Presentation on theme: "Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1 Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication Guatemala City, GuatemalaMarch 2014
2 Risk Communication vs Emergency Communication During emergencies public health responders must effectively ensure the following types of communicationInstitutionalIntra-inter-agencies/institutions, across levelsInter-sectorialOperationalTo health care workers and respondents (e.g. alerts, guidance documentsTo ensure the coordination of the responseTo the public (risk communication)
3 Health crisis are unique Extremely time pressuringUnpredictable & unfoldingSocially and economically disruptiveBehaviour–centred & anxiety generatorInvolving multiple stakeholdersShifting from national to internationalContext of risk communication - Health emergency is the "eye of the storm", and swirling around political, economic and cultural forces, which do the most damage. The primary goal of risk communication is to reduce the damage from these forces and speed the outbreak control.
4 Risk Communication Working Group, March 2009, Lyon Communicating during crisis is a capacity requirement under the IHRUnder the IHR, risk communication includes a range of interventions through preparedness, response and recovery of a health crisis forinformed decisionspositive behaviour interventionsmaintenance of trustto minimize its public health impact.More trustful, timely, transparent communications are required under the IHRCountries have committed themselves to notify any event that may constitute a public health emergencies of international concern.WHO confidential but pro-active verification with countries of unofficial reports creates incentives for greater openness.Risk communication is an integral component of public health risk management. It is focused on dialogue with those affected and concerned, and strives to ensure communication strategies are evidence based.Under the IHR, risk communication for public health emergencies includes the range of communication capacities required through the preparedness, response and recovery phases of a serious public health event to encourage informed decision making, positive behaviour change and the maintenance of trust.Risk Communication Working Group, March 2009, Lyon
5 Risk assessment Risk perception Risk communication Risk management Risk communication fills the gap between Risk assessment and Risk perception and is part of Risk management.Risk management
6 Do we have a shared understanding of ‘risk communication’?Risk Communication – Outbreak Communication – Crisis Communication – Emergency Communication - Information – Education - Communication – Public Awareness – Public Education – Social Mobilization – Community Mobilization – Advocacy – Information Officer – Media Officer – Communication Officer – Reporting Officer – Advocacy Officer - Development Support Communication – Pandemic Communication – Animal Health Communication – Human Health Communication – Media Relations – Donor Relations – Corporate Relations – External Relations – Public Relations - Risk Communication – Outbreak Communication – Crisis Communication – Emergency Communication - Behaviour Change Communication – Development Communication – Participatory Communication – Programme Communication – Information – Education - Communication – Public Awareness – Public Education – Social Mobilization – Community Mobilization – Advocacy – Information Officer – Media Officer – Communication Officer – Reporting Officer – Advocacy Officer - Development Support Communication – Pandemic Communication – Animal Health Communication – Human Health Communication – Media Relations – Donor Relations – Corporate Relations – External Relations – Public Relations - Risk Communication – Outbreak Communication – Behaviour Change Communication – Development Communication – Participatory Communication – Programme Communication – Information – Education - Risk Communication – Outbreak Communication – Crisis Communication – Emergency Communication - Behaviour Change Communication – Development Communication – Participatory Communication – Programme Communication – Information – Education - Communication – Public Awareness – Public Education – Social Mobilization – Community Mobilization - Risk Communication – Outbreak Communication – Crisis Communication – Emergency Communication - Behaviour Change Communication
8 IHR communication core capacity requires building up a communication plan and system during crises
9 Event management cycle Event detectionWHO believes that it is high time to acknowledgecrisis communicationas essential to outbreak control as epidemiological training and laboratory analysis.Risk assessmentCrisis communicationEvaluationControl measures
