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1750 – 1914 CE The Modern Era The Age of Industrial Revolutions

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1 1750 – 1914 CE The Modern Era The Age of Industrial Revolutions
The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Age of Nationalism The 2nd Age of Imperialism The Age of European Hegemony The Scramble for Africa

2 Diverse Interpretations
Change: Give Up the Old Ways for New Ways Improved economic systems Technological Revolution Social Changes including more rights for women An increasing emphasis on secularization Democratic government Modernization or Westernization? How to Modernize without Westernizing Most non-European nations wanted to modernize Dependency Theory Developing nations are economically dependent on developed nations Developed nations drain resources from developing nations Developing nations export agricultural products, raw minerals, labor Developing nations import finished products Dependency inherent in capitalism Marxist Theory Nations which adopt socialism do not need to westernize, be dependent

3 INDUSTRIALIZATION Beginnings Impact was Global
Capitalization came from Caribbean sugar profits 1750 – 1820s: Began in Great Britain 1800 – 1850: Spread to France, Belgium, Germany, United States 1850 – 1914: Spread to Russia, Japan, Austria (Czech lands) Impact was Global Massive Growth of Global Trade Imports of raw minerals and materials Cottons Fuels Iron Export of finished goods Labor markets became global Slave Trade from 1750 to 1820 more or less Three Slave Trades Atlantic was largest; Indian Ocean last to end Immigration to Americas in search of work Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese immigrated to work plantations Indentured Servitude, Tenant Farming, Sharecropping

Capitalization of the Industrial Revolution Sugar production was highly labor intensive, capital intensive Caribbean generated millions in profit, deposited in banks British inventors, industrialists could easily borrow money Preceded Industrial Revolution by about 50 years 2nd Agricultural Revolution In UK: Experimentation with new crops, animal breeding Enclosure movements Larger, wealthier landowners enclose public lands Force smaller farmers off their land Increased efficiency Forced smaller farmers off land, to cities looking for work Improved farming techniques Mechanization of Agriculture Industrial technologies applied to farming Most pronounced in USA, Canada

5 POPULATION INCREASE European population Sanitary Conditions
*** 1800 1850 1900 Europe 150 206 291 Russia 37 60 111 Africa 90 95 120 Asia 602 749 937 North America 16 39 106 South America 9 20 38 Oceania 2 6 European population Between 1700 – 1800 Rose to 190 million Population Explosion Due to increase in birth rate Decline in death rate Birth rate exceeds death rate Sanitary Conditions Medical care improved Nutrition improved Sanitation improved Life Expectancy in developing nations rose Europeans introduced medical, sanitary practices abroad

6 IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY New sources of power, energy Factory System
Muscle power replaced by machines Human labor, animal power Steam power uses coal Later electricity due to natural gas, oil Factory System Mechanization of production Required concentration of labor in one place Success in one area fueled interest in others Inventions applied to other fields Entrepreneurship rewarded by European societies 1st Industrial Revolution: 1780 – 1850 Concentrated in power (steam), transportation Mechanization of clothing production 2nd Industrial Revolution: 1870 – 1914 Concentrated in chemicals, electricity, communications

Transportation Revolution Steam ships Railroads Communications Revolution Telegraph Trans-Oceanic Cables Rise of Mass Newspapers Urbanization as Revolution Centers of commerce, industry Attracted population to jobs Rise of the Middle Class, Professionals 2nd Scientific Revolution Imperialism as Revolution

Rate of spread dependent on other factors How supportive of industry was society? How supportive of industry was the government? Wars had a tendency to mandate industrialization French Revolution, Napoleon helped UK Crimean War fueled changes in Russia favoring industry Germany, France, Russia modernized out of defense needs Civil War impacted US: factories, railroads Japan forcibly opened by Perry, Meiji Restoration follows Trade and Imperialism spread industry Europe, Japan needed raw materials, sought them abroad Trade flourished as all nations involved in trade Asia, Africa, Latin America were sources of raw materials Many Europeans built factors abroad in colonies Some empires began to train a local native technical class

9 THE PROCESS Factories Built Shift of people Middle Class arose
Near access to ports, power, workers Shift of people From countryside to city Due to poor harvests, too many to feed Too little land to work Allure of city life away from farm Increased urbanization Middle Class arose Factory managers, shop owners Professionals such as lawyers, accountants, technocrats Brutal working conditions Reactions – Call for Reforms Radicalization of workers including rise of unions, welfare systems Radicalization of some political ideologies: Socialism, Marxism Calls for reform including political and social

