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1 Using Adobe Photoshop CS Image Editing software.

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1 1 Using Adobe Photoshop CS Image Editing software

2 2 Table of contents Basic concepts……………… …… …slide 3  What is Photoshop?, other options, types of image files, The Photoshop workspace (toolbox, options bar, palettes) Basic photo manipulation … ………………..….slide 13  Opening, cropping, resizing, saving as.jpeg Creating new images……………… …..……….slide 26  New image dialogue box, pencil and paintbrush tools, paintbucket and gradient tools, saving as.gifs, dither Adjusting/retouching photos…… ……………..slide 37  Rotation, adjustments, the dodge-burn-sponge tools, the clone tool, the filters menu Transparency…………… …… slide 46  Creating transparent backgrounds, saving transparent images, transparency dither Layers…………………………… …………..…..slide 51  Layer basics, moving layers, naming layers, copying layers, compositing images, transforming layers, layer via copy/cut, adding text Other resources……………… slide 61

3 3 Basic concepts What is Photoshop?, other options, types of image files, The Photoshop workspace (toolbox, options bar, palettes)

4 4 What is Photoshop? Image editing program Shows images as bitmaps Bitmap = arrangement of dots (pixels) on grid  Don’t confuse bitmap with file type called.bmp - just a descriptive term Pixel = “Picture element” - smallest unit of an image Size of pixel depends on resolution  Typical web image: 72 dpi  Typical print image: 300 dpi or hgher End result can be saved in variety of ways:.bmp,.jpeg,.gif,.tif

5 5 Other options Adobe Elements (basic, cheaper version of PShop) - $79 Corel Paintshop Pro - $79 (similar to Elements) MS Photodraw/ PhotoEditor – often free Software that comes with digital camera

6 6 Types of image files 1.psd  Native Photoshop file, usually needs to be saved as other type  New images, layered images start as.psd.gif  Good for web, used for simple images, large eras of flat color  Often good for B & W  Supports transparency  Lossless.jpeg  Good for web, used for photos or complex coloration (e.g. – gradients)  Slightly longer to download (decompression time)  Lossy  Doesn’t support transparency

7 7 Types of image files 2.png  Good for web, best of both worlds (lossless, supports complex photographs)  Not supported by older browsers (pre IE 4, NN 6)  Wait for all browsers to catch up before using.tif  Good for print media  Can be imported by most apps (QuarkX, Pagemaker, InDesign)  Large file sizes (but compressible)  Can supports layers.bmp  Simple grid of pixels  Uncompressed, large file sizes  Can be imported by almost all apps

8 8 Color modes Image, Modes  RGB is almost always best bet Default choice  CMYK for high end professional printers  Grayscale for B&W  Index greatly reduces file size  IMPORTANT: If Photoshop is not allowing you to use a tool, change mode from index to RGB  8-bit is usually adequate It’s per channel, so you’re actually talking about 24 bit image in RGB mode 16-bit only for very high resolution pictures  Very large file size

9 9 The Photoshop workspace image Options palettetoolbox History paletteLayers palette

10 10 The toolbox Commonly used tools arranged as icons Triangle in lower right means multiple tools are nested there Left-click the icon and hold down the button to see all tools nested there Paintbucket icon Expanded: Gradient and paintbucket tools

11 11 The options palette Just below the Menu choices Changes depending on which tool you’ve chosen from the toolbox Allows greater control of that tool by changing settings Options palette for paintbucket tool

12 12 The palettes 19 palettes available from the Windows menu Only need a few up all the time  Toolbox (already discussed)  Options (already discussed)  Layers One of the main reasons Photoshop is so versatile Layer images on top of other images – mix text, photos, shapes by superimposing them  History Ctrl + Z only works for the last thing you did History palette lets you go “back in time” step by step - particularly useful when you’re first learning Photoshop, so you can back out of a bad decision Pull up others (e.g. Character for text, Styles for special effects) as needed

13 13 Basic photo manipulation Opening, cropping, resizing, saving as.jpeg

14 14 Opening an image: the file browser If you know exact name of file…  File, Open  Web sites often have huge numbers of images  1 images folder – gets bigger and bigger For large libraries of images, or non- descriptive file names…  Window, File browser  Gives thumbnail of every picture in folder  Allows fast ways to browse, sort, flag, rotate, delete, etc.

