3 Some Background Legacy Gliders Developed for measuring oceanographic properties in the open ocean at low costsUnmanned robotic vehicle with a sensor suite to collect oceanographic parameters of interestLow power and slow moving but very efficient glide patterns to increase life times in deep ocean basinsAlaska Native Technologies [ANT] developed the Littoral Glider for coastal military/environmental applications with funding from ONRDeveloped glider with larger payload and speed capabilityOvercomes many of the shortcomings of the legacy glidersExocetus [x-o-seat-us] Development LLC formed in May 2012 and purchased all the assets and intellectual properties of ANT on 9 Oct 2012Manufacturing facility in Anchorage, AKMarkets are scientific/research, oil & gas and military
4 Underwater Glider Operation No external moving parts needed to control glider, control managed through changes in position of an internal massThis slide illustrates the cyclic saw-tooth flight profile that is achieved by pumping water ballast in and out of the vehicle.This video clip also illustrates this flight profile. One thing that is immediately apparent from the video is how slow the glider really moves. This can work against you in the presence of strong ocean currents; but it also permits one to operate acoustic arrays in the laminar flow regime with very low self noise.Energy only needed attop and bottom of each‘yo’ to change buoyancyWings provide forwardmotion during sinkingand floating
5 Why Gliders? Gliders are truly transformational Low Power Buoyancy changes drive vehicle up / downWings provide lift to drive forwardHence, long endurance per small sizeAutonomousProven command, control and navigation even in bad weather through GPS, Iridium link in one antennaControl through internetSmallTwo-person deployablePlatform independent (Catacraft size to Research Vessel)Inexpensive, $180K to $230K, depending on sensor package
7 CG Is Superior To Legacy Gliders -- In Coastal Waters Adaptive BallastingCG can operate from fresh to salt water without manual re-ballasting (10 – 37 ppt)CG can operate in estuary environmentsSpeed RequirementsCG has a commanded speed range from 0.7 to 2.0 knotsEnvironmental ParametersCG can operate in water depths as shallow as 3 m (w/ reduced navigational and speed capabilities)PerformanceCG has greater space and power for installing many sensors
8 Coastal GliderOr another picture since using on next slide
9 Glider Major Systems/Subsystems Buoyancy Engine (BE)Pitch/Roll SystemControl SystemCommunications System (in EB)Power SystemBest picture after same on previous page?
10 Coastal Glider Components AltimeterHull AssemblyElectronics Bay AssemblyTail Section AssemblyRoll Cage AssemblySeal KitMain BoardMain BoardCTDSensorBuoyancy EnginePitch and Roll AssemblyBattery Pack
11 Coastal Glider Functional Analysis What does a glider do?Receives a MissionExecutes that MissionLaunchTransit/Maneuver/NavigateCollect/Store DataTransmit DataKeeps itself safeEnds Mission (Recovery)
13 Outline Underwater Gliders The Coastal Glider [CG] Specifications Available SensorsDeployment SuccessesDeployment Vessels
14 Glider Specifications ParameterSpecificationLength, Diameter3.0 m (10 ft) Including antenna, 32.3 cm (12.75 in) diameterWeight in Air< 250 lbs (120 kg), Payload weight 10 lbs (4.5 kg) (nominal)Operating Depth10 m (33 ft) min m (656 ft, ~ 110 fathoms) max.Horizontal VelocityMaximum: 2 knots (Ability to station keep in 2 knot current)Minimum: ~ 0.7 knotsExterior SurfaceAll wetted surfaces are either 316 SS, fiberglass, or treated 6061-T6 aluminumAll wetted aluminum surfaces are treated with Endura™ 100R-V/CR process - outer 0.001” is chemically altered to a 0.002” thick porous alumina ceramicPrimary Power3.85 KW-hr Alkaline (462 ‘C’ Cell Batteries)14.1 KW-hr Lithium (342 ‘D’ Cell Batteries)Glider is ‘Power Agnostic’ (i.e. Accepts All Voltages Between 18 and 33 VDC)Lithium Battery Options (Rechargeable) Being ExploredBase SensorsAcoustic Altimeter (Tritech -- model PA200)CTD/SVTP (AML Oceanographic – model Micro-X)CommunicationsSatellite communications (Iridium)Freewave (VHF) Line-Of-Sight (900 MHz)Wi-Fi LAN deck / near ship for rapid data downloadGPSARGOS-3 (future)
