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Integrating Water Economy Analysis and HEA Prepared for the Livelihoods Integration Unit A USAID program implemented by FEG in partnership with DPPA/EWD.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating Water Economy Analysis and HEA Prepared for the Livelihoods Integration Unit A USAID program implemented by FEG in partnership with DPPA/EWD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating Water Economy Analysis and HEA Prepared for the Livelihoods Integration Unit A USAID program implemented by FEG in partnership with DPPA/EWD Lorraine Coulter February, 2008

2 Outline of Presentation 1.Introduction 2.How water fits into the HEA analytical framework 3.Sources of information 4.Data collected and their use in the analysis 5.How we can integrate findings into response planning 6.Worked example

3 1.Introduction: W hy integrate water and HEA needs assessments?

4 Why integrate water and HEA?  The need for integrated, cross-sectoral emergency response and development planning is widely recognized and called for by donors and governments

5  Addressing impacts of water-related hazards on food security and health is of increasing priority as organizations become more concerned with climate change’s wide-ranging impacts  Water resources and the hydrologic cycle will be among the first and most drastically affected in the process of climate change Why integrate water and HEA?

6 2. How water fits into the HEA analytical framework

7 How water fits into HEA  HEA compares what people need with what they have, accounting for effects of a given shock  We can quantify minimum requirements  We can quantify access to water  We can quantify the effects of the shock  Just as for food, water can also be analysed within this framework:

8 Baseline + Hazard + Coping = Outcome Before shock How water fits into HEA

9 Baseline + Hazard + Coping = Outcome Before shock After shock, without coping strategies Source yields drop How water fits into HEA

10 Baseline + Hazard + Coping = Outcome Before shock After shock, without coping strategies Source yields drop But HHs can travel to others How water fits into HEA

11 Baseline + Hazard + Coping = Outcome Before shock After shock, without coping strategies After shock, including coping strategies Source yields drop But HHs find other sources How water fits into HEA

12  Water determines whether people can: survive protect their livelihoods

13 Water Thresholds  Survival and Livelihoods Protection Thresholds can be established for water  These can provide triggers for appropriate water- based – and food related – responses Based on minimum water required to sustain HH livelihoods activities so that food and income needs are met Water Livelihoods Protection Threshold: Based on minimum HH drinking and cooking requirements Water Survival Threshold:

14 3. Sources of Information

15 Sources of information 1. Groundwater availability mapping 4. Wealth group interviews 2.District interviews with key informants  including data on water-related disease incidence across seasons and years 3.Community interviews with key informants  including information on local water source quality, reliability, yield across seasons, access constraints

16 4. Data collected and their use in the analysis

17 What it does: Alongside HEA, delineates areas in which similar patterns of water availability, access, and use exist. In most cases, LZs for HWEA will be the same as for food-based HEA. Step 1: Livelihood Zoning B A S E L I N E AWH Highland — Dega  Water availability high, access through numerous springs  Population not dense  Means of production more agriculture- based; water demand from l/stock minimal. RVL Lowland — Kolla  Water availability low: low rainfall  Access low: no springs; few boreholes.  Agro-ecology favours livestock raising. Water demand high from livestock, low from sparser human population. In most cases, LZs for HWEA will be the same as for food-based HEA. hydrogeology – surface & groundwater soil composition landform and land cover climate combine to form a specific range of potential land uses / means of production =  Hydrogeological zones will often overlap with livelihood zones Agro- ecology Water availability, access, and use patterns often overlap with agro-ecological zones, because physical properties of the aquifer (e.g. abundance of springs) determine the water-based livelihood options available to people, which also strongly affects demand for water.

18 Step 1: Livelihood Zoning B A S E L I N E Info collected: We can roughly project LZ patterns of water availability, access, and use using: a)Groundwater availability mapping c)Information on which livelihood activities the agro-ecology supports b)Population from HEA livelihood zoning

19 Step 1: Livelihood Zoning B A S E L I N E Info collected: We can roughly project LZ patterns of water availability, access, and use using: a)Groundwater availability mapping b)Population from HEA livelihood zoning c)Information on which livelihood activities the agro-ecology supports  Like that developed by BGS for Ethiopia: see Calow et al  Mapping created from hydrogeology and rainfall datasets available for most of Africa  We can also estimate source types supported by the hydrogeology Groundwater availability mapping

20 Info collected: Household assets which enable exploitation of water availability are noted in local definitions of wealth How the info is used: Contributes to understanding of why certain wealth groups can better exploit water availability Humera Sesame and Sorghum LZ Step 2: Wealth Breakdown B A S E L I N E What it does: Groups people together using local definitions of wealth; quantifies their livelihoods assets

