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Using Adobe Photoshop CS

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1 Using Adobe Photoshop CS
Image Editing software

2 Table of contents Basic concepts……………… …… …slide 3 What is Photoshop?, other options, types of image files, The Photoshop workspace (toolbox, options bar, palettes) Basic photo manipulation … ………………..….slide 13 Opening, cropping, resizing, saving as .jpeg Creating new images……………… …..……….slide 26 New image dialogue box, pencil and paintbrush tools, paintbucket and gradient tools, saving as .gifs, dither Adjusting/retouching photos…… ……………..slide 37 Rotation, adjustments, the dodge-burn-sponge tools, the clone tool, the filters menu Transparency…………… …… slide 46 Creating transparent backgrounds, saving transparent images, transparency dither Layers…………………………… …………..…..slide 51 Layer basics, moving layers, naming layers, copying layers, compositing images, transforming layers, layer via copy/cut, adding text Other resources……………… slide 61

3 Basic concepts What is Photoshop?, other options, types of image files, The Photoshop workspace (toolbox, options bar, palettes)

4 What is Photoshop? Image editing program Shows images as bitmaps
Bitmap = arrangement of dots (pixels) on grid Don’t confuse bitmap with file type called .bmp - just a descriptive term Pixel = “Picture element” - smallest unit of an image Size of pixel depends on resolution Typical web image: 72 dpi Typical print image: 300 dpi or hgher End result can be saved in variety of ways: .bmp, .jpeg, .gif, .tif Read it Takr a picture and zoom way in! (ctrl and +)

5 Other options Adobe Elements (basic, cheaper version of PShop) - $79
Corel Paintshop Pro - $79 (similar to Elements) MS Photodraw/ PhotoEditor – often free Software that comes with digital camera Elements has less you can do with layers and vector graphics – all basic photo manip and drawing are there Paintshop – wordperfect folks Photodraw, camera software allows jpeg and gif, resizing, cropping, flip/rotate

6 Types of image files 1 .psd
Native Photoshop file, usually needs to be saved as other type New images, layered images start as .psd .gif Good for web, used for simple images, large eras of flat color Often good for B & W Supports transparency Lossless .jpeg Good for web, used for photos or complex coloration (e.g. – gradients) Slightly longer to download (decompression time) Lossy Doesn’t support transparency Read it

7 Types of image files 2 .png .tif .bmp
Good for web, best of both worlds (lossless, supports complex photographs) Not supported by older browsers (pre IE 4, NN 6) Wait for all browsers to catch up before using .tif Good for print media Can be imported by most apps (QuarkX, Pagemaker, InDesign) Large file sizes (but compressible) Can supports layers .bmp Simple grid of pixels Uncompressed, large file sizes Can be imported by almost all apps Read it

8 Color modes Image, Modes RGB is almost always best bet
Default choice CMYK for high end professional printers Grayscale for B&W Index greatly reduces file size IMPORTANT: If Photoshop is not allowing you to use a tool, change mode from index to RGB 8-bit is usually adequate It’s per channel, so you’re actually talking about 24 bit image in RGB mode 16-bit only for very high resolution pictures Very large file size Read it – have IMPORTANT tattooed on your arm!

9 The Photoshop workspace
Options palette History palette toolbox Switch from pp to screen – everyone open it up Layers palette image

10 Expanded: Gradient and paintbucket tools
The toolbox Commonly used tools arranged as icons Triangle in lower right means multiple tools are nested there Left-click the icon and hold down the button to see all tools nested there Paintbucket icon Expanded: Gradient and paintbucket tools Point out more obvious tools Have everyone l-click and hold on paintbucket

11 Options palette for paintbucket tool
The options palette Just below the Menu choices Changes depending on which tool you’ve chosen from the toolbox Allows greater control of that tool by changing settings Options palette for paintbucket tool Choose different tools – watch options change