15 Operating Environments ParameterGlider Operating RangeAir Temp28° F (-2.2° C) to 125° F (51.7° C)Sea Temp28° F (-2.2° C) to 100° F (37.8° C)Sea StateLaunch: Sea State 0 – 3Operate: Not SS limitedCurrent< 2 knots any directionSalinityppt Nominal (27 ppt variation without need to re-ballast)Water DepthShallow > 10 ft (~ 3 m)Deep < 100 fathoms (~ 200 m)
19 Buoyancy Engine [BE] Design BE designed to have a range of 0 to 6.25 inches of travel (approx. 5 L; 11.7 lbs)5L is 4.7% of CG massLegacy gliders have approx 0.5 L or less than 1% of vehicle massDesigned maximum speed requires +/- 3.2 lbs (6.4 lbs total) and a glide slope of 35 degreesRemaining 5.3 lbs ‘reserved’ for adaptive ballasting (range of 27 ppt)Reserve can be used for speed if fulladaptive ballasting is not necessary
21 Hydraulic System Schematic BE IngestValve (O)“Accumulator”FilterPump(Off)
22 Hydraulic System Schematic BE Expel“Accumulator”Valve (C)FilterPump(On)
23 CG BE Overview The CG BE is both Variable and Adaptive: Variable aspects allows for variable speed:The amount the glider ingests and expels at each deflection is determined by the commanded speedLarger commanded speeds result in larger BE displacements and therefore larger changes to the net buoyancyLarger displacement require the BE to run longer and result in higher BE duty cyclesAdaptive aspect allows the LG to self-ballast:As water density changes, the glider adjusts the ‘Neutral Buoyancy Position’ (NBP) of the BEThis is done continuouslyThe result is a low duty cycle adjustment to the BE during ascent/descentAdded drag on the glider (e.g. from a tethered modem) ‘looks like’ density variations and result in BE adjustments during ascent/descent
24 BE Adaptive Speed 0.0 inch BE Range 6.25 inch 1 knot @ 1019 kg/m^3 1.8 in inVariation arrows have same center due to same density, but are different lengths due to different speedkg/m^31.1 in in
25 BE Adaptive Ballasting 0.0 inch BE Range inchkg/m^30.7 in inVariations arrows are the same length, just shifted due to density changekg/m^33.0 in in
26 CG Spider Plot Optimum Speed Spider Plot Explanation This plot represents the flight performance options available in the CG. It was prepared by Vehicle Controls Technologies (VCT) who did the hydrodynamic design of the vehicle based on their models. Each curved line represents the range of vertical and horizontal speeds achievable with a different net buoyancy value. The longer dash-dot straight lines represent different glider glide angles. The shorter dashed straight lines represent different glider angle of attack (AoA; the difference between the glider pitch angle and the glider glide slope).In general, the CG operates in three different speed regimes; slow, medium, and fast. In the slow regime (0.5 <= commanded speed <1.0 knot) the glider pitch angle is controlled to approximately 15 degrees. In the medium speed range (1.0 <= commanded speed < 1.5 knot) the glider is commanded to a pitch angle of 22.5 degrees (approximate glide slope of 25 degrees). In the high speed range (commanded speed >= 1.5 knots) the glider is commanded to a pitch angle of 33.5 degrees (approximate glide slope of 35 degrees). Within these ranges, the net buoyancy is adjusted to achieve the commanded speed.For example, to achieve 1.25 knots (medium speed) the glider would be put at a pitch angle of 22.5 degrees, resulting in a glide slope of ~25 degrees (long dashed dot line). The net buoyancy would then be adjusted by the BE to a value of about 1.5 lbs (orange curved line) resulting in a depth rate of about 0.6 knots. To achieve a commanded speed of 2.0 knots (high speed) the glider would be commanded to a pitch angle of 33.5 degrees, resulting in a glide angle of ~35 degrees(long dashed dot line). The net buoyancy would then be adjusted by the BE to a value of about 3.2 lbs (pink curved line), resulting in a depth rate of about 1.4 knots.15.0°
27 Electronics Bay (EB)Sensors integrated with other electronics and deployed as a single unit in EBReduced deployment risk, increased reliabilitySix-liter volume available in EB for payloads (acoustics, mission specific electronics boards, etc.)Electronics Bay: EBCTD Sensor6 L SpaceAvailableComms BoardEB ExternalEB Internal
