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X-Ray Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "X-Ray Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 X-Ray Presentation

2 X-Ray Products By Shimadzu
XRF: X-Ray Fluorescence EDXRF: Energy Dispersive XRF EDX: Energy Dispersive X-Ray XRF: Interchangeable with EDX Shimadzu EDX-720/800/900/GP Shimadzu uEDX-1200/1300/1400 WDXRF: Wavelength Dispersive XRF XRF: Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Shimadzu XRF-1800 (Call Marketing) XRD: X-Ray Diffraction Shimadzu XRD-6000/7000 © 2007 SHIMADZU

3 XRF Analysis 1. Elements Present: Copper, Zinc, Gold, etc.
SAMPLE (solid, liquid, film) Elements Present Quantitative Analysis Film Thickness EDX & XRF 1. Elements Present: Copper, Zinc, Gold, etc. 2. Quantitative: Cu: 25%, Zn: 15%, Au: 60% 3. Film Thickness of Gold on a Copper base. © 2007 SHIMADZU

4 XRD Measures 4 Parameters
POLYCRYSTALLINE SAMPLE Phase ID a-Al2O3 vs. g-Al2O3 Quantitative Structural information Crystallite size Lattice stress & strain % Crystallinity XRD Phase ID: Three of the 5 forms or Titanium (TiO2) Anatase Brookite Rutile © 2007 SHIMADZU

5 XRD: Quantitative Analysis & Crystal Structure
65% ZnO, 35% MgO Crystal Structures: © 2007 SHIMADZU

6 Crystalline vs Amorphous
Solid matter is: Amorphous (random) Crystalline (regular pattern) Smallest volume is a unit cell The Crystal Lattice – La2O3 (cubic) 1 unit cell © 2007 SHIMADZU

7 Percent Crystallinity of Sample
Crystalline and non-crystalline (amorphous) samples scatter x-rays differently so the percent of each can be measured. Drugs in the crystalline from may be effective for the problem, but in the non-crystalline from may be ineffective. What effective does temperature have on crystallinity? High temp breaks down crystal? Room temperature vs body temp. © 2007 SHIMADZU

8 Principal of X-Rays X-rays are an electromagnetic wave. Also known as light or energy. © 2007 SHIMADZU

9 Excitation of Electrons: X-Ray vs UV-Vis-IR
X-Ray: Excitation of Inner Shell Electrons UV-Vis-IR: Excitation of Outer Shell Electrons © 2007 SHIMADZU

10 Spectra: Wavelength & Electron Volts (eV)

11 Types of X-Rays for EDX © 2007 SHIMADZU

12 EDX Series EDX-GP EDX & mEDX © 2007 SHIMADZU

13 EDX Schematic © 2007 SHIMADZU

14 Components of EDX-720/800/900 Liquid N2 Dewar (720/800) Sample Chamber
Detector and MCA X-ray tube © 2007 SHIMADZU

15 Question 1a: What Elements Need to be Measured?

16 Question 1b: What Level Need to be Measured?

17 Question 2: Will Viewing Area of Sample Change? Picture Required?
Collimator: 1, 3, 5, & 10 mm Spots Shown by Green Rings CCD Camera Save Picture of Sample Area Easy Position of Sample © 2007 SHIMADZU

18 Question 3: Autosampler Required?
Requires Turret Drive Unit ( ) 4 Types of Turrets 16 Sample Solid (32 mm) 16 Sample Liquid (32 mm) 8 Sample Solid (52 mm 8 Sample Solid w/Spinner for non-homogenous samples © 2007 SHIMADZU

19 Question 4: Analysis Light Elements (2nd or 3rd Row in Period Table)
Solids Vacuum Unit Increase Sensitivity of Light Elements NOT for uses with water, oils, or powders Liquids & Powders Helium Purge Kit Increase Sensitivity of Light Elements USED with water, oils, & powders © 2007 SHIMADZU

20 Vacuum & He Purge for 6C to 17Cl

21 Questions 5-7: Other Accessories
5) Does customer need Precision stage? X-Y stage for fine positioning of sample Requires CCD Camera & Collimator 6) Liquid Nitrogen Start Up Required? Gloves, Dewar, & Transfer Tube 7) Standards Required? Mostly for RoHS Application © 2007 SHIMADZU

22 EDX Configurator to do a Quote
and select “Product Gateway”, then “X-ray Instruments” and click on the “EDX Configurator” All part numbers for main body and accessories will be provided © 2007 SHIMADZU

23 Select The EDX Model © 2007 SHIMADZU

24 EDX-GP for RoHS Similar to EDX-720 (13Al to 92U)
Standard: CCD and Collimator No: Vacuum, Helium Purge, or Autosampler Square Sample Compartment RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Electronics Industry Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr, Br (more to be added in future) © 2007 SHIMADZU

25 No Destructive Acceptance Test

26 EDX-GP Schematic © 2007 SHIMADZU

27 EDX-GP Includes Special RoHS Software

28 Select the Proper uEDX Feature uEDX-1200 uEDX-1300 uEDX-1400
Element Range 13Al-92U 11Na-92U Detector Si(Li) Si-Drift Detector Window Beryllium Polycarbonate Detector Cooling Liquid N2 Peltier Add about 500 on to EDX to get uEDX version - EDX-800 - uEDX-1300 © 2007 SHIMADZU

