Presentation on theme: "An argument is people fighting or putting each other down. An argument is making a statement based on reasons and evidence and following up with support."— Presentation transcript:
An argument is people fighting or putting each other down. An argument is making a statement based on reasons and evidence and following up with support for that statement.
Logic has been studied in many civilizations. India China Persia Greece
Aristotle: Father of Logic 384 BC – 322 BC (62 years) The base of education Their school was called the Trivium: ◦ Grammar ◦ Logic ◦ Rhetoric ◦ Only 3 classes!
When someone gathers specific facts and he comes to a general conclusion, that’s using inductive reasoning. However, it is only a probable conclusion. The more facts, the better the conclusion.
When someone comes to a specific conclusion after going through the facts, that’s using deductive reasoning. This is more certain because it is based on facts.
1. Logic can be indicated and dedicated. True or False?True False
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. True or False.True False
3. Deductive or Inductive?Deductive Inductive Star Wars is the 2 nd -biggest money maker of all time. The #1 movie in 2004 was Shrek 2. Spiderman broke many records in Therefore, Science Fiction and Fantasy films do well at the movies.
Fill in notes on next page!
1.Ar_s_ot_e w_s _he fa_h_r of Rh_t_r_c a_d L_g_c 2.T_e_e a_e _wo t_p_s of l_gi_: I_du_ti_e a_d D_d_ct_v_ 3. I_du_t_ve l_gi_ is g_i_g th_ou_h f_ct_ a_d co_i_g to a g_ne_a_ co_cl_s_on w_er_ as D_d_c_i_e lo_i_ is _oi_g t__ou_h f_c_s a_d c_m_ng to a sp_c_f_c c_n_lu_i_n.
When we try to convince someone by showing that we all have the same sense of right and wrong, When we try to show that we hold the same values (honesty, trust, caring), When we try to persuade others that we are believeable and credible, We are using an appeal to ethos.
When we try to convince others not with facts or data or logic, but by trying to affect their feelings and emotions, We are using the appeal to pathos.
When we use reason, When we use data and facts, When we support our side with evidence, We are using the appeal to logos. Quiz Time!
You want your parents to let you go to the movies so you make the saddest eyes you can to convince them. Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos
You want your parents to let you go to the movies so you explain that you have been doing your homework, and cleaning your room, and that makes you trust-worthy. Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos
You want your parents to let you go to the movies so you show them a picture of you screaming the last time they didn’t let you go. Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos
You want your parents to let you go to the movies so you show them an article that points out that kids who go out become more responsible adults. Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos
You may continue with your studies. I need a 6-letter word for smart… feline! Fill-in Notes next! That was impressive.
1.Et_ os is t_e a_pe_l to _th_c_ 2._a_h_s is t_e _pp_al to _mot_o_s 3.L_g_s is t_e ap_e_l to _o_i_ 4.Wh_n we s_ow so_e_ne o_r s_nse of r_g_t a_d w_o_g, t_at we h_l_ t_e sa_e v_l_es a_d t_at we a_e b_l_ev_ab_e a_d c_e_ib_e, th_s is _t_os 5.W_e_ we t_y to a_f_ct _eo_l_’s e_o_i_ns we a_e _s_ng p_t_o_ 6.W_en we u_e d_t_, r_a_o_s, a_d _o_ic we a_e u_i_g _o_os
A_lu_i_n: a r_f_r_n_e to a w_l_-k_o_n _e_so_, c_ar_c_er, p_a_e, _v_n_, or l_t_ra_y w_r_. _e_et_ti_n: t_e _ec_rr_nc_ of s_un_s, w_r_s, p_ra_es, or l_n_s in a s_ee_h or _i_er_ry _ork. M_t_p_o_: a c_mp_r_so_ _e_we_n t_o th_n_s t_a_ _e_m u_l_ke _ach o_h_r. _l_i_e_a_i_n: t_e _e_et_t_on of _o_s_na_t so_n_s at t_e _e_i_n_ng of _or_s. R_e_o_ic_l Q_e_t_o_: A _u_st_on f_r w_ic_ t_e _n_we_ is o_vi_u_ so n_n_ is e_pe_t_d.
My BFF’s boyfriend carries a knife, so I told her I didn’t want her to pull a Juliet if her parents didn’t like him. Rhetorical Question Rhetorical Question Alliteration Alliteration Metaphor Metaphor Repetition Repetition Allusion Allusion
“From forth the fatal loins of these two foes; a pair of star-crossed lovers take their life.” Romeo and Juliet Act 1, Prelude William Shakespeare Rhetorical Question Rhetorical Question Alliteration Alliteration Metaphor Metaphor Repetition Repetition Allusion Allusion
“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances.” As You Like It Act 2, Scene 2 William Shakespeare Rhetorical Question Rhetorical Question Alliteration Alliteration Metaphor Metaphor Repetition Repetition Allusion Allusion
Relevance Quality Credibility
Evidence must be related to the argument. Dante deserves to be team captain because he has the most experience and knows all the plays. (Relevant) Dante deserves to be team captain because he is the tallest. (Not relevant)
When evidence is from an excellent source, it is more convincing. My math teacher says I know Algebra really well. (high-quality source) My 4-year-old cousin says I have great math skills. (poor-quality source)
The evidence must be believable and trustworthy. The argument has supporting evidence. The evidence comes from qualified opinions. The evidence comes from experts in that area. My uncle checked my math homework and he is an engineer for NASA. I’m sure it’s right! I googled the problem and got an answer somewhere online. I’m sure it’s right!
E_i_e_c_ m_s_ be r_l_v_nt, h_g_ _u_l_t_, and c_e_ib_e f_r it to be e_f_c_i_e. T_ese t_in_s w_l_ ma_e y_u_ a_g_me_t m_r_ b_li_va_l_. Ex_e_t_ a_e tr_s_w_r_h_ f_r e_id_n_e.
My aunt is an Earth science professor and says global warming is real! Credible Quality The following argument is a _______ argument. Bad Argument CredibleQuality The sun is made of orange juice because when you look at it, it is orange. Relevant My mom is the best mom because her first name starts with the letter “A.” My mom is the best mom because she makes really great lunches and disciplines me in a harsh yet fair way.