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What is ethics? Be aware of key words moral philosophy, deontological, teleological, normative ethics, applied ethics, absolute and relative morality.

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Presentation on theme: "What is ethics? Be aware of key words moral philosophy, deontological, teleological, normative ethics, applied ethics, absolute and relative morality."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is ethics? Be aware of key words moral philosophy, deontological, teleological, normative ethics, applied ethics, absolute and relative morality.

2  Look at the cards you have been given.  All of these could be considered to be ‘wrong’ by some people.  Create your own ‘Diamond 9’ (well Diamond 18)  Each person should take it in turns to add and/or move a card on the chart.  Placing a card near the top of the chart means it is more likely to be always (or nearly always) wrong.  Placing a card near the bottom of the chart means it is less likely to be always (or nearly always) wrong.  Continue going around until all cards are on the chart and a consensus of opinion has been reached about the order.  Look at the top three. Justify their position at the top of the chart.

3 Ethics The philosophical study (often called Moral Philosophy) of good bad, right and wrong.

4 TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ETHICS 1) Normative ethics (ethical theories) o Utilitarianism o Kantian ethics o Christian Ethics (including Situation Ethics) o Natural Law Within Normative ethics, there are two different ideas: o Deontological ethics (the act itself determines the rightness of an action) eg: Ten Commandments o Teleological ethics (the morally right or wrong thing to do is dependent on the consequences)

5 TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ETHICS Applied Ethics o Abortion o Euthanasia o War o Medical Ethics

6  Based on the picture, decide whether the girl’s actions are right or wrong.  The girl is shoplifting.  The Girl is called Becky, she is 17 and has a five month old baby called Josh. Her boyfriend and her parents don’t want anything to do with the her or the child.  Josh is desperately hungry and his mother has had no money for some days now  The supermarket Becky stole from made £16m profit last year. Is morality absolute or relative?

7 To make any moral judgement we must have some sort of moral code that depicts right and wrong. The big question is... Are there shades of grey or absolutes? Right Wrong Right Wrong Sure, Becky’s story is sad, however, stealing is just wrong, there’re no two ways about it. From an early age we are taught you just cannot go out and take what is not yours, what does or does not belong to you. ‘Do not steal’ is both a religious and secular principle. Just consider Becky’s situation for a moment and weigh up her ‘crime’ against how much the supermarket makes each year. She could have saved her baby’s life, surely that’s worth £3.18 isn’t it?

8 Homework 1)Philosophy.hku.hk/think/value/quiz.php Or google: Quiz are you a moral relativist? 2) Read and make notes from Understanding Religious Ethics up to page 25 by Next Wednesday.

9 Exploring Relativism This lesson will be successful if you can evaluate the first of 2 types of relativism Cultural Relativism & Normative Relativism

10 Morality…is a convenient term for socially approved habits. (Benedict, 1934) Evaluate this statement – do you agree?

11 Starter In your groups – make a list of all the key words and definitions that we covered yesterday

12 2 types of relative theory Cultural Relativity o Spartan culture: the end, or telos of Spartan culture was to create a strong warrior race. Infanticide – weak children were left to die Children’s education was taken over by the state at the age of 7 when boys were forced into the wilderness to fend for themselves Slavery – Macedonian people had no rights. To prove yourself as a Spartan warrior you killed a Macedonian in cold blood. Watch 300 – what can you make out about the morality of Spartan Culture?

13 Diversity Thesis Even today it is easy to see clashes of moral codes. To us it seems barbaric to cut of a mans hand as punishment for theft yet to many Muslims, this is just the required punishment and they on their part will condemn what they see as excessive liberalism and immorality of western societies

14 Diversity Thesis In pairs, make a list of different things that cultures clash over either today, or in history

15 Diversity Thesis Child labour Sex outside marriage Monogamy Arranged marriages Elderly in homes Funeral practices Dietary laws Women in society Fox hunting