12 The palettes 19 palettes available from the Windows menu
Only need a few up all the time Toolbox (already discussed) Options (already discussed) Layers One of the main reasons Photoshop is so versatile Layer images on top of other images – mix text, photos, shapes by superimposing them History Ctrl + Z only works for the last thing you did History palette lets you go “back in time” step by step - particularly useful when you’re first learning Photoshop, so you can back out of a bad decision Pull up others (e.g. Character for text, Styles for special effects) as needed Pull up windows menu Toolbox and options already checked – also 3 others are checked Bring up layers, history – lose all others Layers palette is VERY useful in compositing images, adding backgrounds, text, logos, etc History palette is your BEST FRIEND – back out of a bad decision one step at a time (if only that were true in life!)

13 Basic photo manipulation
Opening, cropping, resizing, saving as .jpeg

14 Opening an image: the file browser
If you know exact name of file… File, Open Web sites often have huge numbers of images 1 images folder – gets bigger and bigger For large libraries of images, or non-descriptive file names… Window, File browser Gives thumbnail of every picture in folder Allows fast ways to browse, sort, flag, rotate, delete, etc. File, open is often inadequate – web sites, photo archives have TONS of images, not always descriptively named (or have several similarly named versions of same image) Take file browser to materials folder – thumbnails! Point out navigation pane Point out sort Flag certain pix – Edit, select all flag, rotate – or open I don’t use metadata, but it allows you to add lots of info to photo using xml (actually, I drag down preview and metadata windows to make nav pane that much easier to use)

15 The File browser Rotate Flag Search Delete Folder browser Thumbnails

16 Cropping an image 1 Bring up image Choose cropping tool
File, Open (if you know the name of file) Window, File Browser (to see thumbnails of all images in a folder) Choose cropping tool Left-click and drag to define crop area Uncropped area will be shaded Don’t have to be perfect Use sizing boxes to fine-tune crop area Bring up crop & resize pic Choose crop tool Click and drag – do it badly on purpose Fine tune with sizing boxes

17 Cropping an image 2 When you’re happy with crop, double-click inside it Cursor will change to solid black triangle The cropped image will be displayed Rename the image (so you don’t overwrite original image) and save it AFTER you’ve saved it, when Photoshop asks if you want to save changes, say “no” (it’s counter-intuitive, but you’ve already saved a version of your image) We’ll discuss save options in a few minutes D-click it Save with diff name (Save As) Close original – just say NO! – it’s counterintuitive We’ll talk about saving options shortly

18 Resizing an image 1 For web: smaller image = smaller file size = faster download time Also lower file size by compressing when saving Web images are measured in pixels Actual size depends on resolution Design with 800 x 600 in mind 640 x 480 (1%)* 800 x 600 (29%)* 1024 x 768 and higher (68%)* Your specific audience might skew higher or lower Some quick web design stuff: You are going to be doing this A LOT Small is good – for web, crop to lose as much of background as possible – get up as close as you can 900 pixel width of content means a third of viewers have to scroll left to right – it’s annoying You’ve got scrollbars too – so design with 750-ish in mind Banner photo – pix wide Photo + wrapped text on page – 300 pix wide Little photo with an article – 100 pix wide Height is less important – people are used to scrolling down – and you can use the wheely thing on your mouse *these numbers are notoriously hard to track accurately

19 Resizing an image 2 Images will not necessarily be shown actual size in Photoshop Look at title bar to see percentage Ctrl and + to zoom in Ctrl and – to zoom out Magnifying glass in toolbar does this too (more cumbersome, but good for zooming in on the specific area you click) View menu, Actual Pixels will also take you to 100% Look at our picture’s title bar – it’s not shown at real size CTRL + or - to raise or lower Mag glass also works (too cumbersome unless you’re zooming in – we’ll do that later) View, actual pix works too

