2 Participants should be able to: Define co-teaching and distinguish it from other concepts related to inclusive practices;Explain the rationale for co-teaching, the benefits and pitfalls;
3 Participants should be able to: Discuss how collaboration enhances co-teaching and outline strategies for developing a collaborative co-teaching relationship;Clarify the personal, pedagogical and discipline-specific qualities and skills that co-teachers need to possess;
4 Participants should be able to: Apply six approaches for co-teaching to classroom practice and outline issues that co-teachers should periodically discuss to monitor and enhance their practice.Know how to evaluate and improve their co-teaching practices.
5 Research-Based Practice Material presented today will be based on research by:Co-teaching Marilyn FriendChange Margaret WheatleyInterpersonal Styles Anita DeBoerCo-planning Lisa A. DiekerMarilyn Friend - Her particular areas of interest include skills for collaboration, co-teaching, inclusive school practices, team building, shared problem solving, interpersonal communication, conflict and controversy, and home-school communication.Margaret Wheatley – Leadership and the New ScienceAnita DeBoer – Working Together, and Interpersonal Styles –Lisa A. Dieker – Co - Planning
6 What is co-teaching?ACTIVITY – Table tents or turn to partner
7 Defining Co-TeachingCo-teaching occurs when two or more professionals jointly deliver substantive instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of students in a single physical space.Cook and Friend, 1995Go over handout 1 (H1): “Co-Teaching, What it IS, what it is NOT.”This handout is shown on the next slide to help participants locate it intheir packets. Allow 5 minutes to discuss this handout.Interestingly, co-teaching originated in the field of general educationand has only recently been applied as a way to provide services tostudents with disabilities.
8 What is co-teaching?Co-teaching is first and foremost an approach for meeting the educational needs of students with diverse learning abilities.Cook & Friend, 1995
9 What is co-teaching?Co-teaching is a service delivery option for providing special education or related services to students with disabilities or other special needs while they remain in their general education classes.Friend & Cook2007
10 What is co-teaching?Co-teaching occurs when two or more teachers, one general educator and the other a special service provider (e.g. special education, related services, ELL, reading) share physical space in order to actively instruct a blended group of students, including students with disabilities.Share physical space
11 What’s the difference? Co-teaching Class-within-a-class Collaboration Paraprofessional Assigned to ClassHandout done, Think-Pair-Share
12 Co-teaching Vs. Other Delivery Options Who plans the lessons?Who provides the instruction to all students?Do both teachers interact with all parents, or are students divided into groups (yours and mine)?Who determines grades for all students?Who makes adaptations and does follow up?
13 Co-teaching is a service delivery system, in which: Two (or more) professionally credentialed staffShare instructional responsibilityFor a single group of studentsPrimarily in a single classroom or workspace
14 Co-teaching Definition (continued) To teach required curriculumWith mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountabilityAlthough each individual’s level of participation may vary.Marilyn Friend (2007)
15 Co-teaching is not: An extra set of hands in the classroom; The general education teacher providing instruction as if she or he was teaching alone while the special educator roams;Two individuals taking turns teaching;
16 Co-teaching is not:An individual pulling a small group of students aside to deliver instruction completely separate from that being provided to the rest of the class.Shoring up incompetent staff.
17 Co-teaching will not resolve issues of incompetent staff…
18 Why co-teach?Teachers with different specialties, e.g. general and special education, can better meet the needs of a diverse population of students.“Co-teaching should result in direct instructional and social benefits for students who have IEPs.”Friend and Cook, 2007
19 Why co-teach?Special educators have developed a tendency to “own” students on IEPs which decreases participation of general ed teachers in collaborative problem solvingGeneral educators have more ownership when they have background knowledge and a chance to participate in the decisions
20 Pros of Co-Teaching All children learn from each other Typical children become more accepting of individual differencesImproved self-esteem for special needs studentsAll students exposed to a variety of teaching styles and strategiesStudents have role models
21 Pros of Co-TeachingProvides for highly qualified teachers in the least restrictive environmentProvides a “strategies expert” for ALL students who are having difficultyStudents become active learners through frequent interaction and feedback.
22 Student Benefits of Co-Teaching Cohesive programming occurs when connections are made between students’ individual needs and the regular classroom curriculum.Individualization of instruction increases.
23 Student Benefits of Co-Teaching Research indicates that special education students score higher on achievement tests when they are exposed to content knowledge in a regular education classroom.