16 Strengths & Weaknesses of Relativism Make a list of strengths and weaknesses.

17 Strengths & Weaknesses of Relativism Strengths o Allows for diversity o A greater understanding of other cultures o It understands that life is not black and white o Cultures may believe that their practices are more justifiable than others, but by using a relativist approach, this will allow for acceptance between different people

18 Strengths & Weaknesses of Relativism Weaknesses o It implies there can be no real evaluation or criticism of practices such as burning witches, slavery, the Holocaust or torture of innocents o It does not allow societies to progress – (the realisation that slavery was unacceptable was slow to develop – but no one would doubt that we have made some progress o Relativism seems to give little reason for behaving morally except to be socially acceptable o Some statements ARE true absolutely. There must be some objective good.

19 Plenary What accepted practices today do you think that people will look back at in horror in the future?

20 Starter Write down 3 examples of cultural relativity.

21 Normative Relativism: Situation Ethics Teleological ethical theory In a nutshell: method of making ethical decisions that states you must consider ‘noble love’ (agape) in decision making. A moral decision is correct if it is the most loving thing to do.

22 Historical Background What happened in British society in the 1960s?

23 Normative Relativism: Situation Ethics Teleological ethical theory In a nutshell: method of making ethical decisions that states you must consider ‘noble love’ (agape) in decision making. A moral decision is correct if it is the most loving thing to do.

24 Normative Relativism: Situation Ethics LegalismAntinomianism Situation Ethics Following the churches rules Abandonment of all rules

25 Legalistic Ethics Has a set of moral rules and regulations. Judaism and Christianity both have legalistic ethical traditions. Fletcher said this runs into problems – life’s complexities require additional laws. Murder, killing in self defence, killing in war, killing unborn human beings etc. Becomes complex and like a textbook morality that leaves people simply to check the manual to decide what is right and wrong.

26 Antinomian Ethics The reverse of legalistic ethics. It literally means ‘against law’. A person using antinomianism doesn’t really use an ethical system at all. He or she enters decision-making as if each occasion was totally unique. Making a moral decision is a matter of spontaneity. ‘They are, exactly anarchic – i.e. without a rule’. Fletcher is also critical of this approach.

27 Dilemma A teenager has become pregnant as a result of being raped by a close family member. She’s very poor and very young. How would legalists, antinomians and situationists go about considering what the moral thing to do is?

28 Situation Ethics Teleological ethical theory In a nutshell: method of making ethical decisions that states you must consider ‘noble love’ (agape) in decision making. A moral decision is correct if it is the most loving thing to do.

29 Situation Ethics Associated with Joseph Fletcher (who coined the phrase) Fletcher was an American Christian priest ( ) He renounced his faith in later life and became an atheist. His book Situation Ethics was published in 1966.

30 Mark 2: One Sabbath Jesus was going through the grain fields, and as his disciples walked along, they began to pick some heads of grain. The Pharisees said to him, "Look, why are they doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath?" He answered, "Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were hungry and in need? In the days of Abiathar the high priest, he entered the house of God and ate the consecrated bread, which is lawful only for priests to eat. And he also gave some to his companions." Then he said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath."

31 Points to note… This took place on the Sabbath On the Sabbath it was forbidden to… …work. To this day certain Orthodox Jews will observe this rule to a very high degree. The switching on of lights would be forbidden on the Sabbath, for example. In this story, Jesus’ disciples are criticised for picking corn on the Sabbath as they walk through a field on their way to the synagogue. Technically, this is harvesting.

32 Points to note… Jesus’ response to this criticism from the Pharisees is twofold. First he cites a precedent, King David’s men breaking a religious rule due to hunger. But the second is more significant for our purposes. Jesus says that "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath."

33 Meaning What Exactly? The commandments are not to be followed slavishly as if life is a game of Simon ( or Jehovah) Says and that heaven is a reward for those who obey. The commandments are there for the benefit of humankind and that he Jesus has discretion over how they should be interpreted. What might have been the original intention of the commandment forbidding work on the Sabbath?

