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1 2009 COHMED Conference Emerging Technologies in Hazmat Tracking and Identification Workshop Mark Lepofsky, Ph.D., PMP Battelle Project Updates.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2009 COHMED Conference Emerging Technologies in Hazmat Tracking and Identification Workshop Mark Lepofsky, Ph.D., PMP Battelle Project Updates."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 2009 COHMED Conference Emerging Technologies in Hazmat Tracking and Identification Workshop Mark Lepofsky, Ph.D., PMP Battelle Project Updates

2 2 Outline Hazmat Routing HM-05: Electronic Shipping Papers Cargo Tank Rollover Study CMV Brake Studies HM-04: Emerging Technologies for HM Transportation WRI and CSA 2010

3 3 H AZMAT R OUTING S AFETY & S ECURITY R ISK A NALYSIS P ROJECT

4 4 Major Project Deliverables Documentation of hazmat routes –Updated National Hazardous Materials Route Registry (NHMRR) Documentation of stakeholder concerns about hazmat routing Guidance materials for routing officials –How to apply safety and security methodology to select hazmat routes Analysis of current hazmat restrictions related to border crossings Development of prototype web-based routing tool

5 5 Documentation of Hazmat Routes Document existing, proposed, and pending HM routes (includes HM and radioactive transport routes) –Routes prescribed as HM routes –Routes prohibited for HM transport Updated National Hazardous Materials Route Registry List (NHMRR) –Contacted every state –About 760 hazmat routes are designated in the US

6 6 Documentation of Stakeholder Concerns about Hazmat Routing Survey of stakeholders to ascertain concerns about hazmat routing Carriers –Diversions from the most direct route adds costs (added mileage) –Routing officials must consult with adjacent entities to ensure routing conflicts don’t develop States –Favorable towards the concept of enhanced safety and security being derived from routing regulations –Hazmat should be routed on limited access highways to improve both safety and security

7 7 Guidance Document Purpose: develop guidance document for routing officials to apply safety and security criteria to select hazmat routes Two major approaches to improve hazmat safety/security –Provide greater safety and security protection to urban areas by directing though HM traffic to use routes with less urban mileage –Provide greater security protection to critical infrastructure and iconic structures by either directing HM traffic to routes that are farther away or by establishing restricted HM zones around the structures

8 8 Guidance Document Developed algorithms that calculate –Safety risk: based on population, distance, and accident rates –Security risk: based on -location of potential targets such as critical infrastructure and iconic structures -relative distances from HM routes (interstates) and law enforcement

9 9 Development of Prototype Web- based Routing Tool Prototype tool developed for routing HM shipments for safety and security –Web-based –Includes algorithms in Guidance Document –Icons/critical infrastructure, police stations, major interstates –Exits for limited access highways for central cities larger than 250,000 –Programmed for use in GIS Software

10 10 Routing Tasks Proposed for FY 2009 Full development of web-based safety and security vulnerability tool Full development of web-based long distance routing capability Provide user guides and documentation

11 11 Full Development of Safety and Security Vulnerability Tool Create full GIS functionality and linkage to the route assessment tool Add the capability to perform regional and local evaluations to the routing tool –Provide the capability to extract route data from the GIS into the route assessment tool –Provide the routing official with a summary of the routing analysis

12 12 Full Development of Safety and Security Vulnerability Tool (cont.) Enhance routing tool’s ability to select urban and regional routes for safety and security –User will be able to zoom in on particular city Data for metropolitan areas of cities of 250,000 or greater will be added -Metropolitan areas: include, exits, icon structures/critical infrastructure, police stations, distances -Exposed population within one half mile of routes -Accident rates -Emergency response facilities

13 13 Provide Long Distance Routing Capability Provide long distance web-based routing capability –Route vehicles following the shortest interstate routes avoiding or following HM routes –GIS-Based display of the prescribed and restricted hazmat routes included –Time-of-day restrictions for selected types of hazmat, permitting, and escort requirements for specified types of HM included –Click on any designated hazmat routes and pop-up text bubble will list specific restrictions for that route

14 14 Provide Long Distance Routing Capability (cont.) Carrier enters the cargo type (such as explosives) to develop a route suitable for that cargo Safety and security risk for individual routes will enable carriers to select routes that are consistent with the FMCSA routing guidance in regions where a hazmat route has not been designated –Data showing access to icons/critical infrastructure, population, police stations, and interchange exit data will enable selection of routes with respect to security and will also identify areas that warrant elevated safety and security consideration

15 15 Prepare User Guides Prepare revised guidance document for routing hazmat Prepare paper-based user guide for routing tool Prepare web-based training for routing tool Include online help screens for routing tool