10 WHO crisis communication guidance started in 2004 Expert consultation on Outbreak Communication (2004)WHO evidence-based communication guidance (2004)Outbreak Communication Planning Guide (2008)Communication for behavioural impact (COMBI) (2012)SARS 2003 and Avian Influenza 2004COMBI - This interagency (FAO, UNICEF, WHO) toolkit will be useful for anyone wanting to design effective outbreak prevention and control measures in community settings. Although, this toolkit is primarily intended for risk communication, developmental communication and health promotion/education personnel working in multidisciplinary teams to investigate and respond to disease outbreaks, it will also be useful for epidemiologists, clinicians, and public health officers who need to understand the local contexts and dynamics of an outbreak. It is based on the premise that each outbreak is unique, and community understanding of diseases and their spread is complex, context dependent, and culturally-mediated. Therefore, a one-size-fits-all response is not sufficient.The toolkit contains a 7-step approach, with corresponding tools, checklists and templates for designing behavioural and communication interventions that support the development of outbreak prevention and control measures that are not only technically-sound, but are also culturally appropriate, relevant and feasible for communities to act upon - to limit loss of life and minimize disruption to families, communities and societies.The toolkit contains essential background information, case studies, and further references. It is to be used in conjunction with the “COMBI toolkit: field workbook for COMBI planning steps in outbreak response”.Literature & field experience
11 « The overriding goal for outbreak communication is to communicate with the public in ways that build, maintain or restore Trust »Builds upon the outbreak guidelines. The emphasis on trust, or source credibility, has been echoed in every guideline on emergency risk communication. Although all effective communication relies to some degree on perceived credibility of message source, social science research provides some reason for us to believe that, as the emergency communication guidelines say, it may be even more important during an emergency.WHO Outbreak Communication Guidelines
12 Trust is the public perception of Your motivesAre the risk managers acting to safeguard my health?Your honestyAre the risk managers holding back information?Your skillsAre the risk managers skilled enough to do the job?
13 Trust is the pillar of outbreak control « …the less people trust those who are supposed to protect them, the more afraid the public will be and less likely they will be to conform their choices and behavior with outbreak management instructions ».WHO Outbreak Communication Guidelines
14 The internal trust relationship is the “Trust Triangle” Building trust is also an internal processTrust is essential betweencommunicators and policy makers;communicators and technical responders.Technical respondersCommunicatorsTrustPolicy makersTrust is essential betweencommunicators and policy makers, as trust-building measures are often counter-intuitive;communicators and technical responders, as these may not value communication as a tool to control the outbreak.The internal trust relationship is the “Trust Triangle”
15 Crisis Communication - Core Capacity Components 1. Transparency and early announcement of a real or potential risk2. Public communicationcoordinationPLANNINGTransparency and Early announcement - « Maintaining the public's trust throughout an outbreak requires transparency ». «The parameters of trust are established in the outbreak's first official announcement ».Listening - « Understanding the public is critical to effective communication. (…) it is nearly impossible to design successful messages that bridge the gap between the expert and the public without knowing what the public thinks »Planning -is a core ability that is central to the effective implementation of the four components.3. Information dissemination including media relations4. Listeningthrough dialogue
16 1. Transparency and Early announcement of a real or potential risk Those at real or potential risk can protect themselves;Trust between authorities populations and partners is maintained and strengthened.The management of information related to a health emergency, including the first announcement warning a population of a potential risk, and ongoing transparency of decision making, helps ensure that those at real or potential risk can protect themselves; and that trust between authorities, populations and partners is maintained and strengthened.
17 2. Public communication coordination Existing public communication resources are used;Messages are coordinated and confusion and overlap are reduced;Reach and influence of provided advice are strengthened.The cross-jurisdictional nature of public health emergencies demands that public health authorities be able to effectively engage and coordinate public communication with other involved organizations including designating roles and responsibilities of lead and supporting agencies. This capacity helps takes advantage of available public communication resources; allows for coordinated messaging reducing thepossibility of confusion and overlap; and strengthens the reach and influence of the advice provided.
18 3. Information dissemination including Media relations Rapid and effective dissemination of information is crucial during health crisis and mass media are the pillar of it.Not only media!Health care workers;Local and religious leaders;Citizens’ representatives;SMSSocial media;Internet;Toll-free telephone numbers;Door-to-door visitsThe extreme time pressure associated with emergencies, high demand for information, and the crucial role of advice and warning to minimize a threat makes the rapid and effective dissemination of information crucial during serious public health events. Mass Media relations remains a pillar of effective information dissemination, however, it is increasingly important to access other trusted information sources of the population group at risk, including new media channels, existing information sharing networks and non-traditional media.
