3What were the attributes of this teacher? p2Think back to a colleague, a former teacher, or a workshop leader who had great success with students.What were the attributes of this teacher?What impact did she or he have on you?What would you like to learn from this person that you could incorporate into your teaching?Solo: write reflectionPairs: find someone in the group who you do not know or regularly work withShare: share you responses
4Teacher Collaboration p3The Hook:Teacher Collaboration1. Turn to page 4 and draw a line that connects point A to point B. The line must make a minimum of seven turns/bends in between point A and point B.IMPORTANT: Do not let your partner see your line!
52. Decide who will be the first “teacher” and who will be the first “learner.” 3. Have the learner pick up his/her writing utensil, close his/her eyes, and keep them closed through the remainder of the activity.4. The teacher should put his/her paper in front of the learner and place the learner’s hand on the starting point (point A). The teacher must now figure out a way to guide the learner along the correct path from point A to point B.There’s only one restriction: Once the teacher places the learner’s hand on the starting point, he/she cannot touch the learner’s hand again!The goal is to have the learner trace the exact same oath from point A to point B that the teacher did. In other words, the learner’s line and the teacher’s line should overlap.5. When you finish, take a minute to reflect on your experience as a teacher or learner. Make some notes in the Initial Reflection Box and then share your thoughts with your partner.
6What might we want to do differently this time? And why? p66. Change roles with your partner and repeat the task. Before you begin, collaborate amongst yourselves to determine what “Teacher 2” could do differently so as to be even more successful. Jot down some of your ideas in the Teacher Collaboration Box below.What might we want to do differently this time? And why?
7What role did establishing and maintaining focus play in this activity? What role did collaboration between teachers play in this activity?What role did reflection play in this activity?What role did the ability to adapt play in this activity?How did the teacher’s practice of these four behaviors (collaboration, reflection, adaptation, and focus) influence the thoughtfulness and quality of instruction? The learner’s ability to succeed?Make some notes to yourself on page 7
8What did we learn from our colleagues that we can apply to co-teaching? Make a list at your tableHow can we get these points to “stick”?
9p85% of learners will transfer a new skill into their practice as a result of learning a theory10% of learners will transfer a new skill into their practice as a result of learning a theory & seeing a demonstration20% of learners will transfer a new skill into their practice as a result of theory, demonstration & practice during the training25% of learners will transfer a new skill into their practice as a result of theory, demonstration, practice & corrective feed back during the training90% of learners will transfer a new skill into their practice as a result of theory, demonstration, practice, feed back during training and coachingBruce Joyce, 1987
104 Key elements to co-teaching... p94 Key elements to co-teaching...1. two or more professionals working together in a classroom2. instruction occurs within the same physical space3. sharing of teaching responsibilities4. instruction is provided to a heterogeneous group of students2 Teachers Part 1
11Co-teaching is a service delivery model Co-teaching is a service delivery model. It has gained quite a bit of attention in the United States in the last few years as they attempt to meet the legislative requirements of NCLB and IDEA. This legislation emphasizes that students will special needs should have access to the general education curriculum and be taught by highly qualified teachers.Co-teaching is a model that is based on the philosophy of inclusion. This philosophy believes that all students can learn and should be welcomed and accepted members of a learning community. It supports students with disabilities being educated along side their non-disabled peers.Co-teaching also supports collaboration among professionals, in this case between general educators and special educators. There is a great deal of literature that suggests that collaboration among professionals (i.e.., learning communities) has significant potential for improving student outcomes. In fact, Friend and Pope say…“Educators must pull together by sharing their work through collaboration; too much knowledge and too many skills are needed for any single professional to keep up with and master all of them.”2 Teachers - Part 2
16collaboration inclusion teaming team teaching mainstreaming Definitionscollaborationinclusionteamingteam teachingmainstreamingjob sharingco-teachingQuickly in pairs or trios - not whole tables - DO NOT LOOK AHEAD IN THE PACKETThen - discuss eachAsk yourself if you completely understood the terms based on the discussions
17Although it is generally preferred that co-teaching be collaborative, it might or might not be. Collaboration generally refers to how individuals interact, not the activity they’re doing. Thus, any activity—including co-teaching, problem solving, and consultation--may or may not be collaborative.
18Collaboration an ongoing process whereby professionals with different expertise voluntarily work together to create solutions to problems that are impeding student’s success, as well as to carefully monitor and refine those solutions.Collaboration is enhanced by trust, respect, openness, and clear communication among the participants.Collaboration is a process rather than a specific service delivery model.- Knackendoffel
19Although co-teaching is integral to the inclusive practices in many schools, it is not a requirement for inclusion to occur. Inclusion refers to a broad belief system or philosophy embracing the notion that all students should be welcomed members of a learning community, that all students are part of their classrooms even if their abilities differ.