16 16 E VALUATION OF THE U SE OF E LECTRONIC S HIPPING P APERS FOR H AZARDOUS M ATERIALS S HIPMENTS

17 17 Electronic Shipping Papers Develop a roadmap for the use of electronic shipping papers as an alternative to the current paper-based hazardous materials communication system Address electronic transfer of data and documentation across all modes –Safety –Operational –Regulatory compliance –Emergency response

18 18 Key Project Tasks Literature review and stakeholder interviews Develop sample process maps Interim report Develop draft roadmap Propose proof of concept methodology Final report

19 19 Process Maps and Roadmap Process Maps –Simple /complex; domestic and import/export; one mode/multimodal; TL/LTL –Specialized industries (e.g., bulk fuel) Roadmap considerations –Implications of mixed paper and electronic operations –Maximize benefits and reduce impediments -safety and security -incident mitigation -total transportation costs -movement of hazardous materials -preparedness of emergency responders for incidents –Electronic transfer methods –Regulatory changes –Standard electronic communication practices –Secure data transfer and receipt

20 20 Proof of Concept Methodology Fundamental activities for success –Coalition building among stakeholders –Developing tools necessary to implement roadmap -standardizing electronic messages to be shared between business and government -concept for a message portal that will carry the message across the entire supply chain -system architecture to define the linkages to all user parties in the supply chain -business case to define rules and procedures

21 21 C ARGO T ANK R OLL S TABILITY

22 22 Cargo Tank Rollover Prevention Study Statistics on factors surrounding rollovers –Driver figures in 3/4 of rollovers –Roadway departure more common than speed in ramps Four approaches to reducing rollovers –Driver– Vehicle –Electronic Stability Aids– Roadway Outreach to communicate the results –Summits for industry in 3 cities in 2007 –Technical article in 2008 –Training video from FMCSA due in spring 2009

23 23 Four Complementary Approaches Driver Training –Avoid drowsiness and inattention –Keep reasonable speeds and safe routes Electronic Stability Aids –Good but not a panacea Vehicle Design –More stable designs already exist: slightly lower CG, 102 inches wide Highway Design –Install signs or rebuild troublesome locations.

24 24 Facts and Myths on Rollover Statistics They are not all at interchanges.

25 25 Driver Error Figures in 3/4 of Rollovers 84% of rollovers are single-vehicle crashes. 72% of multi-vehicle rollovers are induced by the other vehicle. <1%

26 26 Upcoming Study On Roadway Departure Recovery Rollovers and lane change crashes can follow inadvertent roadway departures

27 27 CMV B RAKE S TUDIES

28 28 CMV Brake Studies PBBT Implementation –Completed an Operation Air Brake effectiveness study -Exploring steady state of brake OOS -Combination of education and punishment seems to be needed –Working on development of PBBT training materials for CVSA inspectors Automatic brake adjuster wear study –Project just getting underway –Problem may not be slack adjusters but wear and improper maintenance of other parts of the foundational braking system –Studying OEM and knock-off slack adjusters for durability and wear

29 29 In-service CMV braking performance study Overview –RITA grant through NTRC Inc. in Knoxville –Partnership with FMCSA, CVSA, HDBMC, THP, OTA, and TechniCom –Southbound I-81 inspection facility in Greene County, TN Focus –Add data to previously documented trends in braking capability among different vehicle types (Note: this project focuses on CMVs only) –Assess whether the lack of regulation of aftermarket brake components (pads) have an effect on braking performance and safety. –Compare stopping capability with brake assessments using new technology (PBBT) and visual inspections –Provide data for possible new regulatory action to improve safety Data collection (volunteer fleets instead of random) –20 mph stopping test –PBBT assessment –CVSA Level I visual inspection –Special brake component inspection by industry representatives Status –Tested 59 vehicles so far; 10 were fuel tankers –Looking for another state for random data collection

30 30 20-mph Stopping Test

31 31 HM-04: E MERGING T ECHNOLOGIES A PPLICABLE TO S AFE AND S ECURE T RANSPORTATION OF H AZARDOUS M ATERIALS

32 32 Project Objectives Develop a list of near-term (less than 5 years) and longer-term (5–10 years) technologies that are candidates for use in enhancing the safety and security of hazardous materials transportation Identify emerging technologies that hold the greatest promise of being introduced during these near- and longer-term spans; and Identify potential impediments to and opportunities for their development, deployment and maintenance (e.g., technical, economic, legal, and institutional) Involves all five transportation modes: rail, highway, air, maritime and pipeline