15 15 The File browser Thumbnails Folder browser Metadata RotateFlagDeleteSearch

16 16 Cropping an image 1 Bring up image  File, Open (if you know the name of file)  Window, File Browser (to see thumbnails of all images in a folder) Choose cropping tool Left-click and drag to define crop area  Uncropped area will be shaded  Don’t have to be perfect  Use sizing boxes to fine-tune crop area

17 17 Cropping an image 2 When you’re happy with crop, double- click inside it  Cursor will change to solid black triangle The cropped image will be displayed Rename the image (so you don’t overwrite original image) and save it  AFTER you’ve saved it, when Photoshop asks if you want to save changes, say “no” (it’s counter-intuitive, but you’ve already saved a version of your image)  We’ll discuss save options in a few minutes

18 18 Resizing an image 1 For web: smaller image = smaller file size = faster download time  Also lower file size by compressing when saving Web images are measured in pixels  Actual size depends on resolution  Design with 800 x 600 in mind 640 x 480 (1%)* 800 x 600 (29%)* 1024 x 768 and higher (68%)*  Your specific audience might skew higher or lower *these numbers are notoriously hard to track accurately

19 19 Resizing an image 2 Images will not necessarily be shown actual size in Photoshop  Look at title bar to see percentage  Ctrl and + to zoom in  Ctrl and – to zoom out Magnifying glass in toolbar does this too (more cumbersome, but good for zooming in on the specific area you click)  View menu, Actual Pixels will also take you to 100%

20 20 Resizing an image 3 Image menu, Image Size Make sure “Constrain proportions” is checked to avoid stretching  Link icon appears Change width (in pixels), height will automatically change Use document size box for print (set in inches, not pixels) Save as new file name, so as not to overwrite original image

21 21 Saving images 1 General rule:  Photos, complex images save as.jpegs  Cartoonish images with large areas of flat color save as.gifs  Many exceptions, so try both options and compare side by side (using 2-up or 4-up) .png is not supported by all browsers, so try to avoid  Transparency supported by.gif, but not.jpeg Goal is to find a compromise between file size and image quality  Lower file size = lower image quality

22 22 Saving images 2 After you’ve cropped, resized, adjusted File, Save for web  ImageReady is another option (icon at bottom of toolbox)  IR doesn’t help that much with simple images (use for animation, links, rollovers – web specific tasks) Dialogue box appears  Choose 4-Up tab at top

23 23 Save for Web dialogue box 1 4 versions of picture Allows side-by- side comparison of different settings Use these controls to change settings

24 24 Save for Web dialogue box 2 Ctrl and + or – will allow you to zoom in or out L-Click and drag allows you to drag image around Download time under all 4 versions: CRUCIAL piece of info

25 25 Saving.jpegs Use this pulldown to switch between jpeg and gif Use this slider to adjust quality  Higher quality = larger file size  Often get by with for web use Zoom in and drag around to look for “artifacts”  Little blemishes caused by compression process, often in areas of flat color Adding a little blur with this slider sometimes masks artifacts or poor image quality  Don’t overdo it!

26 26 Creating new images New image dialogue box, pencil and paintbrush tools, paintbucket and gradient tools, saving as.gifs, dither

27 27 New image dialogue box Width, height in pixels, inches, cm, etc. Resolution: 72 ppi for web work,300 or higher for print Color mode: RGB best default, grayscale for B&W, CMYK for high- end print work Background content: transparent for gifs only, background color needs to be set beforehand

28 28 The pencil and paintbrush tools Left-click and hold down icon to choose  Pencil has hard edges  Brush has feathered edges Brush pulldown in options bar controls diameter, hardness Brush palette has presets for stars, leaves, grass, etc.

