The influence of Music on Arousal & Achieving Optimal Performance State By: Zach Connell, Scott Frost, Brendan O’Leary
Michael Phelps Cam Newton Lebron James Sun Yang Kobe Bryant
Defining Arousal & its effects Arousal is the Physiological Activation of the nervous system. Arousal triggers feelings of confidence or doubt in an athlete based on their subjective attributions with their given state of arousal. Feelings of doubt trigger anxiety & somatic anxiety - negative attributions associated with physiological variables HR, Sweating, BP, Core Temp Prolonged stress or strain on the SNS can lead to negative physiological implications ( cortisol, Immune System fxn, memory processing) as well as poor performance.
The Inverted U Hypothesis Top Athletes have an individualized optimal state of anxiety & arousal
Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Arousal 1. Type of Task (precision task vs. power task) 2. Specific Sport or Environment of Task 3. Skill Level of the Athlete 4. Motivation 5. Mood State
Type of Task (Precision vs. Power) Power Task Precision Task Inverted U Hypothesis depending on Type of Task
Specific Sport or Environment of the Task Weight Lifting Golf Inverted U Hypothesis depending on Type of Sport
The effects of Sedative music, Arousal Music, and Silence on ECG Signals Results & Conclusions Sedative Music: unchanged mean HR, R- AMP, T- AMP Min HR, Max HR, and in R- Amp declined significantly Arousal Music: no changes in mean T-Amp or HR. Min R-AMP decreased. Max HR & Max T Wave increased. Conclusion: The electrical conductivity patterns of our hearts are different when listening to different types of music (fast vs. slow Na + channels)
Purpose: Examine the effect of music on the psycho- physiological indicators of emotional processing
What does the research say? This all makes sense in theory In practice, athletes frequently report using music while training and during (if permitted), before or after an event Look at the research in four areas: Strength/Power Endurance Anaerobic Capacity Recovery
EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON STRENGTH, EXPLOSIVENESS, AND MOOD Twenty resistance trained men between the ages of 20 and 24 Subjects came on 3 different visits Visit 1 – Obtain bench press and back squat 1 repetition maximum Visit 2 and 3 - measured bench press reps to failure, squat jump performance, and mood A Profile of Mood States (POMS) was given pre and post test both days The two experimental days were separated by 48 hours and alternated exercises by either having self selected music or silence. Ex: Day 1 (Self- selected music) Bench press- 3x failure Squat jump- 3 reps at 30% back squat 1RM Day 2 (Silence) Bench press- 3x failure Squat jump- 3 reps at 30% back squat 1RM
EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON STRENGTH, EXPLOSIVENESS, AND MOOD Results and Conclusions Conclusion: Music increased squat jump explosiveness and feelings of vigor, tension, and fatigue Therefor music might enhance acute power performance
A MOTIVATIONAL MUSIC AND VIDEO INTERVENTION IMPROVES HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE PERFORMANCE 6 nonacclimated male participants Each subject performed 3 exercise bouts of 30 minutes warm-up (5 km·h-1 [5 minutes]) 9km·h-1 (10 minutes) maximal effort run (15 minutes) The exercise days had 3 different designs control (no music or video) motivational music plus video intervention non-motivational music plus video intervention
A MOTIVATIONAL MUSIC AND VIDEO INTERVENTION IMPROVES HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE PERFORMANCE Results and Conclusions Conclusion: this study showed that a combined music and video intervention has a beneficial effect on exercise of high intensity Music and video might help combat elements of premature fatigue in high intensity exercise.
EFFECTS OF MUSIC INTERVENTIONS ON EMOTIONAL STATES AND RUNNING PERFORMANCE 65 ( 19 male, 41 female)participants between the ages of 30 -50 Three stage study Stage 1 – Questionnaire given to participants to find the type of music they wish to listen to and music choice based on their own selected running goal. Stage 2 – Running goal was attempted without music to set a baseline. Stage 3 - participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel group. Before and after stage 3 run a questionnaire was given to find the emotional status of the subjects and how the music affected their running performance.
