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DIAMONDS STRUCTURES AND PROPERTY OF DIAMOND Diamond is an allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the facecentered.

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Presentation on theme: "DIAMONDS STRUCTURES AND PROPERTY OF DIAMOND Diamond is an allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the facecentered."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 DIAMONDS

3 STRUCTURES AND PROPERTY OF DIAMOND

4 Diamond is an allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the facecentered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.

5 PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND.

6 PROPERTIES ARE:- 1)Hardness Diamond is the hardest known natural material on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, where hardness is defined as resistance to scratching and is graded between 1 (softest) and 10 (hardest). Diamond has a hardness of 10 (hardest) on this scale. 2)Electrical conductivity Diamonds are semiconductors or great insulators. 3)Surface property the diamonds' surface cannot be wet by water but can be easily wet and stuck by oil. 4)Chemical stability Diamonds are not very reactive. Under room temperature diamonds do not react with any chemical reagents including strong acids and bases. A diamond's surface can only be oxidized a little by just a few oxidants [which?] at high temperature (below 1,000 °C). Therefore, acids and bases can be used to refine synthetic diamonds. [22]which? [22]

7 IMPORTANCE OF DIAMOND

8 Diamonds are appreciated and admired by almost everybody in the planet. They can be used as personal adornments or as tools to further the causes of many industries. They are also often used to commemorate special events in people's lives such as engagements, anniversaries, corporate successes, and many more! Articles Broken Jewellery as Decor Burglar Alarm for Your Jewellery Caring for Your Collection Diamond-Studded Cars

9 TYPES OF DIAMONDS

10 Pink Diamonds The pink diamond is the world's most rare and valuable diamond The legend of Argyle pink diamond has grown over the past ten years. At the 1989 Christie's auction in New York a 3.14 carat Argyle pink sold for $1,510,000. Privately, Argyle has sold pink diamonds for up to $1 million a carat. White Diamonds White diamonds are produced by mines all over the world in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The white diamonds recovered from the Argyle mine are particularly brilliant and of high quality. Its highly rate is $4,586,900. Champagne Diamonds Champagne diamonds are naturally coloured diamonds that are produced in a wide range of colours from light straw to rich cognac. The 4C's of colour, cut, clarity and carat weight apply to coloured diamonds just as they do to colourless diamonds except the intensity of colour, not lack of it, plays a greater part in the valuation. This diamond is sold for up to $3,670,000 Pink Champagne Diamonds Attractive champagne diamonds with secondary pink colour are also available and command a higher price per carat than champagne diamonds. These stones display slight to bold flashes of pink in their fire. This diamond is sold for $9,100,000 There are many more types of diamond

11 HOW TO IDENTIFY RAW DIAMOND?

12 1Look for the colour of diamonds found in that area. In Crater of Diamonds State Park for instance, the raw diamonds are white, yellow and brown, in that order of frequency. 2Examine the size. Most diamonds that are found aren't terribly large. They're perhaps points (and there are 100 points in a carat). This makes them roughly the size of a paper match head. 3Feel the stone. Raw diamonds have a slick, almost oily feel to them. 4Check the remaining qualities of raw diamonds. Raw diamonds are translucent, so you can see into them but not through them. These stones are also lustrous like steel or lead

13 THE 5 C OF DIAMONDS Color The "color" of a diamond refers to the presence or absence of inherent coloration in a white diamond. The whiter the diamond is the greater its value since a colorless diamond will allow increased light to pass through it and will consequently emit a greater amount of fire and brilliance. Cut Cut is properly referred to as the "make" or quality of the way the diamond has been crafted. The cut of the diamond is the only "C" that is entirely manipulated by the diamond cutter, and will determine the beauty and value of the diamond.

14 Certification It is crucial when choosing a diamond to review the diamond certificate, referred to by diamond grading laboratories as a grading report. Carat Diamonds are always measured in carat weight. One carat is the equivalent of 1/5 of a gram. Additionally, there are "100" points in a carat, so that a.50 "point" diamond would be described as a half-carat. Clarity Almost every diamond will contain some blemishes, and inclusions formed during the course of its crystallization. The diamonds clarity grade refers to the visual impact of these characteristics or lack thereof, as viewed under 10X loupe magnification.

15 HOW IS DIAMOND FORMED?

16 A Diamond is formed when extreme heat (temperatures of 2200 degrees Fahrenheit) and extreme pressure cause carbon atoms to crystallize forming diamonds approximately ninety miles under the earth's surface. Diamonds reach the surface of the earth via volcanic pipes or via placer / alluvial deposits. Kimberlite is a blue rock that occurs in ancient volcanic pipes and is the most common host of diamonds. When a volcano erupts diamonds are also deposited on, or near, the surface. Some of the kimberlite host rock is washed away by streams and rivers and diamonds are deposited as sediment in the stream sands in 'placer deposits' also called Alluvial deposits. These deposits are caused by volcanic eruptions or by millions of years of erosion caused by rainfall and snow-melt which unearth the diamonds from their kimberlite source. So, in answer to the question where are diamonds found - areas where there have been volcanic activity or erosion and where natural elements such as streams, rivers and even glaciers might have taken them.

17 WHERE ARE THESE DIAMOND FOUND ?

18 Natural diamond sources have been discovered in approximately 35 different countries around the World across several continents. Russia, Botswana and South Africa are the world’s major gem quality diamond producers and Australia is the major industrial diamond producer. The most notable diamond deposits are in Africa. Details of world locations are as follows: Africa - South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Tanzania and Sierra Leone India Russia - Siberia South America - Brazil Australia - Northern and Western Australia China United States - Arkansas (Crater of Diamond State Park) Colorado and Wyoming Canada The Names of the States where diamonds are found The Arkansas, Wyoming and Colorado are the only states to have a verifiable source of diamonds, however significant research efforts are being made in the United States are under way to locate other possible sources. Where diamonds are found in the United States - Wyoming Diamond Kimberilte pipes have been found in Wyoming, near the Colorado- Wyoming state line area referred to as the Aultman, Ferris and Schaffer kimberlites. The Herkimer Diamond Mine and the Ace Of Diamonds Mine - New York The Herkimer Diamond Mines and the Ace Of Diamonds Mine are not underground mines but are strip mines in the form a gravel pit. There are no diamonds! But faceted quartz crystals with points at both ends are found in this area.

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