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MatLab API in C++ Christopher Dabney

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Purpose MatLab … MatLab … is an interpreted scripting language is an interpreted scripting language conversion to object code is at runtime; computation time can be a little slow conversion to object code is at runtime; computation time can be a little slow has excellent prototyping and plotting functionality has excellent prototyping and plotting functionality contains convenient and very robust matrix operation packages contains convenient and very robust matrix operation packages

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Purpose (cont) C++ C++ is a programming language, optimal and with high speed floating point computation is a programming language, optimal and with high speed floating point computation is non-trivial to produce visual effects in is non-trivial to produce visual effects in eg. plotting, GUIs, nice tables eg. plotting, GUIs, nice tables can be difficult to secure a robust vector algebra package for can be difficult to secure a robust vector algebra package for

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Purpose (cont) Solution: C++ invoking MatLab commands Solution: C++ invoking MatLab commands number crunching in C++ number crunching in C++ matrix operations in MatLab matrix operations in MatLab plotting, graphing, tables in MatLab plotting, graphing, tables in MatLab For programmers with a robust & complex C++ program intending to plot results they are already obtaining For programmers with a robust & complex C++ program intending to plot results they are already obtaining For MatLab programming with scripts which frequently lag For MatLab programming with scripts which frequently lag

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Interacting with MatLab Not restricted to C++; Java, Perl, Fortran, and other languages can do it also Not restricted to C++; Java, Perl, Fortran, and other languages can do it also Not restricted to the MS Visual Studio environment the demos are written in Not restricted to the MS Visual Studio environment the demos are written in Also possible to invoke a C++ routine from MatLab’s environment Also possible to invoke a C++ routine from MatLab’s environment Three ways to interact Three ways to interact Send Data from C++ to MatLab Send Data from C++ to MatLab Call a MatLab function from C++ Call a MatLab function from C++ Generate a Dynamic Link Library (dll) file from a.m file Generate a Dynamic Link Library (dll) file from a.m file We will use the first one We will use the first one

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Demo Requirements A C++ Compiler A C++ Compiler the demo uses MS Visual C++ v.6.0 the demo uses MS Visual C++ v.6.0 MatLab MatLab the demo uses MatLab v.7.0.1 the demo uses MatLab v.7.0.1 Assume’s prior programming experience in both MatLab and C++ Assume’s prior programming experience in both MatLab and C++ no explanations are given for the commands no explanations are given for the commands Following slides explain setting up the demonstration program environment Following slides explain setting up the demonstration program environment

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Setting up the Environment Creating paths to MatLab: Creating paths to MatLab: - Tools -> Options - Tools -> Options - Directories Tab - Directories Tab - Select "Include files" from the drop-down list - Select "Include files" from the drop-down list - Add "C:\MATLAB701\EXTERN\INCLUDE" to the list - Add "C:\MATLAB701\EXTERN\INCLUDE" to the list - Select "Library Files" from the drop-down list - Select "Library Files" from the drop-down list - Add ”C:\MATLAB701\EXTERN\LIB\WIN32\MICROSOFT\MSVC60“ - Add ”C:\MATLAB701\EXTERN\LIB\WIN32\MICROSOFT\MSVC60“ Library paths vary depending on the language and compiler Library paths vary depending on the language and compiler

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Screenshot

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Setting up the Environment (cont) Two ways to include the appropriate library files: Two ways to include the appropriate library files: Method 1) - Project -> Settings Method 1) - Project -> Settings - Links Tab - Links Tab Under "Object/Library Module:", add three file names: Under "Object/Library Module:", add three file names: - Libmx.lib - libmex.lib - libeng.lib Method 2) Add the following lines of code just under the Method 2) Add the following lines of code just under the includes in the source code: includes in the source code: #pragma comment( lib, "Libmx.lib" ) #pragma comment( lib, "Libmx.lib" ) #pragma comment( lib, "libmex.lib" ) #pragma comment( lib, "libmex.lib" ) #pragma comment( lib, "libeng.lib" ) #pragma comment( lib, "libeng.lib" )

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Screenshot

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Connecting to MatLab Engine Header: #include, MatLab’s Engine Header: #include, MatLab’s Engine In the program, create a pointer to it: In the program, create a pointer to it: Engine *m_pEngine; m_pEngine = engOpen(NULL); if (m_pEngine == NULL) { cout << "Error: Not Found” << endl; << endl; exit(1); exit(1);}

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Invoking Commands engEvalString(Engine* ptr, string cmd); engEvalString(Engine* ptr, string cmd); engEvalString(m_pEngine, “x = 1:1:10);“ ); engEvalString(m_pEngine, “y = x.^2;“ ); engEvalString(m_pEngine, “plot(x,y);“ ); Enables programmer to invoke any command in MatLab from the C++ platform (convenient) Enables programmer to invoke any command in MatLab from the C++ platform (convenient) Not special by itself - might as well work straight from MatLab Not special by itself - might as well work straight from MatLab

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IO between C++ and MatLab Use the “matrix array” mxArray data type Use the “matrix array” mxArray data type Every variable in MatLab is a matrix – for C++ to exchange data with it, a data type that both C++ and MatLab recognize is needed Every variable in MatLab is a matrix – for C++ to exchange data with it, a data type that both C++ and MatLab recognize is needed mxArray can “bundle” C++ variables as matrices, so both platforms recognize this data type mxArray can “bundle” C++ variables as matrices, so both platforms recognize this data type