24 Why co-teaching? Why now? IDEA and NCLB requirementsGives students access to highly qualified subject- matter teachers (HQT)Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)Access to general education curriculumAdequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
25 Why co-teaching? Why now? Wider range of instructional alternatives for all studentsReduces fragmentation of learningEnhances the participation of students with special needs as full classroom members
26 Why co-teaching? Why now? Creates conditions in which students with disabilities and other groups can make AYPProvides powerful support for the professionals who teachReduces stigma for students
27 It’s not about us (the educators); it’s about them (the students).
28 Think of special education as a service, not a place.
29 Inclusive Schools. . .Don’t ask, “How does this student have to change in order to be in this class?” But rather, “How do we have to change in order to offer full membership to our students with disabilities?”
30 How can co-teaching help meet students’ needs? Can any one teacher meet the educational, social and physical needs of all students?
31 Benefits of Co-Teaching Shared responsibility for educating all studentsShared understanding and use of common assessment dataShared ownership for programming and interventionsShare the following:Working together can be very exciting. For as much as we may acquire high levels of knowledge and experience on our own, increasing the interaction with others within and across education creates opportunities for learning beyond these traditional boundaries and encourages learning as a system. Instead of “what can each of us do for OUR kids,” it becomes “what can we do together for ALL kids.”
32 Benefits of Co-Teaching Creating common understandingTeachers learn from each otherCollegial relationships are created along with professional development
33 Benefits of Co-Teaching Resources are sharedManagement strategies are more consistent with frequent feedbackIndividualization of instruction is fostered with multiple views of the students
34 Challenges Must provide team planning time High ratios of students-teachersPeople’s perceptions and expectationsSpeed of curriculumBehaviorScheduling issues
35 Building BridgesWalking across the bridge, leaving the familiar ground of working alone, is the first act of collaboration. All parties are on neutral territory, with the security of knowing they can return to land better, stronger and changed. And perhaps they will return to the same side of the bridge even though they started from opposite sides.Teaching is a very isolated profession. We can shut our classroomdoors and make it our own safe haven. To open your door is the firststep, and an important one that should be recognized and valued. Ittakes some courage to be willing and open to the possibility of sharingyour classroom with another professional. Also, ground rules must bein place. To feel safe walking out the door and onto the bridge, wehave to know that the bridge is safe territory. It has to be clear that noone is going to try to shake us off or to force us to retreat, nor will wedo that to anyone who joins us on the bridge. And if it doesn’t workout or if it’s just not comfortable, we can always go back to safeground—no harm done. But hopefully we can get both parties to thesame side of the bridge and to work together.Steele, Bell, & George, 2005
36 Points to Ponder What has been your experience with co-teaching? What role is co-teaching playing in your schools’ efforts to address the requirements of NCLB and IDEA?When you think about co-teaching, what are the concerns or questions you have?
38 Co –teaching Approaches One Teach, One ObserveStation TeachingParallel TeachingAlternative TeachingTeam TeachingOne Teach, One AssistThere are 5 teaching models in co-teaching.Interactive TeachingLead & SupportStation TeachingParallel TeachingAlternative Teaching
43 One Teach, One Observe Benefits: Opportunity for observation of students and data collectionJointly decided specifics to observe and analyze in advanceBoth professionals should discuss the results of the observationsDeepen understanding of each other’s teaching stylesRequires little joint planning
44 One Teach, One Observe Drawbacks, if used to excess: Special service provider is relegated to the role of assistantStudents do not see teachers as having equivalent responsibility and authorityRecommended Use:Periodic (5-10%)
45 Station TeachingStudents in groups of three or more rotate to various teacher-led and independent work stations where new instruction, review, and/or practice is provided. Students may work at all stations during the rotation
46 Teacher 2Group 2Teacher 1Computer centerSilent readingProject tableAssessment tableGroup 3Group 1Students move rotating to each group
47 Station Teaching Benefits: Involves both educators in instruction Enables a clear division of labor for planning and teachingAllows for different teaching stylesStudents benefit from a lower teacher-pupil ratioStudents with disabilities are integrated into groups, rather than singled out
48 Station Teaching Drawbacks: Noise and movement within the classroom Teachers or students may be distracted by two teachers talking in the classroom at the same time.Teachers need to think about how to divide instruction. Hierarchical material cannot be presented using this approach.Lessons must be timed so groups can move as scheduled.Recommended Use: Frequent (30-40%)
49 Parallel TeachingStudents are divided into two heterogeneous groups. Each partner teaches a group essentially the same material.