33 33 What Types of Technologies Are We Considering? Evolutionary: Planned advances to existing products that will result in future improvements Revolutionary: New technology concepts (e.g., certain biometrics-based identity management) Non-Typical Applications: Leading-edge technologies not being developed for hazmat safety/security or even transportation per se This research reviews generic technologies and does not evaluate specific name-brand products

34 34 Methodology: Capabilities Gap Analysis Each mode has functional requirements for safe hazmat transportation –Most are generic (e.g., package integrity, operator performance, commodity identification/awareness) –Some are mode-specific (e.g., vehicle ID, driver ID, and hazmat route restrictions for highway mode) –Recognize HRCQ/Level VI inspection needs Each functional requirement currently has one or more technologies that provide capability for that mode –We assess the extent to which the requirement is being met –We also recognize that certain technologies may be available and promising but have not been widely adopted for some reason (e.g., cost or perceived maturity) From this information we identify needs and gaps that can be filled by emerging technologies

35 35 Status Completed initial screening of more than 1000 technical articles from literature and patent searches and SME research Completed more than 30 interviews with a wide variety of hazmat transportation authorities Distilled results into initial screened technologies list with attributes such as mode, safety & security role, technology application, functional requirements) Iterating modal functional requirements with lessons learned from interviews

36 36 The Way Ahead Downselect to list of most promising technologies with attributes and supporting information Provide results for peer review Get HMCRP panel’s feedback/approval of list Develop detailed workplan for more in-depth exploration of most promising technologies Upon approval by HMCRP, execute workplan and develop recommendations for advancing the most promising technologies

37 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research, and Technology Wireless Roadside Inspection Project Update 2009 COHMED Conference January 27, 2009 Mesa, AZ

38 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology38 Meeting Goals ► Describe WRI program and provide status ► Describe how WRI program supports CSA 2010 ► Discuss WRI Program goals, objectives, schedule, products ► Answer Questions

39 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research, and Technology Wireless Roadside Inspection Program Overview

40 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology40 The Problem ► Truck numbers & mileage grow each year while roadside safety inspection resources remain constant ► The likelihood of a roadside inspection is far less than of a truck being weighed ► 3.4 million annual truck inspections with a 70% Total Violation rate  3.2 million driver inspections – 1.2 M drivers (37%) had violations with 222,934 put OOS (6.8%)  2.3 million vehicle inspections – 1.6 M CMVs (66%) had violations with 531,362 put OOS (22.3%) ► 177 million weigh inspections (staffed & WIM) with a 0.29% Total Violation rate (515,587 citations) ► Roadside identification of all CMVs continues to be a challenge

41 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology41 WRI Program Vision & Goal (The Solution) ► Vision  Motor Carrier safety improved through dramatic increases in roadside safety inspections  Frequent driver and vehicle safety assessments ensure compliance  Safe and legal motor carrier transportation not hindered  Wide industry and public agency participation ► Goal  Improved motor carrier safety (reduction in accidents) due to increased compliance (change in motor carrier and driver behavior) caused by higher frequency of roadside safety inspections using wireless technologies.

42 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology42 WRI Research Goal ► To Demonstrate and Measure government and industry benefits of a Wireless Roadside Inspection network across a multi-state region to enable a “go/no go” decision for nationwide deployment

43 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology43 Opportunities for Technology Vehicle Violations % Vehicle OOS Violations Brakes41.2% Lighting16.6% Tires9.4% Load Securement 15.7% Total82.9% ► Analysis of historical inspection data reveals that a large portion of significant “defects” are limited to a few problem areas. ► With the exception of load-securement, most of the key driver and vehicle condition criteria lend themselves to on-board electronic monitoring and diagnostic assessment. Driver Violations % Driver OOS Violations Logbook40.0% HOS28.7% CDL19.4% Total88.1%

44 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology44 Wireless Roadside Inspection System Overview Roadside Roadside WRI Node Roadside Law Enforcement and Compliance Staff/Systems  Traditional Screening/ Inspection Station  Mobile Enforcement  Virtual Weigh Station Motor Carrier or Service Provider State CMV Safety Systems Federal CMV Safety Systems WRI Initial Data Processing Back-Office Systems WRI Network Management EOBR, Vehicle Data Bus, Standard Messages Other Onboard Equipment Commercial Motor Vehicle On-Board WRI Equipment  Systems  Applications  Human-machine interface

