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 2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 14 - Advanced C Topics Outline 14.1Introduction 14.2Redirecting Input/Output on UNIX and DOS Systems.

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Presentation on theme: " 2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 14 - Advanced C Topics Outline 14.1Introduction 14.2Redirecting Input/Output on UNIX and DOS Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 14 - Advanced C Topics Outline 14.1Introduction 14.2Redirecting Input/Output on UNIX and DOS Systems 14.3Variable-Length Argument Lists 14.4Using Command-Line Arguments 14.5Notes on Compiling Multiple-Source-File Programs 14.6Program Termination with exit and atexit 14.7The volatile Type Qualifier 14.8Suffixes for Integer and Floating-Point Constants 14.9More on Files 14.10Signal Handling 14.11Dynamic Memory Allocation with calloc and realloc 14.12The Unconditional Branch: goto

2  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Introduction Several advanced topics in this chapter Operating system specific –Usually UNIX or DOS

3  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Redirecting Input/Output on UNIX and DOS Systems Standard I/O - keyboard and screen –Redirect input and output Redirect symbol( < ) –Operating system feature, not a C feature –UNIX and DOS –$ or % represents command line –Example: $ myProgram < input –Rather than inputting values by hand, read them from a file Pipe command( | ) –Output of one program becomes input of another $ firstProgram | secondProgram –Output of firstProgram goes to secondProgram

4  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Redirecting Input/Output on UNIX and DOS Systems Redirect output ( > ) –Determines where output of a program goes –Example: $ myProgram > myFile Output goes into myFile (erases previous contents) Append output ( >> ) –Add output to end of file (preserve previous contents) –Example: $ myOtherProgram >> myFile Output is added onto the end of myFile

5  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Variable-Length Argument Lists Functions with unspecified number of arguments –Load –Use ellipsis(... ) at end of parameter list –Need at least one defined parameter –Example: double myfunction ( int i,... ); –The ellipsis is only used in the prototype of a function with a variable length argument list –printf is an example of a function that can take multiple arguments –The prototype of printf is defined as int printf( const char* format,... );

6  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14.3Variable-Length Argument Lists Macros and definitions of the variable arguments header ( stdarg.h ) –va_list Type specifier, required (va_list arguments;) –va_start( arguments, other variables ) Intializes parameters, required before use –va_arg( arguments, type ) Returns a parameter each time va_arg is called Automatically points to next parameter –va_end( arguments ) Helps function have a normal return

7  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Load header 1.1 Function prototype (variable length argument list) 1.2 Initialize variables 2. Function calls 3. Function definition 3.1 Create ap ( va_list object) 3.2 Initialize ap ( va_start(ap, i) ) 1/* Fig. 14.2: fig14_02.c 2 Using variable-length argument lists */ 3#include 4#include 5 6double average( int,... ); 7 8int main() 9{9{ 10 double w = 37.5, x = 22.5, y = 1.7, z = 10.2; printf( "%s%.1f\n%s%.1f\n%s%.1f\n%s%.1f\n\n", 13 "w = ", w, "x = ", x, "y = ", y, "z = ", z ); 14 printf( "%s%.3f\n%s%.3f\n%s%.3f\n", 15 "The average of w and x is ", 16 average( 2, w, x ), 17 "The average of w, x, and y is ", 18 average( 3, w, x, y ), 19 "The average of w, x, y, and z is ", 20 average( 4, w, x, y, z ) ); return 0; 23} 24 25double average( int i,... ) 26{ 27 double total = 0; 28 int j; 29 va_list ap;

8  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 3.3 Access arguments va_arg(ap, double) 3.4 End function va_end(ap); return total/1; Program Output w = 37.5 x = 22.5 y = 1.7 z = 10.2 The average of w and x is The average of w, x, and y is The average of w, x, y, and z is for ( j = 1; j <= i; j++ ) 34 total += va_arg( ap, double ); va_end( ap ); 37 return total / i; 38} va_start( ap, i ); 32

