3Dominant People The Queen (Elizabeth II) Commonwealth immigrants Descended from royaltySymbol of division between British unionists and Irish republicans who reject the crownCommonwealth immigrantsMore and more commonInflow and outflow from Australia, Canada, European union, united statesOne characteristic in common – not whitePublic opposes unlimited immigration of nonwhitesBoth conservative and labor parties pass laws limiting immigration
43 Political Justifications Needed To Make Decisions (177) Trustee Theory of Government: assumes that leaders should take the initiative in deciding what the public interest isInterest Theory Group of Government: sees government’s role as balancing the demands of competing groups and classes in societyIndividualist Theory: emphasizes political parties should represent people rather than organized interestsAll represent articulation of conflicting beliefs about who should govern and what government should do
5Role of Government & Signs of Tradition Provide safety to the people and enforce social orderIndividuals are rarely offered referendum allowing them to vote directly on what government doesEnglish comply with basic political laws = 1 source of legitimacySigns of TraditionMonarchy – 1 source of legitimacyQueen and her popularity is a consequence not a cause of legitimacy
6ChurchillChurchill“No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all wise, indeed it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except, all those other forms that have been tried from time to time”Provides a justification of the country’s democracy
7SecrecySecrecyRemains strong because serves interest of most powerful people in governmentPublic information act 2005 reduced executives power to keep secret, the exchange of views within the white hall networkPeople were unaware of what government was doingSecrecy is supporting the government making mistakes (negative)
9Religion & GovernmentThe monarch’s role as the official head of the Church of England creates a sense of legitimacy for the monarch as the head of state.Formal authority is vested in the sovereign (in Parliament) as the religious and political leader of the realm.The Church of England is the established religion of the state, which creates a sense of legitimacy for the government among the Church’s adherents.In a society with increasing religious heterogeneity, the presence of leaders who adhere to religions other than the Anglican Church legitimizes the system of government for other adherents of those religions.
11DevelopmentKing John became unpopular among his subjects, Pope and fellow barons.Since 1028 with William the Conquer, every king had a revolution on his hands, and so did King John.King John feared death and the person who would inherit the throne was Prince Louis of France.England and France have been at war for 30 yearsTo Prevent everything, he created the Magna Carta to keep England content.The Magna Carta was established June
12Magna Carta The Magna Carta originally had 61 clauses Varying taxation, freedom of the English Church, lending money, stealing, and evil customs involving forests to be abolished.It allows the formation of a parliament which the King must address for taxationThe Magna Carta has been amended many times and is the basic law of the land.
15More on the Magna CartaCreated by assembly of barons, document against tyranny and voiced importance of individual freedomDemanded traditional rights to be documentedAn inspiration for American ColonistsLimited King’s ability to obtain fundsLost money due to disastrous foreign policyOriginally meant to protect rights and property of powerful families
16Cont. Now basic document of constitution Democracy and protection of ancient liberties not originally baron’s goalsPresented the principle of “majority rules” over the kingTitle of “King” was not above the lawHas been re-interpreted numerous timesEqually important to the UK and America
17English Civil War King vs. Parliament King James believed he had divine right by God, that Parliament should not argue with himParliament had money while King didn’t thoughThen Charles argued with Parliament over religion and money issues as well
18After the Civil WarMonarchy was reminded that they were a constitutional monarchy and not an absolute monarchy. The parliament was needed because it was there to represent the people.
19Glorious Revolution Victory of parliament over the King! Overthrowing of King JamesIssues of power in favor of parliamentHad to convene regularlyAll new taxes approved by parliamentNo religious toleration, Catholics limited rights, King remain protestant at request of parliament
20The Great Reform ActAct of parliament changed electoral system of England and WalesHouse of Commons had 658 members513 represented England and WalesCreated by Whigs, wanted larger majority in House of Commons to remove ToriesFound opposition due to voting requirements, needed minimum income
21Cont. New towns able to elect MPs Constituencies still unequal (representatives)Two types of constituencies counties and boroughsCounty members represent land holdersBorough members represent mercantile and trade interests of UK
23Elections British Government is a Party Government The parties nominate parliamentary candidates and elect a leader who is prime ministerElections give voters the choice of deciding between parties who are competing for the right o governMust occur once every five yearsPrime minister can be elected at any time
24First-past-the-post system Candidate with the largest number of votes winEven if the plurality falls short of half the voteCandidates do not need to get absolute majority (over 50 %)Used for general elections for the House of CommonsJustifications is because it places responsibility for government in the hands of one single party
25Multi-Party System Emerged in 1974 Three Main Parties in England (“Two and a Half”)Labour PartyConservativesAlliance of Liberals and Social Democrats (Liberal Democrats)Four Parties in Scotland and WalesFive Parties in Northern IrelandMakes the House of Commons disproportional representedEach parties has a different amount
26Party Organization & Image Each Party has annual conferences to debate policy and vote on policy resolutionsDecentralization = wide variety of outlooks in parliamentary candidatesLeft-right scaleLeft = socialist valuesRight = conservative valuesGoal is to do what people want
27Comparisons Italy & Belgium United States of America Proportional RepresentationParties make a coalition government which results in intensive bargaining between partiesCoalition governments encourage broader consensusesUnited States of AmericaTwo Main PartiesDemocratsRepublicans