Reform Movements Socialism Utopianism sought ideal solutions Work with state, factory owners Marxism Class struggle natural, instrument of change State always serves those with money Rich (bourgeoisie) get richer, poor (proletariat) get poorer Change only can come about as a violent revolution Successful revolution would establish workers’ paradise Communism or Bolshevism Marxism was basis but needed a revolutionary party to lead Conditions do not have to be right for a revolution, make one! Reform Socialism Change through ballot box, elections: does not have to be violent Trade Unionism Workers seek to redress grievances through collective action, strikes State Initiated Reforms Often called Liberalism Increase suffrage, written constitutions Suffrage limited however to upper middle class, those who had property, were educated Reform diffused possibilities of revolt: expand electorate, social insurance

11 GENDER ISSUES Changes Continuities Poor women Upper class women
had to migrate to cities for work Worked in factories, brought in a second income Sweatshop industries became common Upper class women More wealth, more servants to manage Less power outside home than in previous eras Middle Class housewives A new class has a new group of women Tended to imitate upper class moral standards, lifestyles Cult of Domesticity, Victorian Age of Women encouraged But some women could now get university educations Women became active in some reform movements Colonies and Women European women had great influence abroad, set a standard for others Native women acquired some of same roles of Middle Class housewives Continuities Women still had family responsibilities Society was still patriarchal

12 WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Abolition preceded women’s suffrage
Women very involved in abolition movements Suffrage took a second place to abolition Women became involved in other reform movements: temperance, Progressives Seneca Falls Declaration in 1848 Frederick Douglass attended as delegate A Slow Process – Two Steps Forward, One Back Role of Enlightenment Women ran salons, fostered ntellectual freedom French Revolution Women granted full rights and vote until Napoleon Olympia de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft Napoleon took back gains, no vote until 1944 In UK, US – Reforms, progressive movements met resistance World War I in UK, US won women the vote, rights Africa, Asia, Middle East gave women vote as part of decolonization Latin America, Russia, China, Japan: depended on other factors Socialism, Communism often granted women the vote for first time

Abolition of the Slave Trade, Slavery Calls for its abolition Religious groups were instrumental: Methodists, Quakers UK was the leader in the movement to abolish both Enlightenment, French Revolution began process Abolished in Americas as part of national independence processes Industry was not compatible with slavery Slaves had no reason to work hard, no tendency to innovate, experiment Factories could not use slaves as they were too expensive US, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil were last American nations to abolish slavery Emancipation of Russian Serfs Reasons Rising violence and rebellion amongst serfs Serfs bound to land, had no reason to work harder for someone else Russian needed workers in factories Russia lacked an internal market, serfs were potential customers Russia lost Crimean War, reformers blamed loss on backwardness Emancipation of 1861 Serfs were free, no longer bound to land, now could work elsewhere Reality: serfs became tenant farmers, indentured labor for landlords Reality: no land reform – serfs got the worse land, could not pay taxes


15 MOVEMENTS Exchanges of Ideas and Goods Popular Movements
Increased contacts made this inevitable Modernization came with a Western bias Modernization often carried with it westernization Popular Movements Rural to Urban Migration throughout world Immigration European immigration to Americas between million European population transformed Americas, Oceania African Slave Trade not abolished until early 1800s Africans transported to Americas but also SW Asia, Indian Ocean Substitute Labor for Plantations Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese filled need Often agricultural labor but small business owners, wives followed Settlement of frontiers Russians, Americans, Chinese, Boer Afrikaaners, Brazilians, Argentines


Previous State Structures Decentralized Feudal Monarchy Aristocratic privilege, vassals, feudal lords, hierarchy Centralized Divine Right Monarchy and Absolute Monarchy Loyalty to one man, centralized state apparatus, elites Rise of Nationalism Loyalty to the state, a national consciousness Strong ideology amongst middle classes but spread to all classes Fueled by French Revolution, Napoleon: nationalism spread Nationalism threatens multi-national empires: Austria, Russia, Ottoman Reactions Congress of Vienna opposed nationalism Balance of Power: Great powers manage change, prevent change Restored monarchs to thrones, redrew national boundaries Burgeoning European nationalisms Unite one ethnic group under an independent ethnic state Germany: Prussia and Bismarck united Germany in 1870 Italy: Sardinia and Cavour united Italy in Pan-Slavism, Austro-Slavism, or Independence European Example Copied Abroad India: Sepoy Rebellion, Indian National Congress, African National Congress China, Japan Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam Young Turks of Ottoman Empire, Persia Mexico