29 Detector Types and Features
Si (Li) Excellent energy resolution Good count rates Requires liquid nitrogen (or Peltier cooling) Si-drift Good energy resolution Excellent count rates No liquid nitrogen PIN Diode Poor energy resolution © 2007 SHIMADZU

30 Detector Signal Processing
Detector current pulses  Counts or “cps” Pulses are segregated into channels according to energy via the MCA (Multi- Channel Analyser). © 2007 SHIMADZU

31 5 Filters as Standard No Filter Al Filter © 2007 SHIMADZU

32 Electrical & Electronic Components Chemical Industry
Applications of EDX 1 Electrical & Electronic Components Regulated Substances, Thin Films, Defects Chemical Industry Organic & Inorganic Material, Catalyst, Paints, Pigments, Rubbers, & Plastics Petroleum & Petrochemical Ni, V, S in Oils, Dopants & Contaminants Building & Construction Ceramic, Cements, Glasses, Bricks, & Clays © 2007 SHIMADZU

33 Agriculture & Food Products Iron, Steel, & Nonferrous Metals
Applications of EDX 2 Agriculture & Food Products Soils, Fertilizers, Foods Iron, Steel, & Nonferrous Metals Impurities in Raw Material, Alloys, Solders, Precious Metal Machinery & Automobiles End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Environmental Analysis of Soil, Effluent, Ashes, and Filters © 2007 SHIMADZU

34 Electronic Material& Components Chemical Engineering & Chemicals
Applications of uEX Electronic Material& Components Composition & Thickness of films, plating Chemical Engineering & Chemicals Catalyst, Scale & Sediment, Cosmetic, Dyes Oil and Coal Petroleum, Oils, Coal, Coke Ceramics Pharmaceutical, Food, Agriculture Paper & Pulp (Coated Paper, Talc, Toner) © 2007 SHIMADZU

35 XRD-6000 and XRD-7000 © 2007 SHIMADZU

36 Principals of XRD Bragg’s law is a simplistic model to understand what conditions are required for diffraction. q dhkl Wavelength from X-Ray tube type. Angle from where peaks are located. D is space which is matched to standards or databases. © 2007 SHIMADZU

37 Example of XRD-6000 Design: Theta/2 Theta
Think of a goniometer as the equivalent of a monochromator for UV-Vis Sample and Detector move in 1:2 ratio with respect to distance © 2007 SHIMADZU

38 Example of XRD-7000 Design: Theta/Theta
X-Ray Source and Detector move in 1:1 ratio with respect to distance © 2007 SHIMADZU

39 XRD-6000 & XRD-7000 Specs XRD-6000 185 mm sample to detector
±0.001º degrees resolution XRD-7000 mm sample to detector ±0.0002º degrees resolution Sales 20:1 – 6K vs 7K 185 mm sample to detector distance Also, sample can fall off sample stage as XRD-6000 rotates if not packed tight. © 2007 SHIMADZU

40 XRD-7000 Theta/Theta q/q geometry Sample fixed horizontal
Adjustable radius Improved resolution © 2007 SHIMADZU

41 XRD Most Commonly Used in w/RED DOT
Many, many option but only going to cover the 7 most sold items © 2007 SHIMADZU

42 X-Ray Tubes X-Ray Tube Elements: Usually Cu
Other: Co, Fe, Cr, Mo, W (Substitutes Before PO) X-Ray Tube Spot Size (Substitutes Before PO) Normal Focus (NF) Long Fine Focus (LFF) Fine Focus (FF) Broad Focus (BF) Tubes are $6-$10K so no exchanges after the order © 2007 SHIMADZU

43 Qualitative Analysis: Counter Monochromator
Allows only K(alpha) Rays to Detector Eliminates K(beta) and Continuous X-Rays Increase S/N ratio Sold with almost every XRD Counter Monochromator must match X-ray tube (Cu, Co, Fe, Cr) © 2007 SHIMADZU

44 Qualitative Analysis: Software
Shimadzu’s Auto Search (Standard) Very Limited Database ICDD’s PDF Series (Most Popular) PDF 2: Size 219,000 records PDF 4/Organics: 371,000 PDF2 Search Software used w/PDF 2 & 4 MDI’s JADE (Not Recommend) Pattern Processing, ID, & Quantification Can Access PDF files, Training is in CA, USA only (customer pays) © 2007 SHIMADZU

45 Quantitative Analysis: Rotational Stage
RS-1001 Rotates Sample Minimizes Scatter Eliminates Crystalline Orientation Improves Precision No Rotation Rotation 90 Degrees Rotation 45, 90, 135 Degrees Rotation Full 360 Degrees © 2007 SHIMADZU

46 Quantitative Analysis: Environmental Analysis
RS-2001 Environmental Stage Filter Holder Software Asbestos Analysis Similar to Rotation Stage © 2007 SHIMADZU

47 Automatic Analysis ASC-1001 Auto 5 Position Sample Changer
Sample Rotation like RS-1001 Optional Environmental Stage Holders like RS-2001 © 2007 SHIMADZU

48 Thin Film Analysis THA-1101 Thin Film Sample Stage Monochromator
Suction Pump to hold samples in place © 2007 SHIMADZU

49 Heating or Cooling Samples
TTK-450 Heat Sample During Diffraction Observe the Crystalline Structure Heating: +450 C Cooling: - 180C Air, Inert Gas, or Vacuum © 2007 SHIMADZU

50 Sample Holders (Optional)
Standard with XRD – Use if need extras No Metal Interference No Metal Interference, Limit Sample No Interferences © 2007 SHIMADZU

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