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Education, Homogamy, and Inequality A Twenty-two Year Intergenerational Perspective of Canadian Women and Men Lesley Andres University of British Columbia.

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Presentation on theme: "Education, Homogamy, and Inequality A Twenty-two Year Intergenerational Perspective of Canadian Women and Men Lesley Andres University of British Columbia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Education, Homogamy, and Inequality A Twenty-two Year Intergenerational Perspective of Canadian Women and Men Lesley Andres University of British Columbia SLLS, 2010

2 Interviews Paths on Lifes Way Sample 1989 Interviews with Gr. 12 students 1990 First Follow-up 1993 Second Follow-up 2003 Fourth Follow-up 1998 Third Follow-up 2010 Fifth Follow-up

3 Phase 1:how young people made choices about post-high school destinations Phase 2:influence of social and cultural capital on individuals eventual educational and occupational attainment Phase 3:the extent to which various forms of capital were endurable over time Phase 4:multifaceted nature and sequence of life events, in comparison with Australia Phase 5:transitions and lives as lived; intergenerational transmission of capital

4 Data Post-secondary Education Work Background and Household Health and Wellbeing

5 Purpose the extent to which todays couples are homogamous the changes in homogamy between respondents parents and respondents how homogamy translates into – levels of family income – how the current recession had an impact – wellbeing

6 Theoretical Perspectives Degree to which individuals of similar social origin and with similar characteristics marry or partner with each other social class, religion, race/ethnicity, education Educational Homogamy Increased or decreased educational homogamy? higher participation in post-secondary education higher labour force participation by women ascriptive homogamy vs achievement homogamy

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9 non- Participant university participant non-university participant non- participant non-univ completer univ non- completer university completer 198919931998 20032010 non- participant non- participant non- participant non- completer non- completer non- completer university completer 34% 19% 21% 2% 18% 43% 21% 18% 22% 37% 41% non-univ completer non-univ completer non-univ completer 15% 78% 5% 24% 71% 10% 85% 7% 5% non-univ non-completer

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16 Low homogamy Heterogamy High homogamy m 100,000 f 87,500 m 125,000 f 110,000 m 145,000 f 120,750 Median income $ Single, < bachSingle, bach > m. 41,000 f 37,000 m 62,000 f 79,760 Median income $ British Columbia median incomeall families65,780 couple families71,880 Canada net worth of family units35 – 44135,408

17 Financially Well Off from 1 Year Ago

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19 How did the 2008 Recession Affect You?

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21 FemalesMales LowHighLowHigh No effect39562843 Job negative2816178 Job positive35710 Two incomes141525 Savings21 2241 Savings219214 Feeling pinch1511 4 Negative Effect 54% Had decrease in yearly salary/benefits/etc. I still receive the same amount of pay as a teacher, but there were cuts to education.... My husband's work was more severely affected which meant cutting back on the "extras, as well as less savings. Job Loss 46% My husband experience 3 months of reduced/no work. My husband has lost his job 2x in past 3 years. Not my work - my husband's. Negative Effect 36% I had to take a 6% wage decrease since last May + my husbands business he started in 2007 has been affected as well. Our office has downsized, additional stress/ pressure, less hours not when wanted. Job Loss 64% Have been on and off E.I. Currently on EI waiting for economy to turn around. Relationship of 21 years split up. My husband was laid off in 2008 & with this our main income disappeared.

22 While our total family earnings + my own business were negatively affected, a sharp decline in real estate prices allowed us to afford the home we wanted, and a car. (high homogamy female) My career changed for personal reasons and has not affected my ability to earn an income. The negative side is we cant sell our expensive house and that is affecting our finances. But we did take a significant advantage in the stock market after it crashed but thats all in [retirement savings]. (low homogamy female)

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24 14%High Homogamy 25%Heterogamy 2% Low Homogamy Low mortgage rates allowed for lower payments. There was a small +ve effect on my RRSP because of investments I made at the bottom. My family is currently shopping for U.S. vacation property… low prices & a strong Cdn dollar should prove very beneficial.

25 Challenges untangling quantitative and qualitative findings to be true to peoples lives complementarity of mixed methods approaches adding other dimensions of the life course across time

26 Cooperative Skills Culture Educational Enrichment comlit03 readsk03 mathlit03 scilit03 closefr03 largefr03 coopsk03 compks03 expcul03 knocul03 knosoc03 othlan03 french03 spelea03 finart03 edenr03 ledopot 03 Academic Literacy Academic Literacy 0.30 0.76 0.55 0.36 0.61 0.59 LISREL 2 (107)=177.71 <.001; RMSEA=.041 3 rd Generation Transmission of Capital to Paths Respondents Children

27 Cultural Capital Primary Social Capital Academic Capital Dispositions 1989 Post- secondary Status Dispositions 1998 0.15 0.33 0.79 0.11 0.09 0.62 0.27 LISREL 2 (530)=717.36 <.001; RMSEA=.031 -0.01 Academic Literacy Cooperative Skills Culture Educational Enrichment 0.40 0.13 0.12 -0.03 0.10 0.20


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