50 Teacher 1Both teachers teach the same content in the same room simultaneouslyTeacher 2
51 Parallel Teaching Benefits: Lowers the teacher-student ratio, while insuring diversity in each group;Is good for review, drill-and-practice activities, topics needing student discussion, or projects needing close teacher supervision.
52 Parallel Teaching Drawbacks: Cannot be used for initial instruction unless both educators are qualified to teach the material (primarily at the high school level)Noise and activity levels need to be monitored;Teachers need to pace instruction similarlyRequires that both teachers are familiar with content and how to teach itRecommended Use:Frequent (30-40%)
53 Alternative TeachingOne teacher works with a small group of students, while the other instructs the large group in some content or activity that the small group can afford to miss.
55 Alternative Teaching Benefits: Provides highly intensive instruction; Ensures that all students get to interact with a teacher in a small group;May assist with reducing behavior problems with some students;
56 Alternative Teaching Drawbacks: Students with disabilities may be stigmatized by being grouped repeatedly for preteaching or re-teachingEach teacher must take turns working with the small group or may be viewed as an assistantThe same students must not repeatedly selected for the small group. Documentation must be kept so all students may participateRecommended Use:Occasional (20-30%)
57 Team TeachingPartners plan and share instruction of all students, whether it occurs in a large group, in monitoring students working independently, or in facilitating groups of students working on shared projects.Marilyn Friend
63 One Teach, One Assist Benefits: Allows for individual and classroom support during a lessonAllows for more effective and efficient instruction while one can check student responses and carry out management tasks such as distributing materials
64 One Teach, One Assist Drawbacks: Has the greatest potential to be over-used and abused, with little benefit to the students over a traditional, one-teacher classroomMay distract students from attending to the teacher during instructionRecommended Use:Seldom (<20%, <10% is better)
65 Concerns to ExpectSpecial ed teacher is intimidated by the content and protective of students with IEPsContent teacher is intimidated by wider range of students’ needs or over turf issues
66 Concerns to Expect Philosophical differences between teachers Lack of enough planning timeQuestions from parents
67 Sources of FailureFailing to distinguish clearly among the roles of the various adults who might be in the classroom---teachers, related service providers, paraprofessionals, student teachers, volunteers.Basing co-teaching on the preferences of the staff rather than on clear standards, expectations and the needs of the students.
68 Sources of FailureTeachers lack personal prerequisites, e.g. ability to give up control.Teachers lack pedagogical prerequisites, e.g. failure to understand the educational process and culture.Teachers lack professional prerequisites, e.g. expertise in their discipline.
69 Sources of Failure Teachers lack a collaborative relationship There are no specific plans for accomplishing their goals.Lack of planning/designing instructionFailure to implement instruction and co-teaching with fidelity
70 Selecting A Co-Teaching Approach Student characteristics and needsTeacher characteristics and needsCurriculum, including content and instructional strategiesPragmatic considerationsPage 16 of MF handout 2007
71 Co-teaching ModelsWhich of the 6 co-teaching models do you see yourself using within the next month?What lesson(s) would be most effective for utilizing the selected co-teaching model?What needs to happen prior to using this model with students?How are you going to evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson and model?
72 Periods of Change Are Not Easy. . . Requires commitment to alter practiceNo change is completely orderlyRequires a period of “chaos” from which the new practices evolveStrive for “planned change”Margaret WheatleyLeadership and the New Science
73 We can’t do what we’ve always done and expect better results. To improve, you must change what you are currently doing.Get rid of some old habitsLearn some new strategiesTo have all students LEARN, we must change what we do in education.
74 Change is about RESULTS Webster defines “results” as “a measurable success”
75 If you want different results… Start with the END GOALWhat do you want the end results to be?Ask, “What steps are needed to reach our goal?”
76 To get different results Must have a shift in thinkingMust do something differentResults are about CHANGEDefinition of InsanityDoing what you’ve always done and expecting different results.Albert Einstein
77 Fundamental change is. . .Giving up some of the past which results in a new way of doing our work—a change in performance.“If you continue to think the way you’ve always thought, you’ll continue to get what you’ve always gotten.”Unknown
78 Changes with co-teaching As you embark on co-teaching, what changes do you anticipate that you will need to make?What are your personal concerns?What steps can you take to be proactive in resolving these concerns with your co-teacher(s)?