9  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Using Command-Line Arguments Pass arguments to main on DOS or UNIX –Define main as int main( int argc, char *argv[] ) –int argc Number of arguments passed –char *argv[] Array of strings Has names of arguments in order –argv[ 0 ] is first argument –Example: $ copy input output argc : 3 argv[ 0 ] : "copy" argv[ 1 ] : "input" argv[ 2 ] : "output"

10  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Initialize variables 2. Function calls ( fopen ) 2.1 Specify open type (read or write) 3. Copy file 1/* Fig. 14.3: fig14_03.c 2 Using command-line arguments */ 3#include 4 5int main( int argc, char *argv[] ) 6{6{ 7 FILE *inFilePtr, *outFilePtr; 8 int c; 9 10 if ( argc != 3 ) 11 printf( "Usage: copy infile outfile\n" ); 12 else 13 if ( ( inFilePtr = fopen( argv[ 1 ], "r" ) ) != NULL ) if ( ( outFilePtr = fopen( argv[ 2 ], "w" ) ) != NULL ) while ( ( c = fgetc( inFilePtr ) ) != EOF ) 18 fputc( c, outFilePtr ); else 21 printf( "File \"%s\" could not be opened\n", argv[ 2 ] ); else 24 printf( "File \"%s\" could not be opened\n", argv[ 1 ] ); return 0; 27} Notice argc and argv[] in main argv[1] is the second argument, and is being read. argv[2] is the third argument, and is being written to. Loop until End Of File. fgetc a character from inFilePtr and fputc it into outFilePtr.

11  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Notes on Compiling Multiple-Source- File Programs Programs with multiple source files –Function definition must be in one file (cannot be split up) –Global variables accessible to functions in same file Global variables must be defined in every file in which they are used –Example: If integer myGlobal is defined in one file To use it in another file you must include the statement extern int myGlobal; –extern States that the variable is defined in another file –Function prototypes can be used in other files without an extern statement Have a prototype in each file that uses the function

12  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Notes on Compiling Multiple-Source- File Programs Keyword static –Specifies that variables can only be used in the file in which they are defined Programs with multiple source files –Tedious to compile everything if small changes have been made to only one file –Can recompile only the changed files –Procedure varies on system UNIX: make utility

13  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Program Termination with exit and atexit Function exit –Forces a program to terminate –Parameters – symbolic constants EXIT_SUCCESS or EXIT_FAILURE –Returns an implementation-defined value –Example: exit( EXIT_SUCCESS ); Function atexit atexit( functionToRun ); –Registers functionToRun to execute upon successful program termination atexit itself does not terminate the program –Register up to 32 functions (multiple atexit() statements) Functions called in reverse register order –Called function cannot take arguments or return values

14  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Register function print using atexit 2. User input 3. Output 3.1 Function definition 1/* Fig. 14.4: fig14_04.c 2 Using the exit and atexit functions */ 3#include 4#include 5 6void print( void ); 7 8int main() 9{9{ 10 int answer; atexit( print ); /* register function print */ 13 printf( "Enter 1 to terminate program with function exit" 14 "\nEnter 2 to terminate program normally\n" ); 15 scanf( "%d", &answer ); if ( answer == 1 ) { 18 printf( "\nTerminating program with " 19 "function exit\n" ); 20 exit( EXIT_SUCCESS ); 21 } printf( "\nTerminating program by reaching" 24 " the end of main\n" ); 25 return 0; 26} 27 28void print( void ) 29{ 30 printf( "Executing function print at program " 31 "termination\nProgram terminated\n" ); 32}

15  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Program Output Enter 1 to terminate program with function exit Enter 2 to terminate program normally : 1 Terminating program with function exit Executing function print at program termination Program terminated Enter 1 to terminate program with function exit Enter 2 to terminate program normally : 2 Terminating program by reaching the end of main Executing function print at program termination Program terminated

16  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved The volatile Type Qualifier volatile qualifier –Variable may be altered outside program –Variable not under control of program –Variable cannot be optimized

