Contents 1. Hu Yaobang 2. Zhao Ziyang 3. Hu & Zhao’s Tragedy
Four Generations of Chinese Communist Revolutionaries The Long March Generation Mao, Deng & Hu Yaobang The Anti-Japanese Generation Hua Guofeng ( 华国锋） and Zhao Ziyang （ 赵紫阳） The Liberation War Generation The Red China Generation Hu Jintao （胡锦涛） and Xi Jinping （习近 平）
I-2. Hu’s Achievements Hu was personally responsible for exonerating over three million people when he was the head of the party’s Organization Department. Hu attempted to reform China's political system by: requiring candidates to be directly elected in order to enter the Politburo; holding more elections with more than one candidate; increasing government transparency; increasing public consultation before determining Party policy; and, increasing the degree that government officials could be held directly responsible for their mistakes
Continue ". Hu encouraged intellectuals to raise controversial subjects in the media, including democracy, human rights, and the possibility of introducing legal limits to the Communist Party's influence within the Chinese government
Continue Hu began a large-scale anti-corruption programme, and permitted the investigations of the children of high- ranking Party elders, who had grown up protected by their parents' influence. Hu's investigation of Party officials belonging to this "Crown Prince Party"
Continue After the students demonstration for more freedom in 1986, Hu refused to dismiss Fang Lizhi, Wang Ruowang and Liu Binyan, three radical intellectuals. Hu was dismissed from the position of the General Secretary in 1987 because of his liberal position. But Hu was allowed to continue to stay in the Politburo Standing Committee.
Hu & and Tiananmen Incident in 1989 Hu’s sudden death on April 15, 1989 triggered a student demonstration in Tiananmen Square, which led to the Tiananmen Incident.
II. Zhao Ziyang 1919-2005 Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1980 to 1987, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1987 to 1989.
II-2. Economic Reform 1975-7 Party Secretary of Sichuang Zhao introduced a series of successful market-oriented reforms, leading to an increase in industrial production by 81% and agricultural output by 25% within three years. 要吃粮，找紫阳。要吃粮，找万里。
Continue Zhao was appointed to be Premier in 1980. Zhao introduced Household Responsibility System to whole country. From 1980 and 1984, China's agricultural production rose by 50%.   Peasants’ time on farming land reduced to 60 days from 250-300 days before.
Economic Reform Zhao boldly introduced the stock market in China and vigorously promoted futures trading there.  In 1984, under the support of Zhao Ziyang, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou became experimental cities of joint-stock system. 
II-3. Political Reform In the late 1980s Hu and Zhao collaborated to promote a series of large-scale political reforms with vaguely defined goals: proposals to have candidates directly elected to the Politburo, more elections with more than one candidate, more government transparency, more consultation with the public on policy, and increased personal responsibility directed to officials for their mistakes Zhao proposed to separate the roles of the Party and state, a proposal that has since become taboo.
Political Reform Zhao made effort to solve the confrontation with students in a peaceful solution, and agree students’ demand to open property of all the government officials (1:4). Zhao served as General Secretary as the most open in the history of the People's Republic of China. Many limitations on freedom of speech and freedom of press were relaxed, allowing intellectuals to freely express themselves.
II-4. Zhao’s Tragedy Zhao’s soft attitude toward the student demonstration led to the fall of Zhao.
Discussion Why are the reasons to lead to the failure of their liberal policies? How to understand students’ role in the Tiananmen Incident? What are the consequences of the Tiananmen Incident? What is the nature of democracy?
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