29 29 The color picker 1 On toolbox Flips background and foreground Foreground color picker Background color picker Default (in this case B&W) Click background or foreground to bring up color picker

30 30 The color picker 2 Color slider Color field Field/slider combo gives you access to all colors Numeric color values Web safe colors option (important!) You can sample colors with the CP eyedropper

31 31 The paintbucket tool 1 Left-click and hold down to choose between paintbucket and gradient Paintbucket is for solid fill backgrounds and patterns  Solid fill – choose color from options bar  Patterns – lots to chose from: cloth and paper textures, nature images (rocks, flowers), abstract patterns Select proper layer, choose paintbucket, click on area to fill  Can’t paint a background – change to layer first  Tolerance and opacity on options bar

32 32 The paintbucket tool 2 For patterned backgrounds  Change Fill box from Foreground to Pattern in options bar  Use Pattern box pulldown to see patterns to use  Use this button to bring up more pattern choices  Select your pattern, choose layer, click on image

33 33 The gradient tool Gradient = gradual transition between two or more colors Choose gradient tool, choose preset from options bar “Draw” gradient with a left click and drag  Starting and stopping points and direction of dragged line will define gradient  Use History panel to back up, try again Click on Gradient box in toolbar to create own gradient

34 34 Custom gradients Preset gradients are here Click on these boxes to change opacity (for a fade to transparency) Click on these to change color of gradient Slide them to change when gradient ends This changes midpoint of transition

35 35 Saving.gifs 1 File, Save for web, 4-Up tab (just like.jpegs) Can have between 2 and 256 colors  More colors = larger file size Control # of colors with this pulldown

36 36 Saving gifs: dither Dither diffuses color boundaries by mixing pixels together Good for preventing “banding” in gradients and shading Turn it on using this pulldown (diffusion is usually best bet) Set amount of dither, from 0 to 100  Don’t overdo it – can create graininess

37 37 Adjusting and retouching photos Rotation, adjustments, The dodge-burn- sponge tools, the clone tool, the filters menu

38 38 Rotation Image menu, Rotate canvas 180 o, 90 o clockwise or counter Flip horizontal or vertical Arbitrary is for specific number of degrees (not really arbitrary at all!) Bring up grid (View menu, Show, Grid) for more accuracy

39 39 Adjustments 1 Image menu, adjustments allows you to fine-tune image (or sections of image)  LOTS of options Adjust levels, color balance, brightness, contrast  Contrast and Color have both auto and manual options  Levels limits the range of pixels being used (auto-levels lets P-Shop do it) Very useful tool Auto option available as well

40 40 Adjustments 2 To adjust just a section of photo, use the marquee or lasso tool to select section, then adjust (upper-left in toolbox)  Marquee for squares/rectangles and circles/ellipses  Lasso for irregular sections Regular lasso for freehand (need good mouse skills) Polygonal for point to point (I recommend this) “Magnetic” lasso for P-Shop to decide (based on change in pixel value)  Tip: Little circle in lower right of cursor lets you know you’re done; quit before that and PShop will just keep drawing lasso Marquee tools Lasso tools

41 41 Dodge/burn/sponge tools Dodge – lightens an area Burn – darkens an area Sponge – saturates or desaturates color  Mode box in options bar determines saturate or desaturate For Dodge/Burn, keep exposure low (20-30), use multiple passes For Sponge, keep flow low, use multiple passes Use history palette to “back up” if you go too far

42 42 The clone tool 1 Really fun! “Clones” pixels from one area of your image and places them in another VERY useful for repair and retouching Select Clone stamp tool from Toolbox Bring up image Hold down Alt key – cursor turns to crosshairs