45 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology45 Estimated Costs & Benefits* ► Costs  Public sector annual costs of $45M – $76M  Private sector annual costs of $224M – $395M – $533 – $940/vehicle – 420,000 new vehicles equipped per year * Development and Evaluation of Alternative Concepts for Wireless Roadside Truck and Bus Safety Inspections, FMCSA, 2007. http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/facts-research/research- technology/report/wireless-inspection-report.pdfhttp://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/facts-research/research- technology/report/wireless-inspection-report.pdf

46 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology46 Benefits Assumptions ► Dramatic Paradigm Shift  Electronic safety checks will be frequent and expected  Number of unsafe CMV drivers and vehicles on road would be reduced  Crashes related to unsafe CMV drivers and vehicle defects would be reduced ► Size & weight program comparison CMV Size & Weight Program CMV Safety Inspection Program Number of Inspections 82M3M Violation Rate 0.63%70%

47 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology47 Estimated Benefit-Cost Ratio ANNUAL BENEFITS Annual Lives Saved253 Annual Injuries Prevented6,192 Total Annual Benefits ($)$1.7B ANNUALIZED COSTS Government—Facility, Equipment, IT, Communications Capital Costs (Amortized over 10 years) $22M – $34M Government—Facility, Equipment, IT, Communications O&M Costs$23M – 42M Industry—Annual Incremental CMV Costs (Based on 420,000 units/yr) ($533 - $940/CMV) $224M – $395M Total Annualized Cost$269M – $471M BENEFIT/COST RATIO High – Low6.17:1 – 3.51:1 Average4.84 : 1

48 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology48 WRI Concept: Communications Path A

49 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology49 WRI Concept: Communications Path B The vehicle encounters a trigger (e.g., a geofence boundary) to send the SDMS. The carrier or service provider is notified. 2 5 Commercial Vehicle Government Back-Office Systems Roadside If necessary, new data are collected from the vehicle. The SDMS is assembled. 2 The vehicle transmits various data elements, including those in the safety data message set (SDMS), wirelessly to the service provider or motor carrier. The SDMS is sent to a government back-office system. 4 1 Carrier/Service Provider to Government Systems (Commercial Mobile Radio Service) The safety data message set is verified, archived, and shared. It may be used for real-time enforcement, compliance, and assessment. The data will also be used to update the carrier’s and driver’s safety assessments. The carrier can verify the SDMS information used in the updates. Carrier/Service Provider Back- Office Systems 3

50 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology50 WRI Concept: Communications Path C Enforcement identifies the vehicle (e.g., via LPR) and requests the SDMS. 2 5 Commercial Vehicle Government Back-Office Systems Roadside If necessary, new data are collected from the vehicle. The SDMS is assembled. 2 The SDMS is sent to a government back-office system. 4 1 Enforcement Identifies Vehicle and Requests SDMS The safety data message set is verified, archived, and shared. It may be used for real-time enforcement, compliance, and assessment. The data will also be used to update the carrier’s and driver’s safety assessments. The carrier can verify the SDMS information used in the updates. Carrier/Service Provider Back- Office Systems 3 Via a back-office system, the vehicle ID is linked to the carrier/service provider and the SDMS is requested.

51 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology51 WRI Video

52 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology52 WRI Program Phases & Schedule Phase I: Concept Development & Verification POC Test  One Location  Two Vehicles  Vehicle to Roadside Pilot Tests  Corridor  Several Vehicles  Alternate Technologies  Multiple communication technologies  Roadside to Back Office Phase II: System & Strategy Definition Phase III: Finalize Deployment Strategies & Impacts Field Operational Test  Multi-Corridor/Jurisdiction Fleet  Selected Technologies  Full Network Deploy WRI Program 20062010 2008 2009 2007 2011 2012 Go / No Go Decision Point 2013 2014

53 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research, and Technology How the CSA 2010 Program is supported by the WRI Program

54 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology54 CSA 2010: Improving Highway Safety GOALS ► Correct unsafe behavior early ► Reach a larger number of carriers & drivers ► Maximize efficiency and effectiveness of department resources ► Achieve greater reduction in large truck & bus crashes 54 CSA 2010 is a major FMCSA safety initiative…

55 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology55 CSA 2010 Proposed Operational Model 55 CSA 2010 Operational Model

56 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology56  Unsafe Driving  Fatigued Driving  Driver Fitness  Drugs/Alcohol  Vehicle Maintenance  Improper Loading/Cargo Issues  Crashes Behavior Analysis & Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs) Concept of CSA 2010 Measurement Methodology

57 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology57 CSA 2010 Progressive Interventions Process 57 POST INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS CSP NOV NOC/Settlement Agreement POST INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS CSP NOV NOC/Settlement Agreement WARNING LETTER WARNING LETTER INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS Off-site Focused On-site Comprehensive On-site INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS Off-site Focused On-site Comprehensive On-site Safety Mgmt Cycle TARGETED ROADSIDE INSPECTION Safety Measurement BASIC Scores

58 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology58 Potential Benefits – CSA 2010 ► Maximize effectiveness of resources. ► Correct unsafe behavior early. ► Assess larger segment of industry. ► Achieve Goal: Greater reduction in large truck and bus related fatalities.