34 So what’s this got to do with Situation Ethics? In another passage, Jesus says this.. "The most important one," answered Jesus, "is this: 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. 'The second is this: 'Love your neighbour as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these." For Fletcher, this has enormous significance. For Christians all of the commandments are to be seen in the light of love. When a Christian acts they should follow the course of action that leads to the most love being shown.

35 So in Situation Ethics… …the only rule is that you should act in the way that results in the most love being shown. (Love is the law) …as no two situations are exactly alike this needs to be reconsidered every time. On some occasions you may have to tell the truth, on others you should not. It just depends on the Situation…(hence the name) …all you need is love (no Fletcher wasn’t a Beatle) but it was the sixties.

36 Four Working Principles Pragmatic – it must be a practical solution Relativist – situation ethics avoids words like never, perfect, always complete. BUT ALL DECISIONS MUST BE RELATIVE TO CHRISTIAN LOVE Positivism – put’s Christian love first Personalism – puts people first.

37 Quick test Write down everything you know about situation ethics

38 Six Fundamental Principles Only one thing is intrinsically good, namely love: nothing else at all. o Only love is good in itself. Actions are not intrinsically good or evil. The ruling norm of Christian decision is love: nothing else. o Rules of the Torah are replaced by Christian love. Love and Justice are the same, for justice is love distributed, nothing else.

39 6 Fundamental Principles Love wills the neighbour’s good, whether we like him or not. o So, love your neighbour does not just mean people that you like Only the end justifies the means, nothing else. o It is teleological. Situationists look at the ends, not the means. Love’s decisions are made situationally, not prescriptively. o You don’t have to follow the rules to the letter.

40 So, for situation ethicists Consider the moral dilemmas cards. What would a situation ethicist do?

41 Strengths and weaknesses Rejects antinomian and legalistic approaches Subjective Individualistic Allows for differences of opinion in ethical matters What are the weaknesses?

42 Let’s evaluate Situation Ethics Do you think that Fletcher’s ethics are Christian? Analyse Fletcher’s views that ‘the end of love justifies the means’. Is Situation ethics a useful guide for everyday ethical decision making? Are moral rules totally useless n moral decision- making or can you see a role for them?

43 Key questions: Is all human life intrinsically valuable/sacred? Is the intentional killing of people always wrong? Is it always a duty to preserve innocent life? What is a person?

44 Panorama The Great Abortion Divide anorama_The_Great_Abortion_Divide/ anorama_The_Great_Abortion_Divide/ What do you think the Situation Ethicist would say about abortion?

45 What is abortion? Abortion is the induced termination of a pregnancy that destroys the foetus Foetus – an organism in the womb from nine weeks until birth

46 When does life begin? When do you think life begins? o Conception? o When it has a heartbeat at 3 weeks o When it begins to move at 9 weeks o At birth?

47 Diamond 9

48 What does the law say about abortion? There is danger to the woman’s mental or physical health That the foetus will be born with physical or mental disabilities That the welfare of existing children may be affected Abortion Act. Is illegal in Britain but: It can be carried out in specific circumstances where two doctors agree: The limit for abortion to take place was 28 weeks. This was amended in 1991 (The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act) to a 24-week limit. In reality, the majority of abortions take place within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

49 Talk to me about this man…. Case Studies form a big part of your ethics answers Nick Vujicic

50 Rev Joanna Jepson She was born with a cleft palate – usually very easy correct with an operation. She campaigned – unsuccessfully – to bring criminal charges against two doctors who performed a late abortion at 28 weeks in The doctors argued that a cleft palate could lead to ‘severe disability’ and abortion was therefore legal after 24 weeks. The CPS announced in March 2005 that it would not bring charges against the doctors.

51 Case Studies Roe vs. Wade In 1973 (Roe v. Wade) the US Supreme Court held that a pregnant woman has a constitutional right, under the Fourteenth Amendment, to choose to terminate her pregnancy before viability as part of her freedom of personal choice in family matters – abortion became legal across the US. People have been contesting this in America ever since. It was a key issue that Obama and Mitt Romney fought over in last year’s election.