The Stage is Set State is economically weak, government is ineffective New ideas arise, new groups arise to challenge status-quo, intellectual movements influence change Old Regime Loses Control Old elites attempt to reassert privileges Some short term event sparks a conflict, disaster rallies forces who oppose old elites Government too divided and weak to suppress revolt Moderate Phase of the Revolution Moderates come to power, initiate changes Electorate expanded, constitution liberalized, some reforms initiated Reaction to the Moderates Arise Moderates enact only limited reforms Radicals mobilize their supporters demanding more extensive reforms Radicals Seize Control Radicals take control of state and revolution Radicals enact sweeping changes, eliminate old institutions completely Radical Reign of Terror Foreign, domestic opposition arises to challenge radicals Radicals react, remove opponents, seek to institutionalize, spread their ideology Moderate Return Moderates who come to represent the majority remove radicals End the most radical reforms, return privileges to many groups, lose contact with people Rise of a Strong Leader or Authoritarianism Usually a military leader arises to oppose moderates Seizes control of state, institutionalizes revolution, revolution ends

19 REVOLUTIONS 1750 – 1914 American Revolution 1776 – 1783
French Revolution 1789 – 1799 Haitian Revolution 1793 – 1802 Latin American Revolutions 1810 – 1822 Mehmet Ali in Egypt, 1820s European Revolutions 1820s – 1848 Belgium revolts from Netherlands Greece revolts from Ottoman Empire French Revolutions in 1830 and 1848 European Revolutions in 1848: Germany, Italy, Central Europe Meiji Restoration (Japan) 1867 Young Turks (Ottoman Empire) 1908 – 1920s 1st Iranian Revolution 1905 1st Russian Revolution 1905 Mexican Revolution 1910 – 1920 Chinese Revolution 1911 – 1912

20 LATIN AMERICA Stages Result After Independence
Enlightenment, US Revolution, French Revolution influences creoles Creoles feel marginalized by peninsulares, mother countries’ government French Revolution, Napoleon occupy Iberia, make changes which creoles, peninsulares hate Colonies left on their own and begin to make decisions without benefit of mother country Creoles lead independence movements, form militias, resist return of Spain Civil wars, turmoil, suffering followed as creoles battle Spain for control Conservatives take control of new states after independence Result Many newly independent nations Mexico: Grito de Dolores, Fr. Hidalgo & Morelos, Iturbide South America: Simon Bolivar (North), Jose de San Martin (Central) Brazil: Different – peaceful split from Portugal, new ruler becomes emperor Haiti: Different – a slave revolt, rebellion led to independence After Independence Life for majority of people (mestizos, mulattos, Blacks, Indians) little changed, marginalized Societies remained largely casted Small powerful elite of creole families ruled independent states Church is part of the government structure; assists governing elite – rise of anti-clericalism Rule by military strongmen called caudillos becomes common; armies turn on people Struggle between liberals and conservatives, centrists and federalists to define state structures Developments limited to exportable goods, industries and most assets controlled by foreigners Heavy British, American investment in resources leads to Western financial control Standouts: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile

21 WESTERN HEGEMONY Continuity Change Prior to 1750 Change Begins By 1800
European continued economic dominance of world European empires continued to exist Persistence of social norms in most areas resisting change Change Europeans expanded dominance of world to Africa, Asia Europeans became industrial, commercial center of world Europeans lost political control of the Americas US, Japan, Germany join great powers Westernization, modernization impacts mass society Prior to 1750 Asians, Africans controlled own countries Europeans allowed trading rights, bases but limited influence Internal trade left to locals, Asian states licensed groups to trade Europeans controlled trans-Oceanic trade Change Begins Dutch, English, French challenge Spain, Portugal Spain, Portugal relied on royal monopolies Newcomers used privately owned companies, initiative By 1800 Between , 1st European colonial empires collapsed Only viable European colonial empire was Great Britain Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French had minor possessions