28 Electronics Bay Specifications 7.5” ID x 12” length standard (~80% or 420 inʌ3 dry volume available for sensor integration) – Length can be extended19.1 cm ID x 30.5 cm length standard (~80% or 7 L dry volume available for sensor integration)12 VDC (3 amp max) power available via GPIO switch5 VDC, and 3.5 VDC power available via expansion boardVDC unregulated raw battery power is available5 Kg (11 lb) nominal payload capacityNote: Additional payload capacity can be added by including syntactic foam in flooded areas (fore and/or aft)Plug plane separation from CG body eases payload swapping
29 Hull PenetrationsThe CG has (6) standard hull penetrations for sensor integration:0.625 Dia Thru holes w/ Dia Spot face.Sized for a SubConn Standard Circular series bulkhead connector (6 – 12 contacts; e.g. BH10F connector)Two penetrations are in the bow of the glider, above the BE, in the flooded nose cone:One of these is utilized for the altimeter and the BE safety magnetic interlock;The other is plugged.Four penetrations are in the stern of the glider, around the flange of the Electronic Bay:These access the flooded tail cowling section;One is used for the CTD/SVTP (if present);One is used for the Emergency Lift Bag system;Two are available and plugged.
32 Wet Labs Hypoxia Sensor Hi Pat,See the attached for the two sensors that USM and others use for hypoxia monitoring in GOM, and probably other spots along our coastline or in estuaries. The Wetlabs sensor measures both turbidity and fluorescence and sells for $4,870 in the shallow mode and $6,085 for the deeper unit [6,000]. The Rockland Oceanographic sensor for measuring DO is called RINKO and sells for $6,800 for the standard model, but I don't have a price for the OEM model yet. Do you think ONR will allow you to use one of their LGs for a demo in the scientific world?Re the scientific community, when do you think you might have an updated pitch that I can use at the end of February? NMFS would like to have a meeting and I am still trying to get a meeting with the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium for that same time period, i.e. after the UI conference in NO in late Feb.Have you updated the brochure to show $100k for the unit -- the latest brochure I now have shows $180k.Have a great weekend -- Cheers ---- Ray
33 RINKO-II Hypoxia Sensors Measurement SpecificationsParameter Dissolved Oxygen Sensor Temperature SensorMeasurement principle Phosphorescence lifetime Thermistor(optode)Response time sec (63%) 0.2 sec0.9 sec (90%)Range 0 to 200%(0 to 20 mg/L) ‐5 to45°CResolution to0.4%(2to8 μg/L) °CAccuracy ) ± 2% (at 1 atmosphere, 25 °C ) ± 0.02 °CStability ±1% (24 hours)±5% (1 month)Hi Pat,See the attached for the two sensors that USM and others use for hypoxia monitoring in GOM, and probably other spots along our coastline or in estuaries. The Wetlabs sensor measures both turbidity and fluorescence and sells for $4,870 in the shallow mode and $6,085 for the deeper unit [6,000]. The Rockland Oceanographic sensor for measuring DO is called RINKO and sells for $6,800 for the standard model, but I don't have a price for the OEM model yet. Do you think ONR will allow you to use one of their LGs for a demo in the scientific world?Re the scientific community, when do you think you might have an updated pitch that I can use at the end of February? NMFS would like to have a meeting and I am still trying to get a meeting with the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium for that same time period, i.e. after the UI conference in NO in late Feb.Have you updated the brochure to show $100k for the unit -- the latest brochure I now have shows $180k.Have a great weekend -- Cheers ---- Ray
34 Hypoxia Sensors Placement Place both sensors in nose cone, extending the nose cone by 6 inches
35 SeaBird GPCTD Sensor Measure Calibration Accuracy Accuracy Resolution Range Range (within cal range) (outside range)Conductivity (S/m): 0 to 9 0 to ± better than ±(mS/cm) (0 to 90) (0 to 60) (± 0.003) (±0.010) (0.0001)Temperature (°C): -5 to to ± better than ±Pressure (depth) (dbar): 0 to 350 full scale ± 0.1% F.S % F.S.Memory8 Mbytes = 699,000 of CTP (194 hours at 1 Hz)Data FormatsReal-time data and uploaded data are output (decimal or Hexadecimal characters) in units of Siemens/meter (conductivity), degrees C (temperature), decibars (pressure)Operating Power RequirementsSupply Voltage: 8 to 20 VDC nominal (power calculations below assume 10.0 V)Quiescent current: 30 μAContinuous (1Hz) SamplingCTP only: 175 mW if real-time = no, 190 mW if real-time = yes (2.10 – % duty)can you do for Seabird on this slide on a the LG? OR Maybe not needed?