43 43 The clone tool 2 Move cursor to general area you want to clone from (make sure there’s room on all sides) With Alt key still held down, left-click to select clone area Left-click and drag to paint cloned pixels onto new area  Cross marks where you are sampling from – will move as your cursor moves  Re-sample clone pixels as needed  Change brush size in options bar as needed Takes practice, but a very useful tool

44 44 Filters 1 Almost as fun as the clone tool! Over 100 effects to choose from Some are subtle, some bizarre Filter gallery is best approach:  Allows you to quickly tour all filters  Shows preview on left as you adjust variables

45 45 Filters 2 preview filters variables

46 46 Transparency Creating transparent backgrounds, saving transparent images, transparency dither

47 47 Creating transparent backgrounds 1 Bring up image  Need a flat color background L-click and hold down eraser tool to get all options  Choose Magic Eraser tool Set tolerance to 5 in options bar (a starting point) Anti-alias should be checked (gets rid of “jaggies” on edges)  Uncheck contiguous to make insides of letters transparent

48 48 Creating transparent backgrounds 2 Click on background  Background will disappear, checkerboard will appear No checkerboard in actual image  If some background remains, Ctrl + Z, raise tolerance  If some logo is gone, Ctrl + Z, lower tolerance If you get Ø symbol, change image mode from index to RGB  Image menu, choose Mode, choose RGB

49 49 Saving.gifs: transparency dither Only.gifs support transparency Turn on transparency here  Background will be checkerboard Turn on transparency dither here (diffusion usually best) % of transparency dither  Again, don’t go crazy

50 50 Transparency dither example Without transparency dither With 51% diffusion transparency dither (all other variables the same)

51 51 Layers Layer basics, moving layers, naming layers, copying layers, compositing images, transforming layers, layer via copy/cut, adding text

52 52 Layer basics 1 Layers are like sheets of glass stacked on top of each other From top to bottom:  Text layer  Text effect/Drop shadow  Photo at left  Gray background L-click and drag layers to move them up or down

53 53 Layer basics 2 Visibility off/on toggle Selected layer effectsDrag here to delete New layer/Drag here to copy

54 54 Layer basics 3 Name your layers with a descriptive name  Right-click a layer and choose “layer properties”  You can left-click right inside the name to change it too  The “color” pulldown allows you to color code you layers Good organization technique for complex images

55 55 Compositing two images 1 You can save a layer from one image directly into another image  Fast effective way to composite two images  Right-click on layer, select Duplicate Layer Destination document must be open as well Choose destination document from pull-down

56 56 Compositing two images 2 You can drag layers from one image to another Both images must be open  Select Move tool from toolbox  L-click and drag  You’ll see new layer in layer palette  Drag multiple times to create “clone” images  If it doesn’t work, make sure both images are in RGB mode  Fine-tune position by using arrow keys to move it to correct spot

57 57 Transforming layers Use transform to manipulate a layer within an image, not entire image  Select layer to transform  Edit menu, Transform  Resize, rotate, flip, etc. Use sizing boxes or Options bar  If resizing, use Scale command  Click chain link in options bar to keep width/height ratio intact

58 58 Layer via copy or cut You can select a section of a layer, then copy or cut the selection into new layer  Use Marquee or Lasso tool to make a selection  Right-click  Choose “Layer via copy” or “Layer via cut”

59 59 Adding text Choose text tool Two ways to begin:  Click once on image for insertion point, begin typing, or…  L-click and drag to define text area, then start typing Use Options bar for basic manipulation  Text options can all be changed after the fact – highlight text, then change settings on Options bar  Font type, style, size, anti-alias type, alignment, color

60 60 Character palette For more advanced manipulation  Window menu, Character Particularly useful for squeezing text or spreading it out Leading – space between lines Tracking – space between all letters Kerning – space between 2 letters (on either side of cursor) Horizontal scale – adjusts width of type Vertical scale – adjusts height of type Upper/lower case, sub/super script, etc.

61 61 Other resources Websites:  Photoshop training videos  ImageReady training videos Photoshop and ImageReady CDs  Same material as website, larger screen size  me and ask for them

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