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Inserting Values (input) To pass a variable, eg. x[0], into MatLab, create an mxArray for it To pass a variable, eg. x[0], into MatLab, create an mxArray for it - Allocate the space (mxCreateDoubleMatrix) - Copy the value (memcpy) - Name the variable in the Engine (engPutVariable) double x[0]; mxArray *m_X; m_X=mxCreateDoubleMatrix(1, 1, mxREAL); memcpy((void *)mxGetPr(m_X), (void *)x, sizeof(double)*1); engPutVariable(m_pEngine, "x", m_X); Pointer m_pEngine is used to specify the engine Pointer m_pEngine is used to specify the engine Variable x in the MatLab Engine gets the value of x[0] in C++ Variable x in the MatLab Engine gets the value of x[0] in C++

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Extracting Values (output) To extract the MatLab Engine’s variable z, pull it into C++ as a mxArray matrix, then extract the bundled value out of that mxArray and into a C++ variable To extract the MatLab Engine’s variable z, pull it into C++ as a mxArray matrix, then extract the bundled value out of that mxArray and into a C++ variable double *cresult; mxArray *mresult; mresult = engGetVariable(m_pEngine,"z"); cresult = mxGetPr(mresult); cout << cresult[0]; mxGetPr returns a pointer to a copy of the double value z stored in the MatLab Engine mxGetPr returns a pointer to a copy of the double value z stored in the MatLab Engine Warning: Unpredictable fatal errors occur if the data type in MatLab doesn’t closely resemble the data type in C++ eg. Copying a 3x1 vector into a scalar Warning: Unpredictable fatal errors occur if the data type in MatLab doesn’t closely resemble the data type in C++ eg. Copying a 3x1 vector into a scalar

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Passing Arrays & Matrices To pass arrays (vector), adjust the size parameters of the memory allocation and copy routine to match the dimensions of the array being passed To pass arrays (vector), adjust the size parameters of the memory allocation and copy routine to match the dimensions of the array being passed Pass a vector a of dimensions: 1 x SIZE Pass a vector a of dimensions: 1 x SIZE double a[SIZE]; mxArray *A; // assume a gets initialized, all values A=mxCreateDoubleMatrix(1, SIZE, mxREAL); memcpy((void *)mxGetPr(A), (void *)a, sizeof(double)*SIZE); engPutVariable(m_pEngine, "a", A); Copies entire C++ array a into the MatLab Engine’s a Copies entire C++ array a into the MatLab Engine’s a

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Passing Arrays & Matrices (cont) Pass a matrix of dimensions: SIZE x SIZE Pass a matrix of dimensions: SIZE x SIZE double c[SIZE][SIZE]; // assume c gets initialized, all of it mxArray *mxc; mxc = mxCreateDoubleMatrix(SIZE, SIZE, mxREAL); memcpy((void *) mxGetPr(mxc), (void *)c, sizeof(double)*SIZE*SIZE); engPutVariable(m_pEngine, "c", mxc); engEvalString(m_pEngine, "c = c';"); Note: C++ has row-major storage, and MatLab has column-major storage. Thus a matrix being exchanged must be transposed, either before or after the exchange, to maintain the matrix’s semantics Note: C++ has row-major storage, and MatLab has column-major storage. Thus a matrix being exchanged must be transposed, either before or after the exchange, to maintain the matrix’s semantics

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See the Demos Program Demonstrates all of these features so far in Microsoft Visual Development Studio C++ v.6.0 Demonstrates all of these features so far in Microsoft Visual Development Studio C++ v.6.0 Demonstrates graph plots, invoking commands, input, output, and passing vectors and matrices. Demonstrates graph plots, invoking commands, input, output, and passing vectors and matrices.

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Internet References Welcome to Zhenwang's Homepage (Q&A) Welcome to Zhenwang's Homepage (Q&A) http://www.sfu.ca/~zyao/teaching/ensc488faq.htm http://www.sfu.ca/~zyao/teaching/ensc488faq.htm A Tutorial to Call MATLAB Functions from Within A C/C++ Program A Tutorial to Call MATLAB Functions from Within A C/C++ Program http://prism.mem.drexel.edu/Shah/public_html/c2matlab.htm http://prism.mem.drexel.edu/Shah/public_html/c2matlab.htm Microsoft Visual Studio C++ & Interfacing Matlab with C/C++, Java http://www.qcf.gatech.edu/academic/LabDataAccess/C++IntroductionMatLab.In terfacings.doc http://www.qcf.gatech.edu/academic/LabDataAccess/C++IntroductionMatLab.In terfacings.doc MatLab – The Language of Technical Computing, External Interfaces MatLab – The Language of Technical Computing, External Interfaces http://www.mathworks.com.au/access/helpdesk/help/pdf_doc/matlab/apiext.pdf http://www.mathworks.com.au/access/helpdesk/help/pdf_doc/matlab/apiext.pdf

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Questions? …

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Thank You No MatLab matrices were harmed in the making of this presentation.

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