Presentation on theme: "CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Paris, Ile de France."— Presentation transcript:
CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Paris, Ile de France
Paris Arrondissements - Districts 1 to 20 starting with 1 in the very center. Climate: Paris lies in the midst of the Ile de France region, which has France's lowest rainfall, but the city is known for its unexpected rain showers at any time of year. Summer temperatures are mild to warm, with occasional heat waves, while winters are very chilly with temperatures hovering around freezing point.
Paris is the center of France and both in political and culinary terms. Although France has made efforts for years to decentralize businesses into other cities, until today Paris is the Center of anything that is going on in France. In general there are no food products grown in Paris and all of it is brought to Paris form the various regions of France. Major Industries: Tourism – shops, theater, hotels - culinary Clothing & Leather - Fashion Finance, Banking Rungis Market Rungis is the world biggest food market. Fish, meat, fruits, vegetables, cheese and even fresh flowers are sold in quantities so large an entire train station and highway exit has been built to serve it. Rungis is located just outside Paris and it is the place where the Chefs of Paris go and buy their products and ingredients for their menus. The food traded in halls comes from all over Europe and is shipped from here to anywhere in the world. Surface area: 232 hectares // Turnover: 7.9 billion euros Volumes: 1.5 million tons // Market attendance: 6.6 million entries/year Number of companies: 1,213 http://www.rungismarket.com/en/rouge
History in brief 3rd century B.C.: The area around L'Ile de la Cité is settled by a tribe of Celtic fishermen, the Parisii. The settlement is named Lutetia. 52 B.C.: The Roman Empire under Julius Caesar seizes the city. 4th-9th centuries: Frankish and Norman invasions. Clovis I pronounces the kingdom of Gaul and renames Lutetia Paris. 1163: Construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral begins. 14th century: Nearly half of Paris' population is annihilated by plague. 1449: Joan of Arc and French troops defeat the English at Orléans, ending nearly a decade of Norman English control over France. 15th century: The Renaissance (literally, "rebirth") begins in Paris, turning the city into a flourishing center of art, science, and architecture. 16th century: 3000 Huguenots die in religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics.
History in brief 1643: At age 5, Louis XIV, the Sun King, becomes king of France. The King builds Versailles in 1623, displacing the center of power from the Palais Royal in central Paris to the countryside. 1774: Louis XVI ascends to the throne. He is married to Marie Antoinette, the adolescent daughter of powerful Austrian empress Maria Theresa. July 14, 1789: The Bastille prison in Paris is stormed, marking the beginning of the French Revolution. 1792: Fall of the monarchy and declaration of the first French republic. In 1793, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are guillotined. 1799: Napoleon Bonaparte stabilizes the unruly government. He becomes Emperor in 1804. The Emperor's taste for power and conquest lead to the colonization of large parts of North Africa. He is defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Mid-19th century: Paris is re-constructed by Baron Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III. Wide boulevards and a sewer system replace most of the narrow, cramped medieval and Renaissance-era streets of the city.
History in brief 1870: Following a disastrous war with the Prussians, the third Republic is declared, marking the beginning of democratic institutions in France. The Belle Epoque opens, another artistically and culturally fertile time in Paris history. 1920's and 1930's: Paris is the world's most important city for art and literature. Salvador Dali, Pablo Picasso, and the "Lost Generation" of English-speaking writers like Ernest Hemingway make Paris their home. 1940: Nazi Germany invades Paris and marches on the Champs-Elysées. General Charles de Gaulle flees to London and leads a resistance from abroad. 1944: Paris is liberated by Allied forces. The city narrowly escapes destruction by the Nazis when an officer refuses to obey Hitler's orders.
Cuisine of Paris For centuries the best of the land has been brought live to Paris. Charolais beef, Bresse chicken and more were brought to the slaughter houses of Les Halles and Vilette – these days Rungis all brought to Paris to serve the “Elite” - Meat dishes are the real specialties in Paris. The cuisine of Paris is as innovative or as progressive as anywhere in the world. Traditional cuisine is still honored in many bistros and brasseries, but times are changing and in the numerous Michelin rated restaurants names such as argenteuille (asparagus) Clamart (green peas) potage Saint-Germain (green split pea) are synonymous for the best in traditional French cuisine and a continuation of Careme, Escoffier and Bocuse. “A la parisienne” – Paris style Many different dishes are called “a la Parisienne’ but there is not a conclusive “garnish’ that encases them all Gnocchi “parisienne” – pate a choux gnocchi Frog’s legs “a la parisienne” – herb breaded frog’s legs Eggs “a la parisienne” – cooked on the whole, egg yolk mixed with butter and piped back into the egg.