19 4. Listening through dialogue Community perceptions of risks are understood;Adaptations to messages, materials and strategies are made;Effectiveness of communication efforts is ensured to support sound decision making.Listening to those affected and involved, in an organized and purposeful manner, is a crucial capacity to ensuring communication efforts are effective and support sound emergency management decision making. Understanding community perceptions of risk and then acting upon that understanding by making appropriate adaptationsto communication messages, materials and strategies demands a meaningful engagement with those affected and involved.Case study – Ebola in DRC
20 If crisis are difficult to predict, an outbreak communication strategy can be planned People respond to what outberak controllers do, not just to what they say.Crisis communication must be integrated in risk management form the start.AssessmentCoordinationTransparencyListeningCommunication evaluationEmergency communication planTraining
21 Crisis Communication - Lifecycle Pre-CrisisInitialResolutionExplainInformEstablish credibilityGuide actionCommit to communicationabout risksEducate for future responseIndividual actionSupport for relevant policiesPromote agency activitiesMaintenanceEvaluationPrepareMake alliancesAgree on recommendationsTest messagesFoster understanding of risksProvide backgroundFoster support for plansListenEmpowerEvaluate planLessons learnedIdentify improvement
22 Communication planning allows decision making What is the situation?Why communicate?To whom?How?When?Who?With what?How is it going on?How effective?Evaluate the situation in context and timeSet objectivesDefine target audience(s)Outline strategy, channels and toolsDraw a timeline of actionIdentify roles and partnersList human and economic resourcesMonitor communication impactAdjust the communication strategy
23 Gaps and challenges (from experience and feedback) General devaluation of communication, not seen as a science;Disconnect between technical and communication responders;Low recognition of crisis communication capacity needs before a crisis starts;Perception of crisis communication as an “add-on” not integrated in planning processes;Limited financial and human resources dedicated to communication planning;Unsuitability of planned procedures due to other sectors’ involvement and/or lead taken by the highest government’s level.Crisis communication is often listed last when it comes to risk management, which is not an accurate reflection of its importance.To be effective, crisis communication needs to be planned and initiated early in a risk assessment and to continue as an iterative process throughout all phases of the assessment.If this does not happen, risk assessment is easily perceived as a process of expert risk assessors advising stakeholders of the result of their assessment and their proposed management strategies.This topdown approach implies that communication is largely one-way and ignores the need for consultation throughout the whole process.Poor crisis communication can provoke outrage among stakeholders.
24 Crisis communication is designed for health crisis Extremely time pressuringUnpredictable & unfoldingSocially and economically disruptiveBehaviour–centred & anxiety generatorInvolving multiple stakeholdersShifting from national to internationalInformation disseminationDealing with uncertaintyCoordination - ListeningListeningCoordination
25 Crisis Communication Resources WHO Outbreak Communication Guidelines (2005)WHO Outbreak Communication Planning Guide (2008)WHO Communication for behavioural Impact (2012)CDC Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication ManualPAHO Risk and Outbreak Communication =1923&lang=en
26 Crisis Communication - Lifecycle Pre-CrisisInitialResolutionExplainInformEstablish credibilityGuide actionCommit to communicationabout risksEducate for future responseIndividual actionSupport for relevant policiesPromote agency activitiesMaintenanceEvaluationPrepareMake alliancesAgree on recommendationsTest messagesFoster understanding of risksProvide backgroundFoster support for plansListenEmpowerEvaluate planLessons learnedIdentify improvement
27 What the public seeks from your communication 5 public concerns. . .Gain wanted factsEmpower decisionmakingInvolved as a participant, not spectatorProvide watchguard over resource allocationRecover or preserve well-being and normalcy
28 Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication impacts 5 organizational concerns -- you need to. . .Execute response and recovery effortsDecrease illness, injury, and deathsAvoid misallocation of limited resourcesReduce rumors surrounding recoveryAvoid wasting resources
29 5 communication failures that kill operational success Mixed messages from multiple expertsInformation released latePaternalistic attitudesNot countering rumors and myths in real-timePublic power struggles and confusion
30 5 communication steps that boost operational success Execute a solid communication planBe the first source for informationExpress empathy earlyShow competence and expertiseRemain honest and open
32 What Do People Feel Inside When a Disaster Looms or Occurs? Psychological barriers:DenialFear, anxiety, confusion, dreadHopelessness or helplessnessSeldom panicDenial: Members of the community may experience denial for a variety of reasons. Some maysimply not receive a warning, have adequate information, or know about the recommendedactions. In other cases, the warning message may not be clear, or the person may seek furtherconfirmation. With some communities, this confirmation may involve additional factors, such asthe following:A need to consult community leaders or experts for specific opinionsThe desire to first know how others are respondingThe possibility that the warning message of the threat is so far outside the person’s experiencethat he or she simply can’t make sense of it—or just chooses to ignore itAn individual experiencing denial may not take recommended steps to protect life and safety until theabsolute last moments. In some cases, such as evacuations or vaccinations, these delayed responses may be too late.
