Presentation on theme: "Effects of GD in Canada - Review What was the goal of the CCF? What was the goal of the Social Credit Party? What was the goal of the Union Nationale?"— Presentation transcript:
Effects of GD in Canada - Review What was the goal of the CCF? What was the goal of the Social Credit Party? What was the goal of the Union Nationale? What was the On To Ottawa Trek? Describe the role of religion in Depression- era Canada. Compare Canadian vs. US culture during the GD.
The Great Depression in Latin America A case study of Brazil & Argentina
LA Economy prior to Great Depression Agriculturally-based After industrialization, LA commodities became more valuable –Europe and US focused on production & manufacturing = needed to import goods for their growing populations –Created an export economy in LA –Beef, wheat, tropical fruits, minerals (copper), and natural resources Strong trade relations form –2/3 of investment & trade came from UK, followed by US, France, & Germany
LA Economy prior to Great Depression Since they focused on exports, LA countries were slow to develop their own industries. For finished goods, LA relied on imports Set up a system of dual reliance on the export-import trade: LA depended on export of resources for income, but also relied on foreign imports for industrial goods. During WWI, European economic problems caused a decline in export-import trade –supply > demand –Exports reached peak value in 1927
Onset of the GD in Latin America Initial effects of the Depression were similar to US and Canada ↓ demand of LA goods = ↓ flow of capital ↓ value of currency ↓ employment ↓ foreign investment LA countries in debt to foreign banks Due to foreign tariffs, LA goods become unaffordable The difference??? –Gov. intervention in LA economy became the norm –Huge political effects = military takeovers & coup d'états
Three main solutions 1. Government regulation –Goal was to stabilize economy by setting prices and levels of production 2. Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) –Goal was to encourage the creation of homegrown industries to replace LA dependence on foreign goods 3. Keep international markets open –Trade agreements with industrialized countries Rapid Recovery –Mining/agriculture were not hit as hard –Close relationship between gov. & banks –Social/racial hierarchies strengthened by economy
Case study: Brazil vs. Argentina To make an effective comparison of two countries with striking similarities and also significant differences, we will now focus on Brazil and Argentina
Brazil: The Coffee Economy Coffee exports were the source of 70% of Brazil’s revenue In order to prevent overproduction and maintain profits, the São Paulo Institute for Permanent Defense of Coffee implemented valorization in 1925. –To keep coffee prices high, the institute purchased and withheld coffee from the world market Manufactured goods came from overseas, so most profits from exports (coffee) were spent on imports = outflow of capital; no profits
Failure of the Coffee Industry Brazil’s foreign debt was $900 million –$175 million/year, paid by coffee exports 1929 - ↓ coffee prices, ↓ demand Other LA countries increase coffee output coffee surplus Failure of valorization and coffee economy Foreign lenders ↓ credit to Brazil Brazilian banks ↓ credit to coffee farmers Instead of intervention in the coffee industry, President Washington Luis focused on developing industry
Effects of the Crash 40% decline in sales ↓ Imports & trade People became resentful of President Luis, who saw the decline as temporary and was unwilling to aide Presidential election of 1930: Getúlio Vargas vs. Julio Prestes (handpicked successor of Luis) Prestes won and immediately extended credit to state of São Paulo instead of paying debts, buying coffee surplus & stabilizing prices
Effects of the Crash Most Brazilian rural workers were landless laborers that planters could no longer afford to pay Migration to cities Increased unemployment Uprisings –Already deep-seated political issues, but economic crisis made it worse
Vargas comes to power In October 1930, Vargas led a number of revolts, overthrew Prestes, and was installed as provisional president. Ruled from 1930-1945; 1951-1954 Political dominance and charismatic personality created political stability and allowed for a change in economic policies
Vargas’ Policies Economic nationalism Support the coffee industry while attempting to wean Brazil off it’s dependence on this crop –↓ tree planting, ↓surplus so demand increases Diversify the economy (livestock & cotton) Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) National Corporations created – steel, iron, aircraft, railroads, road construction –Government reserved the right to intervene in all corporations Constitution of 1934: nationalization of mines, mineral deposits, sources of energy, and industries essential to economic/military defense of the country
Vargas’ Policies “This program is to crisscross the nation with railroads, highways, and airlines; to increase production; to provide for the laborer and to encourage agricultural credit; to expand exports; to prepare the armed forces so that they are always read to face any eventuality; to organize public opinion so that there is, body and soul, one Brazilian thought.” Vargas speech; 1938 “The State does not recognize the rights of the individual against the collective. Individuals do not have rights; they have duties. Rights belong to the collective!”