Products – Paris Champignon de Paris - The fungus of Paris The origin dates back to Louis XIV who cultivated the mushrooms in Versailles. Later, these mushrooms were grown in the Catacombs of Paris at the time of Napoleon 1st. With the start of the construction of the Metro (subways system) the mushrooms were no longer desirable in the city. A product of Anjou Saumur has many tunnels, dug out a white stone called tufa. These have a constant temperature (about 15 ° C) and humidity. Saumur is also famous for the Black Box (Cavalry School). The horse dung provides compost in large quantities, used for growing mushrooms. Production of mushrooms Paris France produces each year 200 000 tons of mushrooms de Paris, of which 45 000 tons for the fresh market. 70% of French production of mushrooms in Paris comes from the region of Saumur. The main producers of mushrooms are the United States, China and the Netherlands while France is the 4th largest producer.
Specialty stores in Paris Traitteur – Deli - Delicatessen The traiteur represents the origins of today's restaurant. Up to the late 18th century, diners visited their local guild member's kitchen and have their meal prepared for them. These guild members offered food in their own homes to steady clientele that appeared day-to-day but at set times. These guild member were called traiteur. Guests would be offered table d'hôte meals at a set price with little or no choice of dishes. Today, a traiteur is a catering business devoted to take-out food and service of banquets. Generally there is no or very limited seating inside the store. Traiteur 'departments' are now common in supermarkets. The staple of this type of business is an array of salads, cold meat and seafood dishes. In France today, it's a 900 million-euro business involving 1,250 companies. The word is cognate with the Italian trattoria. Comestible Strictly translated comestible means “anything that can be used for food/ suitable to be eaten”. Comestible shops offer anything from sought after spices to exotic meats, pates, terrines and specialties from every corner in the world
Traditional Dishes of “Paris” Entrecote Marchand du vin Grilled Sirloin steaks with “Marchand de vin” butter made with reduced beef bouillon (from pot-au-feu) red wine, shallots, parsley and lemon zest. Pot-au-feu Simmered beef in bouillon – the ultimate “one-pot” meal Boeuf Miroton Beef dish made with the left over from Pot-au-feu. The sliced beef is gently simmered in a vinegar-white wine broth and lots of chopped onions. Then the whole dish is baked ion the oven. Rognons de veau Bercy Sautéed veal kidneys with beef bone marrow parsley, white wine and lemon juice Sauce Bercy or a dish called “Bercy” is always served with wine sauce. The tradition dates back to the former wine warehouses of Paris which were located in Bercy (area on the out skirts of Paris)
Traditional Dishes of “Paris” Potage Saint-Germain Green pea soup with chervil Bouche a la reine Vol-en-vent filled with chicken and mushrooms in cream sauce. Alternative varieties are made with seafood or veal quenelles Mostly served as appetizers Puree de Cresson Creamed watercress soup enriched with crème fraiche Petits pois a la Francaise – Green peas “French” style Stewed green peas with pearl onions and chiffonade of lettuce in butter sauce Navarrin d’agneau Tomato and garlic flavored lamb stew with young vegetables
Traditional Dishes of “Paris” Gateau St. Honore Baked on a puff pastry base, filled with crème patissiere and garnished with caramelized choux puffs. Paris-Brest Cake invented for the bicycle race from Paris to Brest. Made with a pate a choux ring resembling a wheel and filled with praline cream Opera Layered cake with almond (cioconda) biscuit, chocolate ganache and coffee butter cream Tarte Bourdaloue Pear tart with crème patisserie and frangipan (almond powder, powder sugar and butter mixture
Traditional Dishes handled in the applied Laboratories sessions 1- Cheese Soufflé 2- Boeuf à la ficelle roti History & Origin of dish Ingredients Cooking Methods
Ile de France Départements: Petite Couronne Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne Grande Couronne Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines, Essonne, Val-d'Oise Major Cities: Paris, Versailles, Meaux Climate: The region is famous for its drizzle; even in summer. Except during summer--July & August-- mainly mild to chilly.