33 Individuals at risk—the cost? Demands for unneeded treatmentDependence on special relationships (bribery)MUPS—Multiple Unexplained Physical SymptomsSelf-destructive behaviorsStigmatizationNegative ActionsMisallocation of TreatmentNeedless DestructionAccusation of Preferential TreatmentUnreasonable Travel/Trade RestrictionsFraudStealing/Looting (Group Behavior)Rumor SpreadingDoomsayingBribery for Scarce ResourcesSelf Destructive BehaviorMUPS
34 Communicating in a Crisis Is Different Public must feel empowered – reduce fear and victimizationMental preparation reduces anxietyTaking action reduces anxietyUncertainty must be addressed
35 Decisionmaking in a Crisis Is Different People simplifyCling to current beliefsWe remember what we see or previously experience (first messages carry more weight)People limit intake of new information (3-7 bits)
36 How Do We Communicate About Risk in an Emergency? All risks are not accepted equallyVoluntary vs. involuntaryControlled personally vs. controlled by othersFamiliar vs. exoticNatural vs. manmadeReversible vs. permanentStatistical vs. anecdotalFairly vs. unfairly distributedAffecting adults vs. affecting children
37 Be Careful With Risk Comparisons Are they similarly accepted based onhigh/low hazard (scientific/technical measure)high/low outrage (emotional measure)A. High hazardB. High outrageC. Low hazardD. Low outragePandemic influenza—high hazard, low outrageBioterrorism attack with plague—high hazard, high outragePertussis outbreak in elementary school—low hazard, low outrageHepatitis A outbreak among children who consumed USDA school lunch program frozen strawberries illegally imported to the U.S.—low hazard, high outrage.
38 Risk Acceptance Examples Dying by falling coconut or dying by sharkNatural vs. manmadeFairly vs. unfairly distributedFamiliar vs. exoticControlled by self vs. outside control of self
39 Emergency Risk Communication Principles Don’t overreassureAcknowledge that there is a process in placeExpress wishesGive people things to doAsk more of people
40 Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies When the news is good, state continued concern before stating reassuring updates“Although we’re not out of the woods yet, we have seen a declining number of cases each day this week.”“Although the fires could still be a threat, we have them 85% contained.”
41 Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies Under promise and over deliver . . .Instead of making promises about outcomes, express the uncertainty of the situation and a confident belief in the “process” to fix the problem and address public safety concerns.
42 Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies Allow people the right to feel fearDon’t pretend they’re not afraid, and don’t tell them they shouldn’t be.Acknowledge the fear, and give contextual information.
43 Six PrinciplesBe First: If the information is yours to provide by organizational authority—do so as soon as possible. If you can’t—then explain how you are working to get it.Be Right: Give facts in increments. Tell people what you know when you know it, tell them what you don’t know, and tell them if you will know relevant information later.Be Credible: Tell the truth. Do not withhold to avoid embarrassment or the possible “panic” that seldom happens. Uncertainty is worse than not knowing—rumors are more damaging than hard truths.
44 Six PrinciplesExpress Empathy: Acknowledge in words what people are feeling—it builds trust.Promote Action: Give people things to do. It calms anxiety and helps restore order.Show Respect: Treat people the way you want to be treated—the way you want your loved ones treated—always—even when hard decisions must be communicated.