24 NEW ACTORS United States: Liberal democracy with expanding suffrage but no rights for women, blacks 1750 – 13 British Colonies with strong traditions of self-rule 1800 – Successful revolution, new government; Mississippi border, Manifest Destiny, Monroe Doctrine 1850 – War With Mexico Acquires West but country at height of sectionalism over slavery 1875 – Fought Civil War, Slavery Ended; US Industrial Power as #3 in world 1914 – US acquires an empire in Pacific, Caribbean; Mass Immigration; Open Door Policy Germany: Autocratic democracy struggling with socialism, industrialization 1750 – 400+ states, Prussia and Austria were the largest 1800 – Germany was a dependent of Napoleon, whose rule created German nationalism 1850 – Industrial Revolution, nationalism gripped Germany; democracy was clear loser in 1848 1875 – Prussia had united Germany, humiliated France and Austria, created an autocratic empire 1914 – Germany was the #2 industrial power in world, #2 navy, #1 army Russian Empire: autocratic state plagued by struggle for reform, rights; dominated by elite 1750 – New great power having defeated Sweden, Ottoman Empire 1800 – One of two free great powers left to oppose Napoleon, revolution, liberalism 1850 – Europe’s policeman, opposed revolution, nationalism, liberalism 1875 – Had lost Crimean War; emancipation of serfs had not helped; spreading radicalism, industry 1914 – 1905 Revolution by workers, soviets crushed; reforms limited; internally very weak Japan: From Shogunate to Constitutional Monarch dominated by elite industries, military 1750 – Still isolated internationally with only one yearly contact through Nagasaki; Dutch Learning 1800 – Shogun weakening but Dutch learning had spread 1854 – US forces Japan to end isolation, open ports 1875 – Meiji Restoration had overthrown Shogun; massive industrialization, modernization 1904 – Had built modern army, navy: had defeated China, Russia, annexed Ryuykus 1914 – Only non-European great power; had alliance with UK, annexed Korea, interested in China

25 DIPLOMACY Rise of Diplomacy and Diplomats Alliances Balance of Power
Renaissance saw rise of diplomats as a class, institution Rules of conduct set: extraterritoriality of diplomats, embassies Enlightenment: growth of works on international law, treaties Alliances Temporary alliances of states with similar objectives not new Diplomatic Revolution of 1750s: Rise of Prussia, Great Britain Grand Alliance /Holy Alliance against France, Revolution Balance of Power No one state should dominate; states team up to restore balance War is failed diplomacy – use force to achieve objectives Alliance Systems Germany upset balance in 1870; France humiliated Germany and France become the center of two competing alliances Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Italy (Ottoman Empire) Triple Entente: France, Russia, United Kingdom (Japan)


Powerful nations extend control over less-powerful nations Control can be direct, indirect, political, economic, social is an age of colonialism Colonialism tends towards recreating European cultures and settler colonies is an age of imperialism Imperialism tends towards exploiting other nations to benefit the mother country Less concern with making the colony a settler colony Spurred By Nationalism and nationalist competition Desire for prestige, military power, glory Desire to maintain balance of power France defeated by Germany in 1870 sought balance in colonies Russia, Germany seek to rival UK in Asia, acquire colonies Industrial Revolution Seek markets for your goods Seek sources for raw materials especially fuels Results Of Increased life expectancy, literacy Destruction of traditional patterns of life to support European systems Imposition of new values, customs including religious systems

Types Direct Favored by France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Japan Replace local leaders with men sent out by mother countries Introduce own laws, law systems, courts, governmental bodies Did not believe locals were capable of governing themselves Indirect Favored by UK, US, Netherlands Rule through existing elites, institutions Change as few customs, traditions as possible Senior officials appointed by mother country Establish schools to educate young men for civil service jobs Dominions Settler colonies granted virtual independence, self-rule Applies to Canada, Australia, NZ, South Africa The United States Beginning in 1867, US expanded into Pacific – Wake Island, Alaska In 1898 acquired Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa Expansion due in large part to industrialization, nationalism, navy Japan Began in 1870s with annexation of Ryuku Islands Led to conflicts with China (1894), Russia (1904) Ended with annexation of Taiwan, Korea, Pacific Islands, assets in China