36 Coastal Glider Hydrophones Ocean Sonics icListen HF Hydrophones on wings and stern planeMeasures ambient noise in1/3 octave bandsFishing vessels and ferriesFor wind speed estimatorProvides event detectionMammals, sea turtles and fishVessel engine tonalsWilcoxon Vector Sensor VS-209 hydrophone on bow NarwhalMeasures direction of surface vesselsMeasures direction of wind waves and swellsProvides detection and direction of marine mammals
37 Ocean Sonics Smart Hydrophone Analog hydrophone needs many parts, but Smart Hydrophone is CompleteAll functions are integratedUnit is calibrated
38 Ocean Sonics icListen HF Smart Hydrophones Hydrophone Sensing Element ultra low noise [< SS0] and wide dynamic range – 24 bit A/D converterIntelligent Digital Hydrophone processes data before it is transmitted [only a small data set] using spectral analysis and correlation modelsReal Time Event Detection processor transforms acoustic signals into calibrated waveforms, spectral, or event dataData Processing of FFT data reduces data storage by a factor of ~300, allowing you to store more data – 32 GBytes
39 AML CTD Sensors Xchange™ Field “Swappable” Sensors: Sampling Modes: • User configurable (by time, by pressure, by sound speed)• Unlike other X•Series instruments, the Micro•X is sensor specific,Mechanical:• Housing: Delrin to 500 m or Titanium to 10,000 mmeaning that sensor type cannot be changed• Size: 33 mm (1.3”) diameter x 246 mm (9.5”) OAL• Field-swap any sensor with another sensor of its own kind,• Connectors: Micro 6, Femaleregardless of range• Storage Temperature: -40oC to 60oC• Each Xchange™ includes its own embedded calibration• Operating Temperature: -20oC to 45oC• Sensors exchange without use of toolsAccessories:Electrical:• Instrument suspension bar• Up to 25 scans per second• Instrument protection frame• Factory Set RS232 or RS485• Mounting brackets• Externally Powered 8-26 VDC• Data/Power cable, various lengths 2m and greaterWhere is it located on the LG
40 Coastal Glider Sensors -- Future Wave Height Sensor [Microstrain IMU in glider]LND Inc. Gamma Radiation Sensor [Cesium 137]Satlantic Nutrient Sensor [SUNA]CONTROS Methane SensorWOTAN [Wind Observation Through Ambient Noise]Automated Detection of Fishing Vessel
42 MicroStrain 3DM-GX1 Specs [Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor] Coastal Glider IMU [Inertial Measurement Unit]Three angular rate gyros+/- 300º/sec FSThree orthogonal DC accelerometers+/- 5g FSThree orthogonal magnetometers+/ Gauss FSOther ParametersMultiplexer with16 bit A/D converterOrientation outputs in both dynamic and static conditions65 mA power consumption75 grams with enclosure
43 LND Inc. Gamma Radiation Sensor Model GENERAL SPECIFICATIONSCalibrated for Cesium -137Gas filling Ne + HalogenCathode material 446 Stainless SteelEffective length (inch/mm) 9.51/241.6Effective diameter (inch/mm) 0.786/20.0Connector Flying LeadOperating temperature range °C -40 to +75
44 Satlantic Nutrient Sensor ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICSPERFORMANCEInput voltage: VDCDetection range: to 28 mg/l-N *(0.5 to 2000 μM)Power consumption: 7.5 W ( V) nominalAccuracy: +/- 2 μM or 10% of readingSample rate: 1 Hz (when onboard averaging disabled)Calibration: Real-time Temperature / Salinity correction available; requires T/S data from AUV controllerCommunication options: RS-232, Analog output VDC and mA, SDI-12Telemetry options: ASCII, Binary, Concentrated ASCII, Reduced Binary (for AUV)Long term drift: mg/l per hour of lamp timeThermal Compensation: 0 to 35 CInternal Logging: 2 GB solid state memorySalinity Compensation: 0 to 40 psuOPTICSPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSPath length: 1 cmDepth rating: 2000 m (6,560 ft)Spectral range: nmLength: 555 mm (21.8 in)Lamp type: Continuous WaveDiameter: 57 mm (2.25 in)Deuterium LampWeight: 1.80 kg (3.9 lb) in airLamp lifetime: 900 h0.36 kg (0.80 lb) in waterHousing material: Anodized Aluminum;Not sure how you did this Size as shown on ARGO float – need to put on exterior of LG