21 Step 3: Water source quantification Info collected: Quantification of sources of water for: a) Survival b) Livelihoods protection B A S E L I N E What it does: 1. Quantifies sources of water for baseline year b) Livelihoods protection Livelihoods protection uses  Water-dependent livelihoods activities, &  Bathing, laundry a) Survival  drinking  cooking  must be of potable quality Survival uses: How the info is used: Enables comparisons of water access/use across wealth groups, zones and countries; informs how water access impacts food security & provides starting point for outcome analysis

22 Step 4: Problem Specification What it does: Translates a water-related hazard into economic and water access consequences at HH level How the info is used: We can mathematically link the shock to each relevant water-dependent survival and livelihoods strategy OUTCOME ANALYSIS Problem Specification - Water Deep borehole yield 50%, 25% in disrepair Water quality non-potable in minor rivers River water adequate for 5 months/yr, down from 8 months/yr Water prices up 200% - private vendors Indicators compiled from district office infrastructure records & water quality testing, rainfall data, groundwater availability maps

23 Step 5: Analysis of Coping Capacity What it does: Assesses the ability of households to increase water access during and after shock How the info is used: Determines the amount and form of external assistance needed & Highlights monitoring indicators for testing prediction OUTCOME ANALYSIS Analysis of Coping Capacity Reduce non-essential bathing and laundry Boil non-potable water Reduce production levels of lower- priority water-based l/hoods activities Excavate dried riverbanks for water Travel to working/higher yield sources farther away; temporary migration with l/stock Payment for water in water markets Data collected during baseline

24 Step 6: Predicted Outcome What it does: Predicts the outcome of the hazard in relation to intervention thresholds How the info is used: Allows us to determine whether people need external assistance to survive and/or maintain their livelihood assets & informs links between water and food security OUTCOME ANALYSIS

25 Water Thresholds 100% minimum water consumption needs for human survival Water Survival Threshold:  Ensure human survival (above), plus  Minimum water needs for bathing + laundry, plus  Minimum water requirements to sustain, in medium/long term, production level of water-based livelihoods activities necessary to reach food-based Livelihoods Protection Threshold, plus  Minimum water requirements for livestock survival Livelihoods Protection Threshold:

26  Water needs for human consumption per person/day: 5 – 9 L Human consumption water requirements

27 * Water can be consumed through water sources and vegetation  Water needs per day for: cattle & oxen: L lactating cows: L goats/sheep: 10 L *needs also depend on climate, energy expenditure Livelihoods protection water requirements

28 5. How we can integrate the findings into response planning

29 Addressing disease trends & links to water  Alongside water economy analysis, assessing water-related disease trends across seasons and years guides: R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G  Proper sequencing of interventions  Identification of problem sources/types  Targeting vulnerable wealth groups for sanitation & hygiene interventions

30 Typhoid and dysentery and the rainy season – Singida, Tanzania R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G AprilMay JuneJulyOctAug Sept Dec Nov JanFeb Mar land preparation cereals brewing milk availability peak malaria peak lean period Legend: planting harvesting green cons. sunflower gardening firewood collection agricultural labour Cropproduction Otherincome Other weeding Dysentery Typhoid Rainfall agricultural labour land preparation cereals sunflower brewing gardening firewood collection milk availability peak malaria peak lean period cereals lean period malaria peak milk peak Interventions:  Protect springs and shallow wells before the rainy season to minimize risk of contaminated water sources  Roll out hygiene education on preventing faecal-oral transmission of bacteria  Ensure drinking sources are ‘protected’

31 Cropproduction Otherincome AprilMay JuneJulyOctAug Sept Dec Nov JanFeb Mar land preparation cereals brewing milk availability peak malaria peak lean period Legend: planting harvesting green cons. sunflower gardening firewood collection agricultural labour Other weeding Rainfall R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G Ensuring groundwater sources are repaired before the dry season is key to viability of income generation activities

32 Addressing food aid impacts on demand for water  Increased demand on lower yielding water points during drought increases pump breakdown rates  Water intervention should accompany food aid R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G Draw down on reserves Switch expenditure to essential goods Send additional HH member away for labour Wild foods collection Poor HH coping strategies - drought  Effective food aid targeting in drought years can lead to drops in migration level typical of drought years

33 Identifying expenditure constraints to determine if a water intervention is appropriate The poor cannot both pay for min. non-food items (including water) and protect their livelihoods… A water subsidy may be included the basket of non-food interventions R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G …Instead of paying for water many HH may resort to poorer quality sources or consume less water for drinking & hygiene:  Measures to cover school, health costs (175 birr)  Subsidy for water (61 birr)  Cash transfer to cover household items (730 birr) Non-food basket:

34 Identifying types of water insecurity Water insecurity will often be related to high demand and poor access rather than absolute water scarcity Interventions:  Well & spring repair to ensure water that is available can be accessed  Check for appropriate technology  Improve WG assets for transport & storage of water For livelihood zones with  high average rainfall  moderate to large aquifer base: R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G

