Presentation on theme: "Reduction of household pollution Paul H. Riley Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
Reduction of household pollution Paul H. Riley Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering
Current cooking habits Indian Sub continent Sub Saharan Africa ……Nepal…. the World 3 Billion people cook on open fire 4 million per year die prematurely from smoke Smoke inhalation causes many health problems. Wood burning is only one source of smoke. Kerosene for lighting also contributes. Photo courtesy Practical Action
World Bank  2011 Research on improved cookstoves dates back to the 1950s; the ensuing decades witnessed large-scale field programs centered on increasing the efficiency of certain stove designs. Over the past 30 years, the focus of the international community has gradually shifted toward the socio-cultural contexts in which the stoves operate. While the stoves themselves may have been simple, their effects on household and regional health and economics have often been complex and far-reaching. In short, many approaches to introducing improved stoves have been tried, with some successes and many failures… From 1980 until about 2002, hundreds or even thousands of artisan-produced cookstove models were developed…
Uptake in Rural Areas 100% Clean cookstoves Mobile Phones Alone, clean cookstoves are boring. Phones are wanted.. Why? 8% outside China.
Uptake conclusion l It is not the cookstove design preventing uptake l We must take cognisance of the social context and the techno-social interactions l Partnerships are key.
Social context l To improve health need to remove smoke inhalation from stove and kerosene Used for lighting l How to make clean cookstoves more like mobile phones? To generate the want? l What are the : Inhibitors Motivators
Example of Inhibitors l If the still wont fit No alcohol made Not accepted l Stove had hot spot One woman burnt hand Other 32 stoves were not used l Remove the smoke Insects have a party People get ill Stove bring the demons House eaten by termites Conclusion: If you remove the smoke, solve the associated problems
Improved Stoves inhibitors rd/download/password_28.pdfhttp://www.research.philips.com/passwo rd/download/password_28.pdf page 28 Wood collected too big for stove
Broader based Inhibitors l At household level convince change is beneficial to the Male Female Children l Village Positive grape vine communication is essential Cooperative and village hierarchy have to be supportive Potential disadvantaged need addressing l Manufacturing logistics If it breaks, it will not get used.. Unless it can easily be fixed l Country (government) Balance of payments Profit flows to benefit country not foreigners Reduction of corruption
Motivators Adding packaged solutions although adding cost can make the solution more affordable and generates the want. Stoves that generate electricity are highly motivating for all the family Particularly lights and mobile phone charging
Technology options l There is no doubt that a reliable smoke-free cooking stove that generates electricity, reduces fuel consumption and is affordable, will sell in the 100s millions and give great benefit. l What technologies can meet these requirements? Mini-hydro and clean stoves Erikson cycle Stirling engine Steam engine Solar plus clean cooking stove Thermo-Acoustic (eg Score-Stove) Thermo-Electric (Thermopile)
Affordability l Cheapest solution is not the most affordable The right packaged solution makes it more attractive. l Stop using kerosene for lighting. Typical kerosene cost = £15 to £30 pa Torches etc. mean kerosene use > zero l Use of LED lights, low maintenance l Need easy-to-use way to monitor electricity So that carbon credits can be claimed. l Total Package aimed at £100, with micro finance
Thanks to EPSRC, The Research Council in the UK. l Score Partners. l Practical Action. l Alstom.