Cuisine of Ile de France The Ile-de-France, lacks a distinctive regional cuisine. It is the “playground” of the former Kings and noblemen. Dishes and culinary traditions from all over France have been served in grand style in Castles and Villas of the rich. Great chefs improved the execution and presentation of food because the nobility was imported. Antonin Carême was born here. The area is well stocked with raw ingredients that he -- and the top-notch chefs who gather in Paris today -- could hardly fail to think up a few delicious dishes of their own. The Parisian butchers are famed for their skill. The forests for game, morels and wild strawberries and the rivers for fresh fish. East of Paris lies the ancient province of Brie famous for it’s cheese but also the birthplace of the brioche.
Fish & Seafood River fishes – whitebait, trout, eel Cheeses Brie – de Meaux AOC, de Melun, de Montereau Coulommiers AOC Fontainebleau Double and triple cream cheeses Meat and Poultry Houdan Chicken –for braising Lamb from Ile de France Boudin noir de Paris Cervelat or Saucisson a l’ail – garlic sausages Pate de Houdan Jambon (Ham) de Paris Vegetables Asparagus – from Argenteuil Champignon de Paris mushrooms Beans from Chevrier Cress from Mereville Condiments Moutarde de Meaux – grain mustard – Pomery Vinegar from Meaux Fruits Faro Apples – lightly sour apples Groslay Pear Cherries from Montmorency – sour cherries excellent for preserves and jam Mint from Milly Products – Ile de France
Products of lle de France - Cheeses Brie Soft cow’s milk cheese with « bloomy » white rind. Brie may be produced from whole or semi-skimmed milk. The curd is obtained by adding rennet to raw milk and heating it to a maximum temperature of 37 °C (98.6 °F). The curd (cheese) cheese is then cast into moulds (20 cm diameter) in several thin layers and drained for approximately 18 hours. Then the cheese is removed from the moulds, salted and inoculated with Penicillium candidum, Penicillium camemberti and/or Brevibacterium linens and aged in a cellar for at least four to five weeks. If left to mature for longer, typically several months to a year, the cheese becomes stronger in flavour and taste, the pâté drier and darker, and the rind also darker and crumbly, and is called Brie Noir. People enjoy soaking Brie nor in Café au lait for breakfast. Both Brie de Meaux and Brie de Melun have been accredited AOC status in 1980
Brie Brie is produced in many varieties all over the world - plain Brie, herbed, double and triple Brie and versions made with other types of milk. Brie de Meaux, is manufactured since the 8th century, was originally known as the "King's Cheese" (following the French Revolution, the "King of Cheeses") and was enjoyed by the peasantry and nobility alike. Brie de Melun as is Bire de Meaux is a slow-drained cheese made by pressure-formed curd. Molding is done manually in molds 12 cm high and 27 cm in diameter. They are turned several times a day to promote drainage. After salting, the ripening process lasts at least 4 weeks in a cellar at a temperature of about 10° C, but perfect ripening requires at least 7 to 8 weeks. Brie de Montereau is made between July and March. Raw milk is partly skimmed. Molding is done into 8 to 10 cm high molds in successive layers over a 3 hour period. Two or three turns follow to complete the draining. Dry salting. Ripening lasts from 4-6 weeks
Products of lle de France - Cheeses Coulommiers AOC cow’s milk cheese made in similar fashion than Brie. Fontainbleau Fresh cow’s milk from a village near the Foret de Fontainebleau (south of Paris) / Ile de France. Mild, very creamy fresh, unripened cheese almost similar to double cream in sweetness. A blend of whipped cream and fromage frais, shaped in gauze- lined moulds. Fat content is 60%. Often served with fresh fruits or fruit desserts.