35 Groundwater development projects should be rolled out & Vulnerable areas and wealth groups should be targeted In zones where groundwater development potential exists: Identifying types of water insecurity R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G Interventions:  Domestic supply  Livestock watering  Small-scale irrigation to support livelihoods

36 Interventions:  Identify areas for emergency boreholes to uncap during drought  Infrastructure repair  Sanitation and hygiene promotion to prevent water-related disease outbreaks Livelihood zones with:  low groundwater storage capacity  wells and boreholes with low yields & few other source options  high population density …are most vulnerable to drought Identifying types of water insecurity R E S P O N S E P L A N N I N G

37 6. Worked Example

38 Raya Valley, Tigray, Ethiopia B A S E L I N E  Mixed farming with crop & livestock production  Moderately populated, predominately kolla lowland plains  Azmera and Keremt rains enable two productive harvest seasons

39 Raya Valley water background  Shortage of water for human consumption All WG must purchase water - which ranges from 1 to 4% of expenditure - though V.Poor & Poor barely afford it  Drinking from open sources exposes community to water- borne disease risk  Low to moderate groundwater development potential

40 Baseline food economy Thresholds are met in the reference year, supported significantly by sales of livestock & livestock products… LP Threshold Survival Threshold LP Threshold

41 …and own sorghum & teff, which are consumed Baseline food economy …along with livestock products, particularly for Middle HHs

42 Baseline water economy People access six sources of water in the reference year

43 Middle HHs get most of their drinking water from the deep well… Baseline water economy …while the poor resort to the river & unprotected hand- dug well for most of their drinking needs Sources of water Survival water sources

44 What happens when drought hits the area two years in a row? Problem Specification  Teff production is halved in Belg, fails in Meher  Crops harvest is halved, green consumption falls by 25%  Cows fail to give birth, reducing livestock products to 0%; people curtail livestock sales to half to protect herd health  Staple price rises by 10%  Teff production is halved in Belg, fails in Meher  Crops harvest is halved, green consumption falls by 25%  Cows fail to give birth, reducing livestock products to 0%; people curtail livestock sales to half to protect herd health  Staple price rises by 10% Seasonal monitoring reports that:

45 Problem Specification  Adequate quality water from Guguf River is available for livestock for 3 months of the year instead of 4 & for humans for 1 month instead of 2.  Minor river Hade-Alfa and seasonal pools dry up  Lower yields and higher demand contribute to breakdown of deep well after 2nd month of the reference year  Hand-dug well & reservoir yields support 50% of reference quantities  Adequate quality water from Guguf River is available for livestock for 3 months of the year instead of 4 & for humans for 1 month instead of 2.  Minor river Hade-Alfa and seasonal pools dry up  Lower yields and higher demand contribute to breakdown of deep well after 2nd month of the reference year  Hand-dug well & reservoir yields support 50% of reference quantities Woreda water officers report that: What happens when drought hits the area two years in a row?

46 Reduced source yields result in a 70% reduction in water use for both Poor and Middle households Initial water deficit

47 Coping strategies: water  All HHs pay to access more water at reservoir and deep well  Households excavate water pits in dry riverbeds of Hade-Alfa (minor) river  Middle HHs start consuming water at Guguf River, intensify livestock watering there  HHs travel to distant highland spring for drinking & livestock water

48 Final picture: food & income access Livelihoods Protection Threshold Survival threshold Livelihoods Protection Threshold Survival t/hold  Middle HHs are hit hardest, as the bulk of their income is dependent on sales of livestock and livestock products. Poor income (food+cash) Middle income (food+cash)

49 Final picture: Middle HH water access Coping: travel to highland spring secures enough water for human consumption Breakdown of deep well hits Middle HH particularly hard… …resulting in a 56% drop in drinking water access

50 Final picture: Poor HH water access Breakdown of deep well & decreased source yields… Coping: increased reliance on river & travel to highland spring increase access …results in a 71% drop in total water access but Poor HHs still fall short of survival needs

51 Final picture: water survival deficits  Unlike Middle HHs, Poor HHs cannot secure enough drinking water from the highland spring, because they have few assets to transport & store water  Poor HHs also have trouble releasing labour for water collection due to engagement in labour activities

52 Interventions: water for survival  Provision of small carts to Poor HHs might be considered  Interventions should ensure Poor HHs receive 2400 L of drinking water 2400 L  As should a subsidy for water over the long term, of at least 61 ETB water 61 ETB

53 Interventions: livelihoods protection Livelihoods protection deficit  Although Middle HHs access enough water to meet food & income needs, they don’t get enough for livestock survival in the long term  A livestock watering intervention should provide 29,000 L for Middle households

54 Livelihoods protection deficit Interventions: livelihoods protection  Poor HHs need 40,000 L from the intervention to ensure long term livestock survival  More numerous shallow wells - instead of complex deep wells - may be better technology choice

55 Thank you


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