45 CONTROS Methane Sensor Principle Dissolved CH4 molecules diffuse through a silicone membrane into the patented detector chamber, where their number is determined by means of IR absorption spectrometry. Concentration dependent IR light intensities are converted into output signals.Dimension/ Weight 90 d x 376 mm corrosion-free titanium/ 4,7 kg (2,2 kg in water)Operation depth 2000, 4000, 6000 m version availableTemperature range 3 … +30°C (Arctic version: -2 … +15°C)Measuring range 100nmol – 50μmol/l (other ranges available)Equilibration time first signal after 5s, T63 < 400 sec (with external pump)Resolution 10 nmolAccuracy ±3% reading (as the total sum of all the errors)Calibration Calibration unit is μmol/l ● signal is derived considering internal sensors for pressure, temperature and humidity ● Recalibration recommended every 12 monthsPower Typ. 12 VDC ( VDC) (Arctic version: VDC))Data Interface RS-232C and RS-485 ● Data format ASCII NMEA-0183
46 Generic Underwater Sound Spectra 100hail202 kHz80Heavy rain8 kHz12Wind m/s560Light rain, no windSpectral level (dB re 1mPa²/Hz)2Light rain, 3 m/s wind40snow200.1110100Frequency (kHz)DBCP-18 workshop – Oct. 2002
47 Meteo France Algorithms Algorithms now in use by Meteo France for drifting buoysWind Speed estimates at 10m above water level – U10U10 = a * 10SL(f)/20 + bWhere SL(f) is the sound intensity at frequency f expressed in dB relative to 1 mPa2/Hz [measured in 1/3rd octave bands]a and b are two empirical coefficients depending on the frequencyThe wind speed estimate at 10m is the average of estimates computed at 2, 3.15, 4, 5 and 6 kHz 1/3 rd octave bandsData of wind speed estimates is flagged if:the standard deviation of estimates computed in the 1/3 rd octave bands between 1 and 8 kHz is higher than 2.5 m/s
50 CG Deployment Success – KORDI Coastal Waters Transit Initial test to demonstrate the ability of the glider to operate in an area with known strong currents and navigate accurately over long distances [160 km]Navigated via a series of waypointsCollected and reported GPS positions at regular intervals to maintain waypoint tracking4 Acoustic sensors to collect ambient noise dataAny other notes??
51 CG Deployment Successes – Station Keeping Demonstrations Glider Positions From 5/3 to 5/6 2010Results from GOC Green circle is 2km watch circle72 hrs of surface positions are shown on the GOC chartBlue position points indicate surfacing directed by dead reckoningGreen position points indicate surface directed by a comms intervalIs this enough re recent tests of LG
52 Summary Of Coastal Glider Acoustic Tests During Past 5 Years Integrated several types of passive acoustic sensors including single and paired (binaural) omni-directional hydrophones and vector sensorPerformed acoustic characterization and noise reduction work under controlled conditionsSuccessfully demonstrated ability to collect data in multiple Navy sponsored eventsSignal processing aboard the glider has been used to alter glider behavior in the presence of threatsSignal processing aboard the glider has been used to create a reduced data set for immediate transmission, with the full data set stored for later analysis
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