20 Resizing an image 3 Image menu, Image Size
Make sure “Constrain proportions” is checked to avoid stretching Link icon appears Change width (in pixels), height will automatically change Use document size box for print (set in inches, not pixels) Save as new file name, so as not to overwrite original image Contrain proportions before you do anything 300 width – height will change Lower box is for print – inches (though resolution will be a factor in actual size of printed photo) Cropped, resized, we’re ready to save

21 Saving images 1 General rule:
Photos, complex images save as .jpegs Cartoonish images with large areas of flat color save as .gifs Many exceptions, so try both options and compare side by side (using 2-up or 4-up) .png is not supported by all browsers, so try to avoid Transparency supported by .gif, but not .jpeg Goal is to find a compromise between file size and image quality Lower file size = lower image quality Photos = jpg Cartoons = gifs Often surprizing exceptions, so look at both – PShop makes it very easy Don’t use pings If there are transparent bits, use gifs ***brokering a compromise between file size and quality! – you will do this a lot!

22 Saving images 2 After you’ve cropped, resized, adjusted
File, Save for web ImageReady is another option (icon at bottom of toolbox) IR doesn’t help that much with simple images (use for animation, links, rollovers – web specific tasks) Dialogue box appears Choose 4-Up tab at top File, Save for Web IReady is very cool – animate, rollovers, image maps, multi-state buttons (my site at end of PP has a bunch of lessons)

23 Save for Web dialogue box 1
4 versions of picture Allows side-by-side comparison of different settings Use these controls to change settings

24 Save for Web dialogue box 2
Ctrl and + or – will allow you to zoom in or out L-Click and drag allows you to drag image around Download time under all 4 versions: CRUCIAL piece of info

25 Saving .jpegs Use this pulldown to switch between jpeg and gif
Use this slider to adjust quality Higher quality = larger file size Often get by with for web use Zoom in and drag around to look for “artifacts” Little blemishes caused by compression process, often in areas of flat color Adding a little blur with this slider sometimes masks artifacts or poor image quality Don’t overdo it! Jpeg/gif Don’t bother with high/medium/low – use quality slider Go real low – zoom in – look for artifacts – Blur will help a little

26 Creating new images New image dialogue box, pencil and paintbrush tools, paintbucket and gradient tools, saving as .gifs, dither Draw Apple tree picture Add background Add pattern background Add a gradient

27 New image dialogue box Width, height in pixels, inches, cm, etc.
Resolution: 72 ppi for web work,300 or higher for print Color mode: RGB best default, grayscale for B&W, CMYK for high-end print work Background content: transparent for gifs only, background color needs to be set beforehand Let do a 300 x 500 px image 72 res (standard for web) RGB, 8 bit White b-ground

28 The pencil and paintbrush tools
Left-click and hold down icon to choose Pencil has hard edges Brush has feathered edges Brush pulldown in options bar controls diameter, hardness Brush palette has presets for stars, leaves, grass, etc. Bring up the paintbrush Set size Draw – notice the color is the color in the color picker

29 The color picker 1 On toolbox Flips background and foreground
Foreground color picker Background color picker Default (in this case B&W) Click background or foreground to bring up color picker

30 The color picker 2 Color slider Color field
Field/slider combo gives you access to all colors Numeric color values Web safe colors option (important!) You can sample colors with the CP eyedropper Slide the slider and the field changes – black in lower left, white in upper right, all colors in between them Numeric values – RGB, CMYK, and IMPORTANTLY – hex codes for web (how to survive color blindness – way to match colors easily – how the web defines color) Web safe colors off – continuous color field – web safe colors on – boxes of colors If you have an image up in PShop – move your cursor to it and sample it! VERY COOL! ****Go to next page for lesson****

31 The paintbucket tool 1 Left-click and hold down to choose between paintbucket and gradient Paintbucket is for solid fill backgrounds and patterns Solid fill – choose color from options bar Patterns – lots to chose from: cloth and paper textures, nature images (rocks, flowers), abstract patterns Select proper layer, choose paintbucket, click on area to fill Can’t paint a background – change to layer first Tolerance and opacity on options bar Turn off ground layer, flower layer Choose a blue background (TURN ALL LAYERS OFF) – paint it Turn flower/ground back on!