20The term team teaching is often used to describe the situation in which two general education teachers combine classes and share instruction. In an elementary school, this might occur when two fourth grade teachers decide to open the portable that divides their rooms and teach the entire group as one. In a secondary school, this might occur when an English teacher anda history teacher combine two classes to present an American studies course. Co-teaching is different from this type of team teaching in two important ways: First, in co-teaching the teacher-student ratio is drastically improved. Second, in co-teaching, two significantly different orientations toward teaching are blended. Finally, team teaching in the middle school literature often refers to a process for planning interdisciplinary instruction, but not sharing instructional delivery.
21Mainstreaming refers to the practice of educating students with special needs in regular classes during specific time periods based on their skill. This means regular educationclasses are combined with special education classes. Schools that practice mainstreaming believe that special needs students who cannot function in a regular classroom to a certain extent “belong” to the special education environment.
22Job Sharing is an employment arrangement where two people are retained on a part-time or reduced basis to fulfill the job normally performed by one person. Collaboration is implicit in the performance of the job to ensure that there is continuity in the classroom.
23That’s our job today – define co-teaching as it fits our needs.
24Co-teaching is a proactive approach to education Co-teaching is a proactive approach to education. Co-teaching pairs general and special educators. Co-teaching takes place in heterogeneous, integrated settings. Co-teachers are simultaneously present in the classroom setting. Co-teachers maintain joint responsibility for classroom instruction. Co-teachers work in a coactive and coordinated fashion. Co-teachers design instruction to meet the needs of all students in the class.
25What do you see when we see co-teaching in action? Nissittissit
26Preparing to co-teachThe role of the principalThe roles of the co-teachersImages of co-teachingPlanningInstructingAssessingTroubleshooting
27Belief in a collaborative school culture Commitment to inclusive practicesUnderstanding of co-teachingVisible remindersAssigning partnersObserving implementationProfessional developmentProblem solving when dilemmas occurCommunicating beyond the schoolLetters to parents
28Co-teaching is a service delivery mechanism. Two or more professionals with equivalent licensure and employment status are the participants in co- teaching.Co-teachers share instructional responsibility and accountability for a single group of students for whom they both have ownership.Co-teaching occurs primarily in a shared classroom or workspace.Co-teachers’ specific level of participation may vary based on their skills and the instructional needs of the student group.
29Co-Teaching is not:One teacher—typically the general educator—acting as the main teacher with the special educator in the role of “helper.”The special educator only working with the students with disabilities.The general educator only working with the students without disabilities.Two teachers who take alternating turns teaching their students.Solely a way to help the students with disabilities.Planned at the last minute or improvised.
33One instructs, one observes and collects data Roles should not be staticTeachers should create systematic method for taking down observations
34CautionsBenefitsOne of the advantages in co-teaching is that more detailed observation of students engaged in the learning process can occur. With this approach, for example, co-teachers can decide in advance what types of specific observational information to gather during instruction and can agree on a system for gathering the data. Afterward, the teachers should analyze the information together.
35Students rotate around stations Divide and concurStudents rotate around stationsTeachers offer support to all studentsOne of the approaches of co-teaching is station teaching. Station teacher involves two teachers who divide the content of the lesson into two sections. Each teacher then teaches content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third station could give the students an opportunity to work independently in a small group, but all students receive instruction from both teachers.This approach allows for small group instruction and may be used frequently in the classroom if each station’s content can be taught independently from the other and the sequence of the instruction presented is inconsequential. The groups can be identified based on need for differentiation, accommodations, modifications, interest level, behaviors, or ability level.
37Split the class into two heterogeneous groups Joint planningSplit the class into two heterogeneous groupsDiversity in both groupsAnother approach which may be used frequently is parallel teaching. The teachers divide the class into two groups. Each teacher teaches the same content to one group which allows for increased supervision as well as increased opportunities for students to respond to teacher led instruction.For this model to be successful, both teachers need to be qualified to teach the content material being taught and be able to pace instruction accordingly. As with station teaching, this approach maximizes student participation and allows the teachers to group the students as needed.
39Small group of students receives separate instruction Teachers’ roles should not be staticSmall group membership and composition should be fluidAlternative Teaching is an approach that should be used sparingly to avoid the perception of being a special needs pullout within the classroom. In this approach, one teacher leads the class in instruction, while the second teacher takes a small group of students to provide intervention or for acceleration of content. It may be a small group of students who have been absent for a couple of days and missed specific content, or it may be a group of students who, based on the assignment need to review the concept. It might also be a group of students who would benefit from pre-teaching before getting the information with the entire class. For a group of accelerated learners, alternative teaching may take the form of further in-depth analysis and application of the content.
41Both teachers are responsible for planning and share in the instruction of all students The final approach we will discuss is the team teaching approach. In this approach both teachers are in the front of the room and are fully engaged in co-leading the delivery of core instruction. This approach may be used as frequently as appropriate, with the caveat that it does not eliminate the practice of flexible grouping.
