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Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.1 Meaning of Competence and Competencies Terms pervade.

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Presentation on theme: "Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.1 Meaning of Competence and Competencies Terms pervade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.1 Meaning of Competence and Competencies Terms pervade much of HRM literature Terms are often used confusingly Competence – ability to carry out a specific task Competency – refers to behaviour

2 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.2 Government Initiatives Investors in people Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) Learning and Skills Councils (LSCs)

3 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.3 Competence Movement Tension between what a trainee knows and what they can do after training Knowledge rather than practical skills carries status Government policy around schools – heightened emphasis on practical vocational skills

4 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.4 NVQs Bringing together a range of vocational qualifications Developed for all occupational areas Five levels – basic to more complex

5 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.5 Training for Competence Criterion related Developing ability of trainees to perform tasks related to job Expressed in terms of performance outcomes and specific indicators

6 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.6 NVQ Standards Divided into job roles Key roles then subdivided into units of competence Then subdivision into elements of competence with attached performance criteria and range statements

7 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.7 Example – Level Three Management Standards Table 17.1 Level three management standards

8 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.8 Principles of Competencies Leading to National Qualifications (1 of 2) 1.Open access 2.Focus on what people can do 3.Qualification same wherever training takes place 4.Feature performance standards as basis of assessment 5.Flexibility and modularisation 6.Accreditation of prior experience and learning

9 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 17.9 Principles of Competencies Leading to National Qualifications (2 of 2) 7.Establishment of learning contract 8.Flexibility in assessment achieved by the portfolio principle 9.Continuous development 10.Standards determined by designated lead bodies 11.Assessment 12.GNVQs

10 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Problematic Aspects of NVQs (1 of 2) 1.Assessment process can be laborious 2.A lot of terminology around NVQs 3.Generality of standards leads employers to modify for own use 4.Difficult to measure satisfactory quality of assessment 5.Standards are reductionist 6.Functional approach can be narrow

11 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Problematic Aspects of NVQs (2 of 2) 7.Early management standards gave incomplete representation of management 8.Lack of attention to learning and cognitive processes 9.May not stimulate further development 10.Some resistance to idea that educators are not competent to set the training agenda

12 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Characteristics of Behavioural Competencies Trait Motive Skill Self image Social role

13 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Threshold Competencies (1 of 2) Table 17.2 The seven threshold competencies identied by Richard Boyatzis Source: R. Boyatzis (1982) The Competent Manager. New York: John Wiley.

14 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Threshold Competencies (2 of 2) Table 17.2 The seven threshold competencies identied by Richard Boyatzis Source: R. Boyatzis (1982) The Competent Manager. New York: John Wiley.

15 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Clusters of Management Competencies Goal and action Leadership Human resourcing Focus on others Directing subordinates (Boyatzis, 1982)

16 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Goal & Action Cluster Concern with impact Diagnostic use of concepts Efficiency orientation Proactivity (Boyatzis, 1982)

17 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Leadership Cluster Conceptualisation Self confidence Oral presentations (Boyatzis, 1982)

18 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Human Resource Management Cluster Use of socialised power Managing group processes (Boyatzis, 1982)

19 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Focus on Others Cluster Perceptual objectivity Self control Stamina and adaptability (Boyatzis, 1982)

20 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Directing Subordinates Cluster Developing others Spontaneity Use of unilateral power (Boyatzis, 1982)

21 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Typical Content of a Competency Framework Figure 17.1 Typical content of a competency framework (Source: This material is adapted from The Competencies Handbook by S. Whiddett and S. Hollyforde (1999), p. 14, with the permission of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, CIPD House, Camp Road, London, SW19 4UX.)

22 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Advantages of Behavioural Competencies Way of expressing what is valued by an organisation Provide a critical mechanism for integrating HR practices to strategic approach to HR Competency framework can be used across HR practices Employees can be given a consistent message about what is valued and expected

23 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Problematic Aspects of Behavioural Competencies Complex research processes required Due to research process competencies will be backward looking May not include every aspect critical to superior performance A wider perspective needs to be taken Peoples behaviour may not always be consistent

24 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide Summary IIP, SSCs and LSCs encourage the competence movement and NVQs Competence is concerned with job standards and output Competency refers to behaviour or input Main vehicle for learning to achieve competence is NVQs NVQs continually criticised


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