59 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology59 How WRI may support CSA 2010 Program? ► Safety Measurement BASIC Scores  Increased number of inspections (3.4 M to 300 M inspections annually) – Increase the number of carriers receiving scores More carriers meeting data sufficiency requirements – Increase the number of observations for each carrier More accurate representation of the carrier’s safety posture ► Targeted Roadside Inspections  Increased effectiveness in targeting carriers for inspection  Provide alerts for carriers, drivers and vehicles operating OOS  Increase efficiency in use of resources – Resources focused on the “right” carriers and their specific safety issues TARGETED ROADSIDE INSPECTION Safety Measurement BASIC Scores

60 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology60 How WRI may support CSA 2010 Program? ► Warning Letters  Provide motor carriers with more data to help them understand where they are having safety issues ► Investigation Interventions  More effective targeting of investigations – Provides more opportunities for clean inspections which may remove carriers from “investigate” list quicker  Supports Safety Management Cycle – Provides more data for effective monitoring and tracking WARNING LETTER WARNING LETTER INVESTIGATION INTERVENTION S Off-site Focused On- site Comprehensive On-site INVESTIGATION INTERVENTION S Off-site Focused On- site Comprehensive On-site Safety Mgmt Cycle

61 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology61 How WRI may support CSA 2010 Program? ► Post Investigation Interventions  Cooperative Safety Plans – Provides enforcement personnel with more frequent data to see if plan is effective  NOV/NOC – Potential for automated enforcement of violations  Settlement Agreement – Potential for real-time monitoring of compliance POST INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS CSP NOV NOC/Settlement Agreement POST INVESTIGATION INTERVENTIONS CSP NOV NOC/Settlement Agreement

62 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology62 Project Details ► Objectives  Assess feasibility of integrating WRI data with FMCSA IT systems and applications  Demonstrate how Universal ID and SDMS data can feed the CSA 2010 Operational Model and update Carrier Safety Measures and Driver Safety Measures  Develop prototype back office system to integrate WRI roadside data ► Structure  Volpe—Back Office System Prototype & CSA 2010 data analysis  State Testing Platforms in KY, TN, and NY

63 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology63 Project Details (Cont’d) Volpe Phase I Tasks – Requirements and Design Project management and coordination Gather business requirements Develop Roadside-to-FMCSA system (Back Office Prototype) concept and design Conduct business case analysis Volpe Phase II Activities – Development and Testing Develop Back Office System Prototype Conduct Back Office System Prototype-to-Roadside Pilot Tests Conduct Back Office System Evaluation

64 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology64 WRI Prototype Pilot Test States & Platforms Kentucky: Universal ID, RFID, LPR, USDOT # (CVISN & PRISM funding) FMCSA CMV Roadside Technology Corridor (TN): Cellular Comm. & other CMRS New York State DOT: DSRC (CVII 5.9GHz) (FHWA, I-95 Corridor Coalition Funding) FMCSA (Volpe) Back Office System Prototype

65 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology65 WRI Program Next Steps & Target Completion Dates ► Develop WRI Program Requirements – Nov 2009  Engage gov’t and industry stakeholders, test platform reps in KY, TN, & NY  NTRCI, Battelle ► Develop WRI Back Office System Prototype – Jan 2010  Scope: national system  Assembles & processes wireless data from pilot testing platforms  Used for safety programs of CMV enforcement and measurement – Owner: Volpe under agreement to FMCSA (funded by CSA 2010) ► Test Different WRI Communication Paths with Back Office System – Feb 2010  KY– Universal ID – Owners: KY Transportation Cabinet, University of KY Transportation Center  TN—Commercial Mobile Radio Services (cellular, satellite) – Owners: TN Department of Safety, University of Tennessee, ORNL, telematics providers  NY—Dedicated Short-Range Communications at 5.9 GHz – Owners: NY State Department of Transportation, Volvo Trucks, Booz Allen Hamilton

66 FMCSA Office of Analysis, Research and Technology66 Questions?

67 67 Contact info Mark Lepofsky, PhD, PMP Manager, Transportation Analysis & Risk Assessment Battelle lepofskym@battelle.org 202-646-7786


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