17  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14.8Suffixes for Integer and Floating-Point Constants C provides suffixes for constants –unsigned integer – u or U –long integer – l or L –unsigned long integer – ul or UL –float – f or F –long double – l or L –Examples: 174u 467L 3451ul –If integer constant is not suffixed type determined by first type capable of storing a value of that size ( int, long int, unsigned long int ) –If floating point not suffixed of type double

18  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14.9More on Files C can process binary files –Not all systems support binary files Files opened as text files if binary mode not supported –Binary files should be used when rigorous speed, storage, and compatibility conditions demand it –Otherwise, text files are preferred Inherent portability, can use standard tools to examine data Function tmpfile –Opens a temporary file in mode "wb+" Some systems may process temporary files as text files –Temporary file exists until closed with fclose or until program terminates Function rewind –Positions file pointers to the beginning of the file

19  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14.9More on Files File open modes:

20  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Signal Handling Signal –Unexpected event, can terminate program Interrupts ( c), illegal instructions, segmentation violations, termination orders, floating-point exceptions (division by zero, multiplying large floats) Function signal –Traps unexpected events –Header –Receives two arguments a signal number and a pointer to the signal handling function Function raise –Takes an integer signal number and creates a signal

21  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Signal Handling Signals defined in signal.h

22  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Function prototype 2. Generate random number 2.1 raise signal if x == Function definition 1/* Fig. 14.8: fig14_08.c 2 Using signal handling */ 3#include 4#include 5#include 6#include 7 8void signal_handler( int ); 9 10int main() 11{ 12 int i, x; signal( SIGINT, signal_handler ); 15 srand( clock() ); for ( i = 1; i <= 100; i++ ) { 18 x = 1 + rand() % 50; if ( x == 25 ) 21 raise( SIGINT ); printf( "%4d", i ); if ( i % 10 == 0 ) 26 printf( "\n" ); 27 } return 0; 30} 31 32void signal_handler( int signalValue ) signal set to call function signal_handler when a signal of type SIGINT occurs.

23  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 3. Function definition Program Output 33{ 34 int response; printf( "%s%d%s\n%s", 37 "\nInterrupt signal ( ", signalValue, " ) received.", 38 "Do you wish to continue ( 1 = yes or 2 = no )? " ); scanf( "%d", &response ); while ( response != 1 && response != 2 ) { 43 printf( "( 1 = yes or 2 = no )? " ); 44 scanf( "%d", &response ); 45 } if ( response == 1 ) 48 signal( SIGINT, signal_handler ); 49 else 50 exit( EXIT_SUCCESS ); 51} User given option of terminating program Signal handler reinitialized by calling signal again

24  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Program Output Interrupt signal ( 2 ) received. Do you wish to continue ( 1 = yes or 2 = no )? Interrupt signal ( 2 ) received. Do you wish to continue ( 1 = yes or 2 = no )?

25  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Dynamic Memory Allocation with calloc and realloc Dynamic memory allocation –Can create dynamic arrays calloc( nmembers, size ) –nmembers – number of members –size – size of each member –Returns a pointer to a dynamic array realloc( pointerToObject, newSize ) –pointerToObject – pointer to the object being reallocated –newSize – new size of the object –Returns pointer to reallocated memory –Returns NULL if cannot allocate space –If newSize equals 0 then the object pointed to is freed –If pointerToObject equals 0 then it acts like malloc

26  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved The Unconditional Branch: goto Unstructured programming –Use when performance crucial –break to exit loop instead of waiting until condition becomes false goto statement –Changes flow control to first statement after specified label –A label is an identifier followed by a colon (i.e. start: ) –Quick escape from deeply nested loop goto start;

27  2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Initialize variable 1.1 Labels 2. Loop 3. Print Program Output 1/* Fig. 14.9: fig14_09.c 2 Using goto */ 3#include 4 5int main() 6{6{ 7 int count = 1; 8 9 start: /* label */ 10 if ( count > 10 ) 11 goto end; printf( "%d ", count ); 14 ++count; 15 goto start; end: /* label */ 18 putchar( '\n' ); return 0; 21} Notice how start:, end: and goto are used


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