79 What makes a successful team? Individual Prerequisites:Can work effectively with another adultSense of humorWillingness to set aside differencesSet of common knowledge and skillsDiscipline-specific knowledge and skills
80 What makes a successful team? Shared philosophy/core beliefsThe professional relationship is based on:ParityCommunicationRespectTrust
81 What makes a successful team? Co-teachers make a commitment to building and maintaining their professional relationship.
82 What are some of your beliefs? Compare ideas about management strategies. How are you alike and how are you different?Consider items such as:Noise levelMovement in the classroomUse of whiteboards and other resourcesCompare ideas on:AssignmentsHomeworkTeaching methodsTeaching strategies etc.Grading
83 Common beliefsConsider factors which will influence the co-teaching experience. Which beliefs would enhance or impede the co-teaching process?If you and your partner differ, how are you going to work together to make co-teaching work?
84 Co-teachers thought the following were critical: Teachers should have a voice in choosing their teaching partners;Teachers’ ability to get along was a critical factor in co-teaching success.Keefe, Moore & Duff Study (2004)
85 Effective Co-Planning Mention the following points:• Adequate planning time is among the top concerns for co-teaching teams.• This is an additional concern for special educators who work with more than one general educator.• The need for planning time is a systemic barrier, requiring administrative action at the school and/or district level.
86 Planning for Instruction Teachers need shared planning time, macro and on-going.Always have an agenda for shared planning meetings.Realize there will never be “enough” time.
87 Planning for Instruction This is where the alignment of special, ELL and general education occursMake this time as focused as possibleTake turns taking the lead in planning and facilitatingShare the following:As we talk about pre-planning and planning, I realize that it may cause some stress or anxiety in terms of how to fit it all in. However, althoughit may be some extra work at the beginning, if you do it, it WILL make your life easier down the road.Planning is essential. Planning should center on determining which instructional techniques are going to be the most effective in helpingstudents meet content standards.• The general educator can provide an overview of the content, curriculum, and standards to be addressed before the planning meeting.• The special educator should provide an overview of any student IEP goals, objectives, and needed accommodations or modifications that have tobe incorporated into the lessons.• Planning sessions should focus on what is going to be taught (the content) and how it will be taught. Student-specific concerns shouldbe saved for the end of the planning session.• Several pre-made co-teaching plan books are commercially available and may be helpful to structure lessons.• Include days when the special educator will take the lead in planning.
88 Provide Weekly Scheduled Co- Planning Time Co-Teaching teams should have a minimum of one scheduling/planning period (45 – 60 min/week).Experienced teams should spend 10 minutes to plan each lesson.Dieker,2001;Walther-Thomas,Bryant,& Land 1996
89 Weekly Co-PlanningEffective weekly co-planning is based on regularly scheduled meetings, rather than “fitting it in”.Important to stay focusedReview content in advance of meeting
90 Weekly Co-PlanningGuide the session with the following fundamental issues:What are the content goals?Who are the learners?How can we teach most effectively?
91 Agenda for Planning Meetings The general education teacher should prepare a brief overview of curricular concepts to be addressed.The co-teachers should decide how they will address the content using co-teaching approaches.
92 Agenda for Planning Meetings Teachers should determine the challenges for students and brainstorm ideas for differentiating instruction.The last topic on the agenda concerns individual students.Friend and Cook, 2007
93 Make a Plan Draw 4 columns on your paper. Label each as follows: What do we need to do?Who will do it?By when will it be done?What’s the product or outcome?With your co-teacher, begin the planning process.
94 ConsiderationsEliminate or change titles, e.g. both are “teachers” or use neutral language such as “generalist” and “interventionist”Eliminate divisive language, e.g. your kids, my kids or “my room”Get both teachers’ names on the report cards, letters home and other correspondenceVary who gives instructions or takes the leadBe aware of seating and grouping arrangements
95 Definition of Collaboration Collaboration is a style for interaction between equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal.
96 Col labor ation Collaboration means. . . Two equal participants who labor togetherCol labor ation
97 Be a collaborator. . . Believe in the benefits of co-teaching Work together as a teamUse each other’s strengths
98 Defining Characteristics Mutual trustMutual respectEstablishment of a sense of communityContributions are equally valuedEqual power in decision makingShared responsibility, accountability, and resources
99 What Song Defines Your Co-Teaching Relationship?
102 A thought in closing. . .Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skillful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.New York Times Ad, 1939