32 The paintbucket tool 2 For patterned backgrounds
Change Fill box from Foreground to Pattern in options bar Use Pattern box pulldown to see patterns to use Use this button to bring up more pattern choices Select your pattern, choose layer, click on image Change to pattern – paint it

33 The gradient tool Gradient = gradual transition between two or more colors Choose gradient tool, choose preset from options bar “Draw” gradient with a left click and drag Starting and stopping points and direction of dragged line will define gradient Use History panel to back up, try again Click on Gradient box in toolbar to create own gradient Back up in history panel Draw a gradient – left to right Now draw right to left – notice how the transition stops and starts with your l-clicks Draw on the diagonal Draw all 5 patterns on toolbar

34 Custom gradients Preset gradients are here
Click on these boxes to change opacity (for a fade to transparency) Click on these to change color of gradient Slide them to change when gradient ends This changes midpoint of transition Skip this slide – it’s here so if you want to customize a gradient you can

35 Saving .gifs 1 File, Save for web, 4-Up tab (just like .jpegs)
Can have between 2 and 256 colors More colors = larger file size Control # of colors with this pulldown Use the history panel to choose gradient, background color, or pattern

36 Saving gifs: dither Dither diffuses color boundaries by mixing pixels together Good for preventing “banding” in gradients and shading Turn it on using this pulldown (diffusion is usually best bet) Set amount of dither, from 0 to 100 Don’t overdo it – can create graininess

37 Adjusting and retouching photos
Rotation, adjustments, The dodge-burn-sponge tools, the clone tool, the filters menu Use navy photo

38 Rotation Image menu, Rotate canvas 180o, 90o clockwise or counter
Flip horizontal or vertical Arbitrary is for specific number of degrees (not really arbitrary at all!) Bring up grid (View menu, Show, Grid) for more accuracy rotate photo for rotate Use scanned photo – dadfleetwood – for arbitrary Flip it around Bring up grid

39 Adjustments 1 Image menu, adjustments allows you to fine-tune image (or sections of image) LOTS of options Adjust levels, color balance, brightness, contrast Contrast and Color have both auto and manual options Levels limits the range of pixels being used (auto-levels lets P-Shop do it) Very useful tool Auto option available as well Color balance, brightness and contrast are self evident – figure it out yourself Bring up Jesse to work with levels

40 Adjustments 2 To adjust just a section of photo, use the marquee or lasso tool to select section, then adjust (upper-left in toolbox) Marquee for squares/rectangles and circles/ellipses Lasso for irregular sections Regular lasso for freehand (need good mouse skills) Polygonal for point to point (I recommend this) “Magnetic” lasso for P-Shop to decide (based on change in pixel value) Tip: Little circle in lower right of cursor lets you know you’re done; quit before that and PShop will just keep drawing lasso Marquee tools Lasso tools Watch me do this – we’ll use these tools later, tho Use which image?

41 Dodge/burn/sponge tools
Dodge – lightens an area Burn – darkens an area Sponge – saturates or desaturates color Mode box in options bar determines saturate or desaturate For Dodge/Burn, keep exposure low (20-30), use multiple passes For Sponge, keep flow low, use multiple passes Use history palette to “back up” if you go too far Use burn example

42 The clone tool 1 Really fun!
“Clones” pixels from one area of your image and places them in another VERY useful for repair and retouching Select Clone stamp tool from Toolbox Bring up image Hold down Alt key – cursor turns to crosshairs Erase fold in fleetwood

43 The clone tool 2 Move cursor to general area you want to clone from (make sure there’s room on all sides) With Alt key still held down, left-click to select clone area Left-click and drag to paint cloned pixels onto new area Cross marks where you are sampling from – will move as your cursor moves Re-sample clone pixels as needed Change brush size in options bar as needed Takes practice, but a very useful tool

