic range – 24 bit A/D converter Intelligent Digital Hydrophone processes data before it is transmitted [only a small data set] using spectral analysis and correlation models Real Time Event Detection processor transforms acoustic signals into calibrated waveforms, spectral, or event data Data Processing of FFT data reduces data storage by a factor of ~300, allowing you to store more data – 32 GBytes 38

39 AML CTD Sensors Xchange™ Field “Swappable” Sensors: Unlike other XSeries instruments, the MicroX is sensor specific, meaning that sensor type cannot be changed Field-swap any sensor with another sensor of its own kind, regardless of range Each Xchange™ includes its own embedded calibration Sensors exchange without use of tools Electrical: Up to 25 scans per second Factory Set RS232 or RS485 Externally Powered 8-26 VDC Sampling Modes: User configurable (by time, by pressure, by sound speed) Mechanical: Housing: Delrin to 500 m or Titanium to 10,000 m Size: 33 mm (1.3”) diameter x 246 mm (9.5”) OAL Connectors: Micro 6, Female Storage Temperature: -40oC to 60oC Operating Temperature: -20oC to 45oC Accessories: Instrument suspension bar Instrument protection frame Mounting brackets Data/Power cable, various lengths 2m and greater 39

40 Coastal Glider Sensors -- Future Wave Height Sensor [ Microstrain IMU in glider ] LND Inc. Gamma Radiation Sensor [ Cesium 137] Satlantic Nutrient Sensor [SUNA] CONTROS Methane Sensor WOTAN [ Wind Observation Through Ambient Noise] Automated Detection of Fishing Vess el 40

41 MicroStrain IMU [ already in CG] Rapid Data Acquisition [1 st 5 min CG on surface] Conversion to Earth Reference Frame Wave Analysis Wave Spectra & Parameters Data Relay Coastal Glider Wave Subsystem Overview 41

42 MicroStrain 3DM-GX1 Specs [ Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor ] Coastal Glider IMU [Inertial Measurement Unit] – Three angular rate gyros +/- 300º/sec FS – Three orthogonal DC accelerometers +/- 5g FS – Three orthogonal magnetometers +/- 1.2 Gauss FS Other Parameters – Multiplexer with16 bit A/D converter – Orientation outputs in both dynamic and static conditions – 65 mA power consumption – 75 grams with enclosure 42

43 LND Inc. Gamma Radiation Sensor Model 78017 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS Calibrated for Cesium -137 Gas filling Ne + Halogen Cathode material 446 Stainless Steel Effective length (inch/mm) 9.51/241.6 Effective diameter (inch/mm) 0.786/20.0 Connector Flying Lead Operating temperature range °C -40 to +75 43

44 Satlantic Nutrient Sensor PERFORMANCE Detection range: 0.007 to 28 mg/l- N *(0.5 to 2000 μM) Accuracy: +/- 2 μM or 10% of reading Calibration: Real-time Temperature / Salinity correction available; requires T/S data from AUV controller Long term drift: 0.004 mg/l per hour of lamp time Thermal Compensation: 0 to 35 C Salinity Compensation: 0 to 40 psu OPTICS Path length: 1 cm Spectral range: 190 - 370 nm Lamp type: Continuous Wave Deuterium Lamp Lamp lifetime: 900 h ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Input voltage: 8 - 18 VDC Power consumption: 7.5 W (0.625 A @ 12V) nominal Sample rate: 1 Hz (when onboard averaging disabled) Communication options: RS-232, Analog output 0 - 4.096 VDC and 4 - 20 mA, SDI-12 Telemetry options: ASCII, Binary, Concentrated ASCII, Reduced Binary (for AUV) Internal Logging: 2 GB solid state memory PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Depth rating: 2000 m (6,560 ft) Length: 555 mm (21.8 in) Diameter: 57 mm (2.25 in) Weight: 1.80 kg (3.9 lb) in air 0.36 kg (0.80 lb) in water Housing material: Anodized Aluminum; 44