Success of Vargas’ Policies Due to ISI, industrial output grew by 6% Creation of 44,000 new plants Creation of 944,000 new jobs New industries helped diversify economy Economic growth was not spread evenly – most of Brazil’s population (40 million) was still dependent upon cash crops Five states employed 75% of factory workers and owned 80% of all wealth
End of Vargas’ rule After attempted communist overthrow in 1937, he created the Estado Novo which gave him authoritarian powers Recognized threat of labor unions, so puts them all under government control Minimum wage & maximum work week Not supported by wealthy elites Post-WWII, Vargas tried to impose greater economic nationalism, but revolts spread After an assassination attempt, the military tried to force Vargas to resign Instead, Vargas committed suicide in 1954
Vargas’ Death Each drop of my blood will be an immortal flame in your conscience and will uphold the sacred will to resist. To hatred I reply with pardon, and to those who think they have defeated me, I reply with my victory. I was a slave to the Brazilian people, and today I am freeing myself for eternal life. But this people, whose slave I was, will no longer be slave to anyone. My sacrifice will remain forever in their souls and my blood will be the price for their ransom. I fought against the exploitation of Brazil. I fought against the exploitation of her people. I have fought with my whole heart. Hatred, infamy and slander have not conquered my spirit. I have given you my life. Now I offer you my death. I fear nothing. Serenely, I take my first step towards eternity and leave life to enter history. Vargas, suicide note; August 24, 1954
Argentina: from Democracy to Dictatorship Between 1860-1930, Argentina’s annual growth was 6.3% –Strongest in South America Income came from export of beef & wheat Economic system was based on foreign investment (UK) –Most meat exported to UK, and imported British coal and oil –British investors built and owned bus/railways Period of modernization that created new local industries and social changes that threatened the traditional landowning Creole elites
Argentina’s Economy Far more diversified than Brazil Other industries developed from agricultural sector: food processing, meat packing, flour milling and leather tanning Gradually became a domestic economy –↓ foreign investments After their first democratic elections in 1916, Hipolito Yrigoyen was elected He wanted to decrease dependence on British oil so created state-run oil company (Fiscal Petroleum Fields – YPF) In the 1920’s, Argentina had one of the largest amounts of cars per capita.
Political/Economic Effects of the Crash Immediate effect on demand for exports Due to tariffs, value in cash crops ↓ 43% High unemployment People blamed Radicals for the economy In September 1930, Yrigoyen was overthrown and a military junta was established In 1932, General Agustin Justo became president Relied on the Concordancia – coalition of anti- Yrigoyen Radicals, Conservatives & socialists who maintained power through electoral fraud and corruption.
Rule of the Concordancia Implemented policies not meant to change the economy, but to increase traditional areas of interest and income – livestock and agriculture Established agricultural regulatory boards Restore positive trade with the UK –Roca-Runciman Pact: British markets for Argentinean goods would be preserved if Argentina promised to give preference to British manufactured goods Import Substitution Industrialization –Helped create jobs & new industries Public works projects: centered on developing infrastructure – highways, railroads
Economic Recovery Due to protection of exports and ISI, Argentina recovered relatively quickly. Accelerated industry Decreased dependence on England Radicalization of the working class Renewed military intervention in government affairs In 1943, another military coup, led by United Officers Group (GOU), established another military dictatorship –Dictatorships ruled until the 1980’s
Political Changes in Latin America Economic effects are often overshadowed by the political changes Although countries recovered relatively quickly, it was under newly-established military dictatorships that controlled the economy Agricultural products continued to dominate ISI used by Brazil and Argentina became a model for developing countries to escape from economic dependence on the Western, industrialized economies New urban elite emerged with ISI – social inequalities continued Political systems shifted towards authoritarianism, and from this point forward, military leadership was dominant in the region.
Review Successes and Failures of the Concordancia