44 Filters 1 Almost as fun as the clone tool!
Over 100 effects to choose from Some are subtle, some bizarre Filter gallery is best approach: Allows you to quickly tour all filters Shows preview on left as you adjust variables read

45 Filters 2 preview filters variables Use shay pic – let them play

46 Transparency Creating transparent backgrounds, saving transparent images, transparency dither Use CSU logo

47 Creating transparent backgrounds 1
Bring up image Need a flat color background L-click and hold down eraser tool to get all options Choose Magic Eraser tool Set tolerance to 5 in options bar (a starting point) Anti-alias should be checked (gets rid of “jaggies” on edges) Uncheck contiguous to make insides of letters transparent Csu logo

48 Creating transparent backgrounds 2
Click on background Background will disappear, checkerboard will appear No checkerboard in actual image If some background remains, Ctrl + Z, raise tolerance If some logo is gone, Ctrl + Z, lower tolerance If you get Ø symbol, change image mode from index to RGB Image menu, choose Mode, choose RGB

49 Saving .gifs: transparency dither
Only .gifs support transparency Turn on transparency here Background will be checkerboard Turn on transparency dither here (diffusion usually best) % of transparency dither Again, don’t go crazy

50 Transparency dither example
Without transparency dither With 51% diffusion transparency dither (all other variables the same) Took logo, used magic eraser at 0 tolerence (set at 5-10 it’s much less noticeable) 64 colors, no dither on both images Only difference is trans. Dither turned on in 2nd one

51 Layers Layer basics, moving layers, naming layers, copying layers, compositing images, transforming layers, layer via copy/cut, adding text Use cats on mars – add headline for text? Use web header

52 Layer basics 1 Layers are like sheets of glass stacked on top of each other From top to bottom: Text layer Text effect/Drop shadow Photo at left Gray background L-click and drag layers to move them up or down read

53 New layer/Drag here to copy
Layer basics 2 Visibility off/on toggle Selected layer read New layer/Drag here to copy effects Drag here to delete

54 Layer basics 3 Name your layers with a descriptive name
Right-click a layer and choose “layer properties” You can left-click right inside the name to change it too The “color” pulldown allows you to color code you layers Good organization technique for complex images R-click - properties

55 Compositing two images 1
You can save a layer from one image directly into another image Fast effective way to composite two images Right-click on layer, select Duplicate Layer Destination document must be open as well Choose destination document from pull-down

56 Compositing two images 2
You can drag layers from one image to another Both images must be open Select Move tool from toolbox L-click and drag You’ll see new layer in layer palette Drag multiple times to create “clone” images If it doesn’t work, make sure both images are in RGB mode Fine-tune position by using arrow keys to move it to correct spot

57 Transforming layers Use transform to manipulate a layer within an image, not entire image Select layer to transform Edit menu, Transform Resize, rotate, flip, etc. Use sizing boxes or Options bar If resizing, use Scale command Click chain link in options bar to keep width/height ratio intact

58 Layer via copy or cut You can select a section of a layer, then copy or cut the selection into new layer Use Marquee or Lasso tool to make a selection Right-click Choose “Layer via copy” or “Layer via cut”

59 Adding text Choose text tool Two ways to begin:
Click once on image for insertion point, begin typing, or… L-click and drag to define text area, then start typing Use Options bar for basic manipulation Text options can all be changed after the fact – highlight text, then change settings on Options bar Font type, style, size, anti-alias type, alignment, color

60 Character palette For more advanced manipulation
Window menu, Character Particularly useful for squeezing text or spreading it out Kerning – space between 2 letters (on either side of cursor) Leading – space between lines Tracking – space between all letters Vertical scale – adjusts height of type Horizontal scale – adjusts width of type Upper/lower case, sub/super script, etc.

61 Other resources Websites: Photoshop and ImageReady CDs
Photoshop training videos ImageReady training videos Photoshop and ImageReady CDs Same material as website, larger screen size me and ask for them

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