43one teacher teaches while the other supports in instructional process The approach that most co-teachers are familiar with and seem comfortable with is One Teach-One Assist. This is when one teacher is teaching the content to the whole class, while the second teacher assists. Both teachers can share these roles and responsibilities for working with students over time, in such a way that the distinction between the generalist and specialist is not obvious.The assisting teacher can serve one of two roles, depending on the need. The teacher assisting might be sitting with one or two students who need to be supported to ensure understanding, or may be collecting data for monitoring student progress.However, this approach is most effectively implemented if used routinely in conjunction with the other 4 approaches.
46Co-teaching BenefitsLower teacher – student ratioClassroom of diverse learnersTeachers can respond effectively to varied needs of studentsAnother professional can provide different viewpoints and more ideas for instructionTeachers can be motivational for one anotherCo-teaching can positively affect the general educator’s instructional behavior
47Barriers/Cautions Lack of administrative support Lack of shared planning timeNeed for in-service trainingPersonality matches – the relationship between co-teachers is critical to successMisguided perceptions and/or lack of communicationPoorly defined roles / unclear expectationsDividing the class based on SPED and non-SPED students
48“Virtually every treatise on inclusive practices…concludes that inclusion’s success, in large part, relies on collaboration among staff members and with parents and others, and that failures can typically be traced to shortcomings in the collaborative dimension of the services to students.”Friend, 2000
49Let’s Practice... Writing a Persuasive Essay Lesson Objective:Write an interesting leadtake a positionprovide examples and details to support your positionWrite detailed counterargumentsWrite effective conclusionsChoose one of the six models of co-teaching that you will put into practice.Tell what it would look like in the classroom if you were to be teaching students to Write a Persuasive Essay
50Topic:Your principal suddenly bans the selling of chocolate milk in the cafeteria because he/she thinks it is not healthy.The students revolt!Write a persuasive essay to convince the principal that he/she is right or wrong in this decision.
51Reflection:Does one approach seem more appropriate for this lesson?Why or why not?Can you see yourself in one of these settings?What would you change, if anything?There is no RIGHT or WRONG way to co-teach.No one way works all the time, nor should it.The content of the day, along eith the skill set of the teachers, drives the decision on a day-to-day, class-by-class basis.
52Topics for Co-Teachers to Discuss Instructional content and expectations for students Planning, including time to do it and who does what Instructional format, including who will do which part of the instructional delivery Parity, or how it will be clear that both educators have the same status in the classroom Space, related to both students and teachers Noise and each educator’s tolerance for it Instructional routines Organizational routinesThe definition of “help”Discipline procedures for the classroomSafety mattersFeedback, including when and how to discuss issues with each otherStudent evaluation, including gradingTeaching chores, such as grading, duplicating, assignment preparation, and so onResponsibilities and procedures for substitutesConfidentialityPet peevesPut 17 numbers around the room and have people discuss the topics
53PET PEEVESWhat are your pet peeves about teaching and learning and how might they influence a positive co- teaching experience?
54Guidelines for Co-Teaching not evaluativeshare an understanding of goalssupportive – analyze what might have contributed to this outcomeinteractions confidentialfocus can change to meet the needs of the teachersemphasizes probing questions as opposed to directive suggestionsopportunities to engage in planning as well as reflectionparity
55Classroom and Behavior Management Considerations Learning environmentUse of space for instructionNoise – strategies for keeping noise at an acceptable levelOrganizational routinesProcedures for substitute teachersClassroom Norms (rules)Discipline procedures
56Fears spring from beliefs! Fear of MAKING MISTAKESFear of LOOKING LIKE A FOOLFear of HAVING A WEAKNESS EXPOSEDFear of NOT BEING LIKEDFear of FAILUREFears spring from beliefs!
57Honest, Open Communication The lynchpin of a strong culture.It doesn’t mean saying just what is on your mind.It means creating the conditions, so others can say what they are thinking (straight talk)where people can be listened to, and when necessary, disagree agreeably (non-defensive)where administrators and teachers learn to read and understand how emotions impact working relationships and performance (self-awareness and social awareness)Where everyone takes responsibility for the mistakes they make, thus improving the chances to learn from them.
58Safe Talk Straight Talk Hints at the real issue and is often unspecific, non-instructiveAccurately saying what needs to be said to whom it needs to be said, at the time it needs to be saidBegins with a goal to not hurt or be hurtBehaviorally specific, goal-focused and compassionateFocused on avoiding discomfort and/or conflictSensitively timed, usually “in the moment”Rarely proactive and rarely supported by meaningful dataObjectively serves the speaker, the listener, the organization
59What is getting in the way of the collaboration? Raise some co-teaching scenarios that require straight talk. Keep in mind as you consider solutions:What is the problem?What is getting in the way of the collaboration?What suggestions do you have for addressing the issue?How will you start the conversation?What will you respond?What will you do next?small groups - participants raise issues and follow plan above.IE: TIME