52 In 2011, 147 abortions carried out after 24 weeks

53 So, what would the situationist say? Complete the worksheet on Situation Ethics and Abortion. Try and use case study examples to help you wherever you can.

54 The strengths and weaknesses of applying Situation Ethics to Abortion Create a table that outlines the strengths and weaknesses

55 What should happen to… What should happen to: o A suicide bomber who kills many people in a crowded marketplace o A man who shoots an intruder in his house o A soldier who kills in war o A compulsive serial killer

56 Do you think that some lives are more valuable than others? How can we justify spending money on fertilisation for a couple when the money could be used to improve the quality of life for the sick and elderly? We also allow thousands to die in Africa…? Are some lives more valuable than others?

57 Before we go onto look at another ethical theory, you also need to know what people think about the sanctity of life

58 Text Book Challenge o Using your books find out everything that you can about Sanctity of Life You have 10 minutes…… Go!

59 The Christian religion emphasises the sanctity of life. GENESIS 1.27: So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. Later, God saw everything he had made, and indeed, it was very good (Genesis 1.31).

60 The idea that humans are made in the image of God is used to express the fact that humans are different from other creatures; they are special. This concept can also be seen in Genesis 2: “Then the Lord God formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life” (2.7).

61 This story shows that humans are seen as unique among all the creatures of the earth. It is through ruach, which can mean the breath of life or the spirit of God, that humans are endowed with divine qualities. Human life is sacred and so for most Christians it is wrong to take human life without just cause. There are some Christians who believe that taking any human life is wrong for any reason.

62 Is the foetus a person? Christians do not agree on the answer to this question. Some Christians argue that it is only when a foetus is physically independent of its mother that personhood begins. These Christians regard abortion as, in certain situations, the best of a number of imperfect moral alternatives.

63 Anti-abortion Christians do so from the standpoint of the Sanctity of Life. They claim authority for their views on the basis of passages in the Bible which point to the foetus being a living person at or shortly after conception: Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you (Jeremiah 1.5).

64 Criticisms of the Sanctity of Life theory in relation to abortion 1. All life is special and human life is no different from that of other creatures. Peter Singer argues that the sanctity given to human life has distorted morality. People find it easier to accept the use of healthy animals in experiments for cosmetics than the termination of an abnormal foetus.

65 ENSOULMENT Some Christians argue that the foetus does not become a person at conception, but at ensoulment. Ensoulment occurs when the foetus takes on human characteristics, when it looks like a baby in miniature. It is at this point that the body and soul become one. This might be when the foetus’ nervous system has formed.

66 When does ensoulment actually happen? a.AQUINAS – it takes place at 40 days. Forty has religious significance (the time Jesus was in the wilderness and the Israelites in the desert after the Exodus). However, it has no biological significance. b.AUGUSTINE – it takes place at 80 days.

67 c. POPE INNOCENT III ( ) – put ensoulment at the start of the 13 th week of pregnancy (116 days). This was based on the Luke passage when Elizabeth’s baby leapt in her womb. This is known as the QUICKENING, the first time a woman feels the foetus move in her womb. This is the moment that Innocent III thought that the foetus becomes a human being. Therefore abortions were permissible up to that time, but not after.

68 Today the Catholic Church does not believe that ensoulment occurs at this stage of pregnancy, but at conception. Therefore abortion is against the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

69 Criticisms of ensoulment 1.It is dependent on either an Aristotelian or dualist view that there is a body and soul. 2.Many fertilised eggs are conceived but are later naturally aborted by the body. What does this say about the nature of an omnibenevolent God if each one is already ensouled?

70 3. Even if the concept was valid, how can we know the precise moment when the soul becomes integrated into the body? Is it after 40 days or 80 days or when? Is it different for males and females, as some Medieval scholars believed?

71 4. Ensoulment does not have any biological or psychological basis. Wouldn’t the creation of the nervous system be a better and more obvious division, as this is when the foetus can feel pleasure and pain?


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