45 CONTROS Methane Sensor Principle Dissolved CH4 molecules diffuse through a silicone membrane into the patented detector chamber, where their number is determined by means of IR absorption spectrometry. Concentration dependent IR light intensities are converted into output signals. Dimension/ Weight 90 d x 376 mm corrosion-free titanium/ 4,7 kg (2,2 kg in water) Operation depth 2000, 4000, 6000 m version available Temperature range 3 … +30°C (Arctic version: -2 … +15°C) Measuring range 100nmol – 50μmol/l (other ranges available) Equilibration time first signal after 5s, T63 < 400 sec (with external pump) Resolution 10 nmol Accuracy ±3% reading (as the total sum of all the errors) Calibration Calibration unit is μmol/l ● signal is derived considering internal sensors for pressure, temperature and humidity ● Recalibration recommended every 12 months Power Typ. 12 VDC (11 - 24 VDC) (Arctic version: 12 - 24 VDC)) Data Interface RS-232C and RS-485 ● Data format ASCII NMEA-0183 45

46 Generic Underwater Sound Spectra DBCP-18 workshop – 14-15 Oct. 2002 2 kHz8 kHz Frequency (kHz) Spectral level (dB re  Pa²/Hz) 0.1110100 20 40 60 80 100 2 5 12 20 Wind m/s hail Heavy rain Light rain, no wind Light rain, 3 m/s wind snow 46

47 Meteo France Algorithms Algorithms now in use by Meteo France for drifting buoys Wind Speed estimates at 10m above water level – U 10 U 10 = a * 10 SL(f)/20 + b Where SL(f) is the sound intensity at frequency f expressed in dB relative to 1 mPa 2 /Hz [measured in 1/3rd octave bands] a and b are two empirical coefficients depending on the frequency The wind speed estimate at 10m is the average of estimates computed at 2, 3.15, 4, 5 and 6 kHz 1/3 rd octave bands Data of wind speed estimates is flagged if: the standard deviation of estimates computed in the 1/3 rd octave bands between 1 and 8 kHz is higher than 2.5 m/s 47

48 Automated Detection of Fishing Vessels 48

49 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider Specifications Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 49

50 CG Deployment Success – KORDI Coastal Waters Transit Initial test to demonstrate the ability of the glider to operate in an area with known strong currents and navigate accurately over long distances [160 km] Navigated via a series of waypoints Collected and reported GPS positions at regular intervals to maintain waypoint tracking 4 Acoustic sensors to collect ambient noise data 50

51 CG Deployment Successes – Station Keeping Demonstrations Results from GOC Green circle is 2km watch circle 72 hrs of surface positions are shown on the GOC chart Blue position points indicate surfacing directed by dead reckoning Green position points indicate surface directed by a comms interval Glider Positions From 5/3 to 5/6 2010 51

52 Summary Of Coastal Glider Acoustic Tests During Past 5 Years Integrated several types of passive acoustic sensors including single and paired (binaural) omni-directional hydrophones and vector sensor Performed acoustic characterization and noise reduction work under controlled conditions Successfully demonstrated ability to collect data in multiple Navy sponsored events Signal processing aboard the glider has been used to alter glider behavior in the presence of threats Signal processing aboard the glider has been used to create a reduced data set for immediate transmission, with the full data set stored for later analysis 52

53 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider Specifications Sensors Deployment Successes Deployment Vessels 53

54 Deployed from Research Vessel 54

55 Deployed from Small Vessel 55

56 Deployed from Trailered Barge 56

57 Deployed from Catacraft 57

58 Contact Information Exocetus Development, LLC 1444 E 9th Ave, Anchorage, AK 99501 Ray Mahr, Jr., VP Sales & Marketing ray@exocetus.com Phone: (858) 864-7775 International Agents See www.exocetus.com 58


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