46 Stigmatization Can affect product, industry, animal, place, people Four characteristics to stigmatizationProblem stigmatizer believes he can controlMust be distinguishableStigma associated with the partyReaction that distances
47 Why people stigmatizeShortcut when uncertainty and threat are both present to protect against physical and emotional harmOccurs in a social contextExpect it early in a severe influenza pandemic unless dominant group first to become ill
48 The toll of stigmatization Emotional pain (e.g., stress & anxiety)Limited access to health care, education, housing, and employmentPhysical violenceAffects minority groups differentlyPotential for group conflict (i.e., a group-level ethnocentric worldview)
49 Role for communication Communication must balance the real risk with needless association of an identifiable groupTake an active role in dispelling misperceptionsCorrect faulty assumptions
50 Steps before, during & after Avoid geographic links if not necessary (e.g., Spanish pandemic versus 1918 pandemic)Avoid visuals that link group to threat--watch out for subconscious links: Avian Influenza H5N1Teach response professionals about stigmaShare with media the concernScan for stigma and confront quicklyWatch out when creating historical products
52 Grief and mourning The circumstances of the death Nature of the relationship to deceasedPrior loss experienceSecondary lossesGrieving is done in a cultural context
53 Severe outbreak and loss Multiple deaths in familiesTruncated bereavement ritualsPotential for kinship from shared miseryResponders could feel guilt
54 Compassion in communication People will expect demographic details of first deaths (“How do I compare?”)Look of official reports must be respectful (web)Responders may be losing members tooPeople mourn financial loss too
55 Theories of grief & mourning Dual process model (loss-oriented vs restoration-orientedIntegrative model—family orientedDeath of a child (“Parents expect to see their children grow and mature”)Disenfranchised grief
56 Cultural differences Acceptance versus avoidance U.S. dominant group cultureLittle interaction with death/dyingCare ends at gravesite ceremonyNo transition period from life to deathDeath is failure, to be avoided
57 Dominant group expectations Rational is more important than emotionMove to restoration orientation quicklyRituals not importantUnderstanding bereavement rituals of host culture is important—South American Wari tribe
58 Cultural differences?Have you been to a funeral outside your own culture? What is the color of mourning?What matters matters a lotAcculturation attenuates differences—don’t stereotypeReligious difference are cultural differencesBereavement ignored will cost in personal/community resilience
60 The STARCC Principle Simple Timely Accurate Relevant Credible Your public messages in a crisis must be:SimpleTimelyAccurateRelevantCredibleConsistent
61 What the Public Will Ask First Are my family and I safe?What have you found that may affect me?What can I do to protect myself and my family?Who caused this?Can you fix it?
62 What the Media Will Ask First What happened?Who is in charge?Has this been contained?Are victims being helped?What can we expect?What should we do?Why did this happen?Did you have forewarning?
63 Judging the Message Speed counts – marker for preparedness Facts – consistency is vitalTrusted source – can’t fake these
64 Match Audiences and Concerns Victims and their familiesPoliticiansFirst respondersTrade and industryCommunity far outside disasterMediaConcernsOpportunity to express concernPersonal safetyResources for responseLoss of revenue/liabilitySpeed of information flowAnticipatory guidanceFamily’s safety
65 Perceptions of government Wide range from distrust to confidenceGovernment withholds informationImportance of local health and elected authoritiesGovernment should operate with complete openness and disclosure
66 Emergency Information Any information is empoweringBenefit from substantive action stepsPlain EnglishIllustrations and colorSource identification
67 Accuracy of Information __________Speed of ReleaseCREDIBILITYSuccessful Communication=+Empathy+OpennessTRUST
68 Initial Message Must Be short Be relevant Give positive action steps Be repeated
69 Initial Message Must Not Use jargon Be judgmental Make promises that can’t be keptInclude humor
70 Writing for the Media During a Crisis The pressure will be tremendous from all quarters.It must be fast and accurate.It’s like cooking a turkey when people are starving.If information isn’t finalized, explain the process.
