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Brief Overview of Historical Events that Affected Human Resources Reasons Why Things Are As they Are Today.

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Presentation on theme: "Brief Overview of Historical Events that Affected Human Resources Reasons Why Things Are As they Are Today."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brief Overview of Historical Events that Affected Human Resources Reasons Why Things Are As they Are Today

2 Historical Turning Points in HR 1793 Samuel Slater – father of Industrial Revolution in US 1886 American Federation of Labor (AFL) – 1 st union in US 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act - balance power of mgmt & labor http://www.bing.com/videos/watch/video/a-brief-history-of-the-birth-of-the- federal-trade-commission/DB4103F7EE92940474F1DB4103F7EE92940474F1 1907 Immigration Act of 1907 – slowed labor growth 1909 Frederick Winslow Taylor – scientific mgmt http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wa4_ihxT9rI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wa4_ihxT9rI 1911 Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire – attention to empl. Safety http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKdMuVu1wi8 1913 Henry Ford – 5$ day; systematic tng; tenure-based outcomes 1914-1918 World War I – systems approach to empl. testing; DOT 1926 Railway Labor Act – 1 st govt policy to encourage unions,

3 Historical Turning Points in HR 1930s Early HR Research Hawthorne Experiments – (1927-1932) Maslow’s Need Hierarchy – (1939-1943) McGragor’s Theory X & Y – (1960) Herzberg’s Motivators and Satisfiers – (1960) George Odiorne’s Management By Objectives – (1965)

4 Historical HR (cont) 1932 Norris-LaGuardia Act – “yellow-dog” contracts were unenforceable 1935 Social Security Act – beginning of social welfare 1935 National Labor Relations Act – prohibits employer unfair practice, NLRB 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act – minimum wage, exempt/nonexempt, overtime 1941-1945 World War II – women in workforce, health care introduced 1946 Numerous labor strikes 1947 Taft-Hartley Act – unfair labor practices for unions/outlaws closed shop 1954 Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education – integrates schools 1964 Civil Right Act of 1964 – creates EEOC 1965 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) – enf EEO 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) – ERISA (1974 ), others 1977 Human Resources Planning Society (now SHRM) 1979 Office of Personnel Management – personnel function more visibility

5 Historical HR (con’t) 1980s Stock option developed – for high level execs 1981 Professional Air Traffic Controllers (PATCO) strike – decline of unions 1985 Sperry Rand & Burroughs merge to form Unisys First of mergers and acquisitions Corporate downsizings 1987 PeopleSoft Inc – first HR management software 1980s (late) Global competition increases 1991 Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill hearings - sexual harassment 1994 Monster Board – online recruiting 1999 BP Amoco and Exult – $600M outsourcing arrangement (1 st for HR) 2001 World Trade Center attack – security on everyone’s job 2001 Fraud at Enron – govt reform - SOX 2006 IBM permanently stop defined benefit pensions – decline of benefits 2008 Government provides TARP funds to bankrupt businesses

6 Strategic Human Resource Management The Diagnostic Model

7 1. Mission, Vision, and Values Mission –The basic purpose of the organization as well as its scope of operations Strategic Vision –A statement about where the company is going and what it can become in the future; clarifies the long-term direction of the company and its strategic intent Core Values –The strong and enduring beliefs and principles that the company uses as a foundation for its decisions

8 ASSESS ENVIRONMENT SET OBJECTIVES APPLY HUMAN RESOURCE ACTIVITIES EVALUATE RESULTS F E E D B A C K EXTERNAL CONDITIONS World Conditions Economic Conditions Government Regulations Unions Technology ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS Nature of the Organization Nature of the Work EMPLOYEE CONDITIONS Abilities (KSA) Motivation Interests EFFICIENCY Organization Employee EQUITY Organization Employee PLANNING STAFFING DEVELOPMENT EMPLOYEE/UNION RELATIONS COMPENSATION EFFICIENCY EQUITY 2. THE DIAGNOSTIC MODEL George Milkovich John Boudreau

9 2. Diagnostic Model - External Environmental Scanning Environmental Scanning (Assess Environment) –The systematic monitoring of the major external forces influencing the organization. 1.Economic factors: general and regional conditions 2.Competitive trends: new processes, services, and innovations 3.Technological changes: robotics and office automation 4.Political and legislative issues: laws and administrative rulings 5.Social concerns: child care and educational priorities 6.Demographic trends: age, composition, and literacy

10 3. Internal Organizational Analysis Composition Culture Competencies Internal Analysis

11 Scanning the Internal Environment Cultural Audits –Audits of the culture and quality of work life in an organization. How do employees spend their time? How do they interact with each other? Are employees empowered? What is the predominant leadership style of managers? How do employees advance within the organization?

12 4. Determining Required Employee Skill Mix Core Competencies –Integrated knowledge sets within an organization that distinguish it from its competitors and deliver value to customers. Sustained competitive advantage through people is achieved if these human resources: 1.Are valuable. 2.Are rare and unavailable to competitors. 3.Are difficult to imitate. 4.Are organized for synergy.