Products from Ile de France- Fruits & Vegetables Asparagus from Argenteuil Green heirloom asparagus, generally 2 cm thick silver/green/purple spears available in early in spring. Excellent source of folic acid, vitamins and minerals. Dishes called “Argenteuil” must have white asparagus as part of the dish The term “Argenteuil” always means with asparagus – Salad Argenteuil etc Cress from Mereville This cress plants are related to mustard and watercress. Typically the young shoots are liked for their peppery flavor and used in sandwiches, salads and soups or sauces. The quality of he cress is guided by the quality and amount of water it is grown with Cherries from Motmorency Sour cherries in general not used for table consumption but for preservation and jams or in sauces. The fruits are lighter in color than sweet cherries – yellow to red.
Products of Ile de France – Condiments The region of Meaux in Ile de France is only 60 km from Paris. The Romans & Greeks were producing mustard already. The mustard seed was introduced to the Gauls (France) by the Romans. In the 13 th Century mustard was popular especially in Paris. Regulations were needed to ensure cleanliness and purity of mustard and in 1658, additional laws protected mustard producers, making it an offence for any one else to make the sauce. The art of vinegar and mustard production are closely related as mostly vinegar producers were permitted to produce mustard. The addition of vinegar to mustard made the product very “acidic” until the introduction of Verjus instead of vinegar which made it smoother in taste.
Products of Ile de France – Condiments All mustards are produced similar. The seed must be crushed, its hull and bran separated or not depending on type of mustard. Further grinding or crushing might be needed. Liquid such as water, wine, vinegar, beer, or a combination of it is added, along with seasonings and perhaps flavorings. The mustard is mixed, sometimes simmered, and then cooled. Some mustard is aged in before it is bottled. Mustard from Meaux Also called the “old” mustard. The mustard is made from crushed black mustard seeds and not from mustard seed flour, hence the grainy texture of it – Grain Mustard Monks have produced mustard in the region of Meaux since the 15 th century and the Pommery family (Ile de France – Paris 1760) and the house of Maille (Dijon -1747) became leading producers until today.
Products of Ile de France – Condiments Vinegar from Meaux Born from the marriage of alcohol and time, vinegar is the result of a natural alchemy which turns wine into a sour liquid - the French ‘vin-aigre’ (sour wine). Leaving a bottle of wine uncorked, for time, will turn the wine into a sour and pungent liquid.. During the reign of Charles VI, the occupation of vinegar-distilling was made into a corporation (registered 28th Oct 1394 in Paris). The “Vinegar-makers, mustard & sauce-makers, brandy liquer and rectified spirit distillers”. Alchemists were interested in vinegar but, the vinegar-makers their manufacturing secrets. In 1865, Louis Pasteur’ research on fermentation and the role of microscopic organisms uncovered the process of acetification. Produced by a bacteria; the acetobacter, transported through dust in the air. He named it mycoderma aceti because he believed that it was a fungus. This bacteria fixes the oxygen in the air to the alcohol and transforms it into an acid. During the fermentation process, the bacteria develop on the surface to form a whitish skin, called the “mother” of the vinegar. When the this skin accumulates to a certain point, the bacteria die and fall to the bottom of the container until all the alcohol in it is consumed. The alcohol is transformed through the “mother”, into acetic acid.
Traditional Dishes of Ile de France Meat and Seafood dishes Matelote A fish stew made with red or white wine - only freshwater fish. It is made in many variations throughout France. Tete de veau Boiled calf’s head. Often served with sauce “Ravigot” – veal veloute with vinegar (and mustard) seasoned with shallots, capers and parsley. Lapin à la moutarde This classic French bistro dish presents rabbit cooked in a grainy mustard sauce with herbs and white wine. Ouefs Brouilees Argeneuil Scrambled eggs with asparagus spears
Traditional Dishes of Ile de France Sweets and Desserts Provins rose jam - A delicious jam made from rose petals Sablé briard - These little shortbreads from Brie are made with cider Brioche – French bread dough enriched with egg and butter and part of the “Viennoiserie”. (Breakfast pastries) Due to its sweet and butter flavor and consistency it is often baked with chocolate chips or glazed and served as a cake. The brioche is believed to be an abbreviation of a Norman recipe. Nanterre Brioche – loaf brioche with very high percentage of butter
Traditional Dishes handled in the applied Laboratories 1- Tourte de brie de Meaux (decorer le dessus avec le reste de pate) 2- Scrambled eggs ‘Argenteuil’ 3- Pate en croute (not yet, next session) ssessions History & Origin of the dish Ingredients Cooking methods