72 Communication assumptions Job to prevent illness or death, restore or maintain calm, engender confidence in responseEmergencies are chaotic so roles should be simplifiedConfusion is reduced with fast, relevant, simple and consistent messagesCommunication resources will be limited
73 What we knowThe more the public knows about our efforts to openly share information, the more they trust usMessages are judged based on trustworthinessSome differences don’t matter, some do
74 Differences that matter Role of cultureAll individuals like no other (individual)All individuals like some others (culture)All individuals like all others (homo sapiens)Collectivism and Individualism (in-group versus out-group)Cultural beliefs held more strongly during crisisCommunication styles differ by culture
75 Let’s discuss what culture is Countless value, languages, customs, ethics . .Culture-general knowledge and culture-specific knowledgeExample: culture general—enter new culture look for differences in: authority, delegation, etiquette, communication stylesExample: culture specific—know the specifics of a culture as it compares to your own
76 Value of cultural competence Reduces ethnocentric thinking and behavior (adaptability in crisis is a strength)Trust builds more quicklyBeware of cultural “gotchas” in self and others
77 Quick exercise: How cultures differ Crowd or audience behaviorsHow often we smile or to whomHow we see old ageHow open or guarded we are with informationWhat is or is not ethical behaviorImportance of competitionHow time is understood and usedThe importance of harmony in a groupWhat’s polite or impoliteIf, how and when we touch each otherWhat is beautiful or uglyWhat we believe we need or don’t need
78 Cultural ConflictCultural conflict dimensions. content and relational all have, cultural conflict adds the third one--"a clash of cultural values."Acknowledge conflict contains a cultural dimensionUnderstanding your own culture and developing cultural awareness by acquiring a broad knowledge of values and beliefs of other cultures
79 Cultural communication styles Communication occurs when sender’s message is receivedMessages that do not challenge cultural beliefs will be more easily received
81 Stakeholder/Partner Communication Stakeholders have a special connection to you and your involvement in the emergency.They are interested in how the incident will impact them.Partners have a working relationship to you and collaborate in an official capacity on the emergency issue or other issues.They are interested in fulfilling their role in the incident and staying informed.
82 Stakeholders can be . . . Advocate–maintain loyalty Adversary–discourage negative actionAmbivalent–keep neutral or move to advocate
83 Sources of Social Pressure What will I gain?What will it cost me?What do those important to me want me to do?Can I actually carry it out?
84 Trust and MistrustStakeholders judge the response to an issue or crisis based on trustTrust is the natural consequence of promises fulfilledMistrust is an outgrowth of the perception that promises were broken and values violatedCDC fulfills trust by combining our best science with strong ethics and values
85 Consequences of mistrust Health recommendations ignored and disease and death go upDemands for misallocation of resourcesPublic health policies circumventedOpportunists prey on others in the “trust gap”Fiscal and medical resources are wastedWe can’t accomplish our mission
86 Causes of conflict: perception by either party of SuperiorityInjusticeDistrustVulnerabilityHelplessness
87 Egregious Mistakes Deny the problem exists Shoot the messenger Respond with silenceRespond with evasion/half truthsSelectively tell the storyOvertell the storyTake an “I” perspectivePoint fingers
88 Why do people come to the town hall? Then why do we conduct meetings the way we do?
89 Convening a Citizen’s Forum Acknowledge concernsEncourage fact-findingShare powerAct trustworthyOffer contingent commitments
90 Empower Group Decisionmaking Identify alternativesAnalyze alternativesPresent all scientific informationChoose “want” versus “must” criteriaReach a clear, justifiable decision
91 Don’t lecture at the Townhall Easy but not effectiveDoesn’t change thoughts/behaviorsKey: don’t give a solution, rather help audience discover solution by asking questions
92 Dealing With Angry People Anger arises when people. . .Have been hurtFeel threatened by risks out of their controlAre not respectedHave their fundamental beliefs challengedSometimes, anger arises when . . .Media arriveDamages may be in play
93 High-Outrage Public Meetings “Do’s”The best way to deal with criticism and outrage by an audience is to acknowledge that it exists. (Don’t say, “I know how you feel.”)Practice active listening and try to avoid interrupting.State the problem and then the recommendation.
94 High-Outrage Public Meetings “Don’ts”Don’t take personal abuse. You represent your agency and you are not alone. Bring along a neutral third party who can step in and diffuse the situation.Don’t look for one answer that fits all and don’t promise what you can’t deliver.
