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Made with love, by Zachary Langley Applets The Graphics Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Made with love, by Zachary Langley Applets The Graphics Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Made with love, by Zachary Langley Applets The Graphics Presentation

2 What is an Applet? An applet is a Java program that a web browser enabled with Java technology can download and run Applets are a subclass of java.awt.Applet, which provides the interface between the browser and the applet

3 How do Applets Differ From Applications? Applets do not have a main method ( public static void main(String[] args) ) Instead, an applet has a series of methods that are called by an HTML enabled browser Applets are subclasses of JApplet or Applet (they “extend from” these classes)

4 Writing Your First Applet Open up NetBeans Create a new project called “HelloWorldApplet” Delete the everything in the class’s body (the SPVM and the constructor) Make your class “extend” from J Applet : public class HelloWorldApplet extends JApplet Fix your imports by typing alt+shift+F

5 Displaying “Hello World!” Add the method in bold to your class: public class HelloWorldApplet extends JApplet { public void paint(Graphics g) { g.drawString(“Hello World!”, 50, 75); } } Run the applet by typing shift+F6

6 How it Works The drawString method accepts three arguments: the String to draw, the x location, and the y location In Java, the origin (0, 0) is in the top-left corner origin (50, 75) g.drawString(“Hello World!”, 50, 75);

7 The paint(Graphics) Method The paint method is automatically called by an applet when the applet needs repainting If you want to force the applet to call paint, call repaint() repaint() will call paint(Graphics) for you, but will pass in the appropriate Graphics object

8 Drawing a Rectangle Let’s draw a rectangle as a border around our text: public void paint(Graphics g) { g.drawRect(45, 60, 85, 20); g.drawString(“Hello World!”, 50, 75); } Run the applet

9 How it Works The drawRect method accepts four arguments: the x location, the y location, the width, and the height (45, 60) 85 20 g.drawRect(45, 60, 85, 20);

10 Filling the Rectangle and Adding Some Color Now we’re going to fill that rectangle in blue and draw “Hello World!” in green: public void paint(Graphics g) { g.setColor(; g.fillRect(45, 60, 85, 20); g.setColor(; g.drawString(“Hello World!”, 50, 75); } Notice the change from “drawRect” to “fillRect”

11 How it Works and are public static variables in the Color class (and there are many others, check the Color documentation) By default, the Graphic ’s color is black Tip: you can create your own Color object with its constructor: Color(int r, int g, int b)

12 Adding Animation Let’s make our rectangle bounce off the walls of the applet. The first thing we should do is store the x and width as variables public class HelloWorldApplet extends JApplet { private int x = 45, width = 85; public void paint(Graphics g) { /* snip */ } }

13 Adding Animation II Now we need to use these variables in our paint method public void paint(Graphics g) { g.setColor(; g.fillRect(x, 60, width, 20); g.setColor(; g.drawString(“Hello World!”, x + 5, 75); } Run the applet, it should look the same

14 Threads All animation needs to be done in a separate thread A thread is a thread of execution in a program

15 Adding Animation III: Creating a Thread Now let’s create our own thread: private int x = 45, width = 85; private class MyThread extends Thread { public void run() { /* code for the thread to execute */ } } Note that this class is inside HelloWorldApplet(we call this an inner-class)

16 Adding Behavior to MyThread We want to make the text bounce, but first let’s just make it move: private int speed = 1; public void run() { while (true) { x += speed; repaint(); try { Thread.sleep(10); } catch (InterruptedException e) { } } } }

17 Starting the Thread The program still shouldn’t act differently; we haven’t started the thread Add the following method before the paint method: public void init() { MyThread myThread = new MyThread(); myThread.start(); }

18 The init() Method Like the paint method, the init method is called automatically However, the init method is called once and only once: as soon as the applet launches Only initialization code should go in the init method

19 Animation IV If you run your applet now, you’ll notice that the text moves, but it moves right off the window We can easily fix this by checking if our rectangle is going to move out of view, and if so, reverse the speed: while (true) { if (x + width + speed > getWidth() || x + speed < 0) speed = -speed; x += speed; /* snip */ }

20 Mouse Listeners To demonstrate MouseListeners, create another project in NetBeans called “MouseListenerApplet” Follow the same steps you did before to make it run as an applet (remove the SPVM, the constructor, extend JApplet, fix imports)

21 Adding a MouseListener Adding a MouseListener is much like creating a thread public class MouseListenerApplet extends JApplet { private class MyMouseListener implements MouseListener { } public void init() { addMouseListener(new MyMouseListener()); } } At this point you may need to fix your imports

22 Implementing the Required Methods The code will not compile yet; the MouseListener interface requires you to implement certain methods private class MyMouseListener implements MouseListener { public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) { System.out.println(“mouseClicked”); } public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e) { System.out.println(“mouseEntered”); } public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e) { System.out.println(“mouseExited”); } public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) { System.out.println(“mousePressed”); } public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) { System.out.println(“mouseReleased”); } } After adding these methods, run the applet. Click on the applet and watch what is printed to the console

23 Methods in the Applet’s Life Cycle There are four methods in an applet’s life cycle: i nit(), s tart(), stop(), and d estroy() init() and d estroy() are called once throughout the applet’s life, while s tart() and s top() are called at least once start() is called immediately after the init method, and also when a user returns to the page containing the applet, after viewing other methods stop() is called whenever the user moves away from the page containing the applet destroy() is called when the browser shuts down normally

24 Questions?

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