Presentation on theme: "If he can hear me, why doesn’t he listen? Hearing is one thing – you hear with your ears. Listening is another - you listen with your brain."— Presentation transcript:
If he can hear me, why doesn’t he listen? Hearing is one thing – you hear with your ears. Listening is another - you listen with your brain
The listening environment has changed; todays children are: “awash in a cosmic soup of language, numbers, images, music, and drama. Television, radio, movies, billboards, print media, electronic media, packaging, grocery stores, malls, and restaurants” all require them to become expert users of multiple symbol systems used to represent ideas, feelings, and events” (Berghoff, 1997)
A form of communication that involves hearing, interpreting and constructing meanings; an active process that is not limited to the spoken word; and an essential way of participating in daily routines as well as wider decision-making (Clark, 2005) A Definition of Listening
Developing hearing Language learning begins in the womb: …..babies begin to absorb language when they are inside the womb during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Newborns can tell the difference between their mother’s native tongue and foreign languages just hours after they are born. “…. new moms! your babies are listening, learning and remembering during the last stages of pregnancy. Their brains do not wait for birth to start absorbing information,” Patricia K. Kuhl
A baby’s hearing mechanism is fully developed before he is born. By 3 months he will respond to familiar voices and sounds and be babbling and enjoying the sound of his own voice By 4 months, he will watch your face when you are talking, and react excitedly to songs and sounds he enjoys By 6 months he will look around to seek out where sounds come from, and show interest in new sounds, and know what ‘NO!” means. By 12 months he will join in with songs and play – chat, and respond to sounds with understanding of what they mean. A baby’s developing hearing
Dr Jean Ayres Brain - based theory of behaviour Sensory processing affects child development Process single sensations – integrate multiple sensations at one time Brainstem ‘traffic-jams’ It affects us all The world is a sensory place Sensory Beings: Theory of Sensory Integration
Until about 7 years the brain is described as primarily a SENSORY PROCESSING MACHINE The brain senses things and gets meaning DIRECTLY FROM SENSATION A young child doesn’t have many abstract thoughts/ideas about things, he senses them and MOVES IN RELATION TO THE SENSATION Adaptive responses to sensation are more motor than cognitive First 7 years all about sensory motor development The brain as a sensory processing machine
Sensory Processing Difficulties Any of the senses can be affected: sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell, proprioception, vestibular. Hyposensitivity / hypersensitivity or a combination. Mild to moderate to severe. Work on sensory integration / sensory processing disorders alongside communication skills Sensory skills affect motor skills -> higher communication and academic skills, -> self esteem.
Auditory processing is the ability to interpret the information received physically to the ear i.e. through normal hearing. Sounds trigger the inner hair cells which send synapses to the brain i.e. auditory pathways. Pathways disrupted by ‘glue ear’. Children have difficulty hearing in background noise: auditory deprivation. Children on the Autistic spectrum, and those with Dyslexia often have Auditory processing difficulties. Neurodevelopmental conditions can co-exist with APD Sirimanna, T. 2011 Auditory Processing Difficulties
Problems for the Learner Inattention: not an active listener, disorganised (ADD/ADHD/Autistic spectrum disorder, including Asperger’s, ASD/ aspects of dyslexia) Hearing but not listening: may be an Auditory processing problem and/or ‘glue ear’ (Dyslexia/ ASD) Problems with auditory analysis and synthesis (Dyslexia) Difficulties with working memory (Dyslexia/ADD/ADHD) Language processing difficulties; not understanding : Specific language impairment SLI; Inept social skills and behaviour; also in the playground Poor expressive language or written tasks Dyspraxia: motor and perceptual Underlying causes/disorders for difficulties i.e. traits of Asperger’s – dyspraxia – dyslexia; dyslexia – SLI – ADD Emotional / psychological problems
Remember sensory-based problems occur across multiple environments/settings If purely behavioural strategies are used with sensory based behaviours, they are not very successful! By trying to look at the confusing or unusual behaviours through sensory glasses, order can be created and a programme developed to address behaviours Is it sensory or behaviour?
Stage 1: easily distracted by a new sounds or activity in his environment, focus on things around for brief periods. Stage 2; single-channelled focus on an activity of his own choice for significant period. Becomes upset if taken away from his activity or interrupted. Ignores everything else around him. Stage 3; keeps focus on one activity, but can be distracted or moved from this to another activity by an adult calling his name or touching him. Stage 4: can move from one activity to another by himself, and return to the previous one, but is still only able to focus on one activity at a time. Stage 5: can focus on more than one thing at a time, ie, talking and building a tower. Can concentrate in group situations, but may still need to be prompted if they lose focus. Stages of Developing Attention skills
Working with others Therapists Teachers Parents organisations
Classroom strategies Connect Before You Direct Address the child Stay brief Stay simple Ask the child to repeat back Make an offer they can’t refuse Be positive Begin your directives with “I want”
Good sitting: still body Good looking: eye contact with speaker Good listening: hearing what is said The good listening rule
“When…..Then.” Legs first, Mouth second Give choices Speak Developmentally Correctly Speak Socially correctly Speak Psychologically correctly Write it (or pictures) Talk the Child Down More strategies
Managing behaviours First then cards A very simple form of visual timetable Use pictures of target tasks followed by a rewarding/favourite activity Reassures child what is coming next For those who have difficulties with transitions and completing tasks Motivates child Helps to develop perseverance and waiting
Settle the listener Replay your message Let your child complete the thought Use Rhyme Rules Give likeable alternatives Give Advance notice Open up a closed child Use “When You..I feel….Because..” Close the discussion Even more strategies
Get rid of Distractions Tell, don’t ask! Start with one instruction at a time: 1 key word (give me the book) Ask children to repeat back what they have heard Reinforce positive behaviours Provide Negative Consequence for Non-Compliance Strategies for children who need that bit more
Use of technology i-Pad apps Earphones or blockers
When they are being quiet and look like they are thinking inside Because they look at me and talk to me after If they are looking at their shoes or talking to someone else then they are not listening How can you tell if someone is listening?
Between 50-75% of classroom time is spent in listening Don’t waste your talking. Speak slowly and clearly Use body language Use cues, Cut as many distractions out as possible Check seating arrangements Put help in place for EAL or those with problems. Teach listening Conclusion
“My heart is singing this morning. A miracle has happened! The light of understanding has shone upon my little pupil’s mind, and behold, all things have changed!” Margi Khan, Speech & Language Therapist. email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Sally Evans, Inclusion & Education Consultant, email@example.com