95 Acting Trustworthy Share information early Acknowledge the concerns of othersUnder-promise and over-deliverSelect a spokesperson who is never condescendingUse third-party validators/advocates
96 Stakeholder Preplanning Do an assessmentIdentify stakeholdersQuery stakeholdersPrioritize by relationship to incidentDetermine level of “touch”
97 Responding to Stakeholders Standby statementReaction action planWeb page for partnersConference callMeet face-to-faceCommit to a schedule of updates
98 Gaining AcceptanceAccumulate “yeses”Don’t say “but”—say “yes, and”
100 Create and update your plan Integrate into overall emergency response planEndorsed by higher-upsInput from stakeholdersCoordinate with partnersLonger is not betterPractice, practice, practice
101 10 Steps for Success Obtain signed endorsement from leadership Designate responsibilities for media, public, social media, and partner teamsVerify clearance/approval proceduresEstablish agreements on who releases what, when, and howMaintain current staff, partner and media contact lists (including after-hours contacts)Build relationships with partners and mediaEstablish procedures to coordinate with other response teamsDesignate spokespersons for public health issuesHave agreements and procedures to join the joint information center of the emergency operations centerDevelop procedures to secure needed resources (space, equipment, people)
102 Applying the Plan Verify the situation Notify others Conduct crisis assessmentOrganize assignments quicklyPrepare information and obtain approvalsRelease information through prearranged channelsObtain feedback and conduct evaluationConduct public educationMonitor events
104 Sources of Social Pressure What will I gain?What will it cost me?What do those important to me want me to do?Can I actually carry it out?
105 CDC: Why social media in a crisis Need to be where people areLeverage unique characteristics of emerging channelsTailored health messagesFacilitates interactive communication and communityEmpowers people in making health decisions
106 CDC Audiences Use Social Media Those who use social media on CDC.gov:Have higher satisfaction ratings (84 out of 100) than those who do not use CDC social media tools (79 out of 100)Are more likely to return and recommend the site to others than those who do not use CDC social media toolsRate CDC as more trustworthy that those who do not use CDC’s social media tools
107 Trust, transparency & participation in government Pilot to measure TTP in governmentCDC scored higher than other Fed agencies/benchmarkLargest difference for collaboration onlineParticipantCDCTotalDifferenceOnline participation73658Collaboration806812Trust87816
110 Disasters Are Media Events We need the media to be there.Give important protective actions for the public.Know how to reach their audiences and what their audiences need.
111 Response Officials Should Understand that their job is not the media’s jobKnow that they can’t dismiss media when they’re inconvenientAccept that the media will be involved in the response, and plan accordingly
112 Response Officials Should Attempt to provide all media equal accessUse technology to fairly distribute informationPlan to precredential media for access to EOC/JOC or JICThink consistent messages
113 Response Officials Should Not Hold grudgesDiscount local mediaTell the media what to do
114 How To Work With Reporters Reporters want a front seat to the action and all information NOW.Preparation will save relationships.If you don’t have the facts, tell them the process.Reality Check: 70,000 media outlets in U.S. Media cover the news 24/7.
115 Media, Too, Are Affected by Crises VerificationAdversarial roleNational dominanceLack of scientific expertise
116 Command PostMedia will expect a command post. Official channels that work well will discourage reliance on nonofficial channels.Be media-friendly at the command post—prepare for them to be on site.
118 Role of a Spokesperson in an Emergency Take your organization from an “it” to a “we”Build trust and credibility for the organizationRemove the psychological barriers within the audienceGain support for the public health responseUltimately, reduce the incidence of illness, injury, and death by getting it right
119 Pitfalls for Spokespersons Use of jargonHumorRepeating the negativeExpressing personal opinionsShowing off your vocabulary
120 SpokespersonHow to be an effective and trusted spokesperson in 5 minutes of less
121 Great Spokesperson Step 1 It’s more than “acting natural.” Every organization has an identity. Try to embody that identity.Example: CDC has a history of going into harm’s way to help people. We humbly go where we are asked. We value our partners and won’t steal the show. Therefore, a spokesperson would express a desire to help, show courage, and express the value of partners. “Committed but not showy.”
122 Great Spokesperson Step 2 Know your audienceYour audience is NOT the reporter interviewing you