EFFECTS OF MUSIC INTERVENTIONS ON EMOTIONAL STATES AND RUNNING PERFORMANCE Results and Conclusions Conclusion: Support to the hypothesis that listening to music is an effective emotion regulation strategy for use in running Participants who rated music as motivating reported significantly greater improvements in perceived performance
EFFECTS OF PREFERRED AND NONPREFERRED MUSIC ON CONTINUOUS CYCLING EXERCISE PERFORMANCE 15 healthy male participants between the ages of 20 and 25 The study was done on 5 days separated by at least 1 day Day 1-2 - Participants performed exhaustive continuous cycling exercise to assess the critical power intensity Day 3-5 - Cycled at critical power intensity until exhaustion under 1 of 3 conditions: Condition 1 - Listening to preferred Music Condition 2 – Listening to nonpreferred music Condition 3 - Not listening to any music During the three conditions, HR and RPE were recorded every minute and distance until exhausted was recorded at the completion of the test to the nearest meter
EFFECTS OF PREFERRED AND NONPREFERRED MUSIC ON CONTINUOUS CYCLING EXERCISE PERFORMANCE Results and Conclusions Preferred Music Increased the distance covered while having a lower value for RPE Nonpreferred Music Showed a higher RPE value then both the control and the preferred music. Conclusion: When cycling for a continuous period of time preferred music will increase the time to exhaustion along with decrease the your perceived excursion.
Purpose: examine the effect of music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance as measured by power output as well as time to fatigue Subjects: 15 college students; regular exercisers (mod to high fitness); none were anaerobic athletes Procedure: Two separate test sessions; music condition and non-music condition (order randomized) Perform 3 consecutive Wingate Tests separated by 30sec rest On Test 3: subjects pedaled to fatigue (pedal rate fell below 10rpm Music condition: Select favorite type of music from selections matched for tempo (120 bpm) Music played continuously from start of Test 1 until finish of Test 3 Variables Measured Mean Power Output (mean over full 30sec), Max Power Output (peak 5-sec work output), Min Power Output (lowest 5-sec work output), Fatigue Index (% drop in power from Max throughout test), Time to fatigue in Test 3
No Significant difference between conditions in all variables
Hypothesis Active recovery has been found to enhance lactate clearance after intense exercise The natural movement response to rhythm and tempo and music-related dissociation from unpleasant feelings such as pain and fatigue would lead to more active recovery and faster lactate clearance Purpose Determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, RPE and blood lactate concentration
Conclusions of Sports Studies Trend emerging which suggests that music is a genuine ergogenic aid (at least among non-elite sports people) Positive psycho-physical benefits Motivation Mood State RPE In-task Affect 4 factors contribute to psychophysical motivational qualities of music: rhythm and tempo musicality (melody and harmony) suitability of music to the sociocultural background of the athlete extra-musical associations Ergogenic effects observed for sports at the opposite ends on the sports continuum (Endurance vs. Strength/Power) but not so much for Anaerobic capacity
References Dousty, Mehdy. The effects of sedative music, arousal music and silence on electrocardiography signals. Journal of Electrocardiology. 2011, 44: 396.e1-396.e6 Barwood MJ et al. A motivational music and video intervention improves high-intensity exercise performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2009, 8: 435-442. Biagini M, et al. Effects of Self-Selected Music on Strength, Explosiveness and Mood. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012, vol 26, 7: 1934-1938 Lane, AM, P Davis, T Devonport. Effects of music interventions on emotional states and running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2011, 10: 400-407 Nakamura, PM. Effects of preferred and nonpreffered music on continuous cycling exercise performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2010, 110: 1, 257-264. Becker N, et al. Mellow and Frenetic Antecedent Music During Athletic Performance of Children, Adults and Seniors. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1994, 79: 1043-1046 Sammler D, et al. Music and Emotion: Electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music. Psychophysiology. 2007, 44: 293-304. Pujol TJ & ME Langenfeld. Influence of Music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1999, 88: 292-296. Eliakim M, et al. Effect of motivational music on lactate levels during recovery from intense exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012, 26, 1: 80-86 Abernethy, Bruce. "Attention." Trans. ArrayPrint Ravissa, Kenneth. "Increasing Awareness for Sport Performance." Trans. ArrayPrint.
A Quick Activity to Demonstrate How Music Affects Emotional State
Thank You! From Zach-mon, Scotty Hotty, Breezy Brendan