29 OTHER IMPERIALISMS Economic Imperialism Racism and Social Darwinism
Actually described by Marx, Lenin Involved dominance of industry, finance Let to competitions between national firms US, UK, Germany were three greatest rivals to 1914 Examples US loan money, invested in Mexico, Central America, Caribbean UK invested heavily in South America Germany invested heavily in Eastern Europe, Balkans, Turkey France invested heavily in Russia Europeans built Latin American infrastructure to help exports Racism and Social Darwinism Theory of Evolution and Darwin led to this development Natural selection, survival of fittest applied to imperialism Social Darwinism theorized that certain nations, races were superior The inferior races should be dominated by superior, civilized nations

Ottoman Empire Causes Russia attacks Ottomans, supports Pan-Slavic nationalism Egypt begins to modernize, break away Local Reaction Turks fight back, seek support of UK, France Turkey seeks to modernize: Tanzimat Reforms, Young Turk Movement Outcome Ottoman Empire seen as the “sick man of Europe” Turks loose control of Balkans, North Africa, Caucasus India Europeans vie for control of Indian Ocean trade, ports under the Mughals European rivalry spills over into India British East India Company builds a trading empire in India Initially none from Mughals but local princes try to oppose British, ally with French Marathas, Sikhs, others oppose British expansion Sepoy Rebellion on 1857 – Indian Muslims and Hindus join forces against British British government takes control of the East India Company, territory Creates the Empire of India with Queen Victoria as the Empress Allows local princes to control local affairs (UK controls army, diplomacy, national politics)

Japan Causes US under Commodore Perry forces Japan to open its ports to the West in 1854 Japan sees what has happened in China Local Reaction Shogun deposed, Emperor returned to power under Meiji Restoration in 1867 Meiji Restoration modernizes, industrializes, but only moderately westernizes Outcome Japan becomes a major power able to resist Europeans, defeats Russians in 1904 war Annexes islands, parts of China, Korea and creates its own empire (1877 – 1910) China Foreign merchants trade even if opium trade is forbidden; Western influence continues to grow Discontent with Manchu (Qing) Dynasty Western-educated, intellectuals seek reforms but conservatives, Confucians block reforms Taiping Rebellion: Christian messianic traditions blend with Confucianism, poor peasants rebel Boxer Rebellion against Western influence supported by Dowager Empress, fails UK forces China to open ports to trade, westerners (Opium Wars, Treaty Ports, Extraterritoriality) Other powers partition China into treaty ports, spheres of influence (Sino-Japanese War) 1911 Revolution overthrows the Manchu Dynasty

32 ASIA & 1914

Africa Egypt Mehmet Ali: An Albanian officer in Turkish Army comes to control Egypt Seeks to modern country on European model: army, industry, society Greatest resistance comes from Europeans who defeat his navy, limit his regime, influence East Africa The Sudan Sudan controlled by a corrupt Turkish-Egyptian regime Man claiming to be the Madhi or promised one preceding the end of time appears, rallies region Preaches a reformed, puritanical Islam stripped of western ideas, concepts Defeats Egyptian force led by a British general British re-invade in 1898 and crush regime, rule Sudan as a co-dominion with Egypt Ethiopia Italy seeks to create an empire in East Africa, occupies Eritrea, Somalia; advanced against Ethiopia Ethiopia under Menelik II had modernized, acquired western arms – defeats Italy Southern Africa The Zulus Rise of Shaka Zulu in early 1800s creates a Zulu Empire, produces Mkfane or dispersal of Bantu tribes Zulus threaten British settlers in Natal Province and Boer Republics, clash with British Britain defeats, annexes Zululand The Boers Great Britain acquired Capetown Colony during Napoleonic Wars Increasing English influence, immigration drove Boers (Dutch farmers) to migrate inland Boers set up Afrikaaner Republics independent of British Gold/diamonds discovered, which British covet; Anglo-Boer War: British attack, defeat, annex Boer Republics South Africa created in 1910

34 AFRICA 1830 & 1914


36 INTELLECTUAL CHANGES Arts: Art, Music, and Literature Philosophy
Classicism: Idealization of the Past (Greeks, Romans) Romanticism: Idealization of nation, national culture Realism: look at society as it is, not idealized Impressionism as reaction to, fascination with industrialization Post-Impressionism begins movement towards emotions Philosophy Materialism Idealism Progressivism Sciences Physics: Einstein, Currie, Roentgen Psychology as a result of Freud’s studies Biology and Genetics: Mendel, Darwin Medicine: Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Lister, Walter Reed

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