13 5. Formulating Strategy – (Setting Objectives) Strategy Formulation –Moving from simple analysis to devising a coherent course of action. SWOT analysis –A comparison of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for strategy formulation purposes. –Use the strengths of the organization to capitalize on opportunities, counteract threats, and alleviate internal weaknesses.

14 Corporate Strategy Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures Growth and Diversification Mergers and Acquisitions Corporate Strategy

15 Setting Business Strategy Value Creation –What the firm adds to a product or service by virtue of making it; the amount of benefits provided by the product or service once the costs of making it are subtracted. –Low-cost strategy: competing on productivity and efficiency Keeping costs low to offer an attractive price to customers (relative to competitors). –Differentiation strategy: compete on added value Involves providing something unique and distinctive to customers that they value.

16 Functional Strategy: Ensuring Alignment External Fit (or External Alignment) –Focuses on the connection between the business objectives and the major initiatives in HR. Internal Fit (or Internal Alignment) –Aligning HR practices with one another to establish a configuration that is mutually reinforcing.

17 6. Applying Human Resource Activities Forecasting: A Critical Element of Planning »Forecasting involves: a.forecasting the demand for labor b.forecasting the supply of labor c.balancing supply and demand considerations.

18 Model of HR Forecasting Model of HR Forecasting FORECASTING DEMAND Considerations Product/service demand Product/service demand Technology Technology Financial resources Financial resources Absenteeism/turnover Absenteeism/turnover Organizational growth Organizational growth Management philosophy Management philosophyConsiderations Product/service demand Product/service demand Technology Technology Financial resources Financial resources Absenteeism/turnover Absenteeism/turnover Organizational growth Organizational growth Management philosophy Management philosophyTechniques Trend analysis Trend analysis Managerial estimates Managerial estimates Delphi technique Delphi techniqueTechniques Trend analysis Trend analysis Managerial estimates Managerial estimates Delphi technique Delphi technique Techniques Staffing tables Staffing tables Markov analysis Markov analysis Skills inventories Skills inventories Management inventories Management inventories Replacement charts Replacement charts Succession planning Succession planningTechniques Staffing tables Staffing tables Markov analysis Markov analysis Skills inventories Skills inventories Management inventories Management inventories Replacement charts Replacement charts Succession planning Succession planning External Considerations Demographic changes Demographic changes Education of the workforce Education of the workforce Labor mobility Labor mobility Government policies Government policies Unemployment rate Unemployment rate External Considerations Demographic changes Demographic changes Education of the workforce Education of the workforce Labor mobility Labor mobility Government policies Government policies Unemployment rate Unemployment rate FORECASTING SUPPLY BALANCING SUPPLY AND DEMAND (Shortage) Recruitment Full-time Full-time Part-time Part-time Recalls Recalls (Shortage) Recruitment Full-time Full-time Part-time Part-time Recalls Recalls (Surplus) Reductions Layoffs Layoffs Terminations Terminations Demotions Demotions Retirements Retirements (Surplus) Reductions Layoffs Layoffs Terminations Terminations Demotions Demotions Retirements Retirements

19 Applying Human Resource Activities: Determining Types of Employees Core knowledge workers –Employees who have firm-specific skills that are directly linked to the company’s strategy. Example: Senior software programmer Traditional job-based employees –Employees with skills to perform a predefined job that are quite valuable to a company, but not unique. Example: Security guard

20 Applying Human Resource Activities: Determining Types of Employees Contract labor –Employees whose skills are of less strategic value and generally available to all firms. Example: General electrician Alliance/partners –Individuals and groups with unique skills, but those skills are not directly related to a company’s core strategy. Example: Independent product label designer

21 McKinsey’s 7-S Model McKinsey’s 7-S Model Source: McKinsey & Company

22 7. Strategy Implementation Taking Action: Reconciling Supply and Demand –Balancing demand and supply considerations Forecasting business activities (trends) Locating applicants –Organizational downsizing Reducing “headcount” –Making layoff decisions Seniority or performance? Labor agreements

23 8. Evaluation and Assessment Evaluation and Assessment Issues –Benchmarking: The process of comparing the organization’s processes and practices with those of other companies –Human capital metrics Assess aspects of the workforce –HR metrics Assess the performance of the HR function itself

24 Measuring Strategic Alignment Strategy Mapping and the Balanced Scorecard –Balanced Scorecard (BSC) A measurement framework that helps managers translate strategic goals into operational objectives –financial –customer –processes –learning

25 Balanced Scorecard Balanced Scorecard

26 Ensuring Strategic Flexibility for the Future Organizational Capability –Capacity of the organization to act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage. –Coordination flexibility The ability to rapidly reallocate resources to new or changing needs. –Resource flexibility Having human resources who can do many different things in different ways.


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