8 3. How does the sun affect the water cycle? The sun affects the water cycle by heating up the waters in various places. When the water is heated and mixed with colder water, the weather will change all over the world.
12 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions” 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions”? How do they help control flooding?
13 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions” 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions”? How do they help control flooding?Answer:They act as filters- As water moves slowly through a wetland, some waste materials settle out, some wastes are absorbed by plants, and silt and mud are trapped by plant roots.Flood control: Wetlands help to lessen the impacts of flooding by absorbing water and reducing the speed at which flood waters flow during heavy rains. They also serve to store flood waters temporarily and release them slowly after the rain stops.
14 6. What is the difference between impermeable and permeable?
15 6. What is the difference between impermeable and permeable? Answer: Impermeable: : Layers that will not allow water to pass through (ex: Asphalt, Concrete, clay, granitePermeable: Layers that allow water to pass through easily.(ex: sand &Gravel)
25 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty? Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty?
26 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty? Less salty Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty? More salty
27 10. Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty?
28 10. Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty? Answer:A)More salty
30 11. What causes tides?Answer:Interaction of the earth, sun and moon.
31 12. What is a surface current? What is a deep current?
32 12. What is a surface current? Answer: Surface current: occur at surfacewind causes currentscaused by friction between wind and water - wind pushes waterSurface currents can be warm or cold.
33 12. What is a deep current?Answer: deep current: Deep below the ocean surface, these currents causes chilly waters to creep slowly across the ocean floor.These currents are caused by the differences in density of ocean water.Temperature causes water density differences.At the poles, colder denser water sinks. At the equator, warmer less dense water rises.
36 13. How do surface currents affect climate? Answer:A COLD current makes an ocean city colder than it should beExample: San Diego CaliforniaA warm current makes an ocean city warmer than it should be-Example: the United Kingdom
37 14. Describe the two special tides 14. Describe the two special tides. What affect do these tides have on Earth?
38 14. Describe the two special tides 14. Describe the two special tides. What affect do these tides have on Earth?Neap Tide and Spring tide. The spring tide is when the tide's range is in the maximum and the neap is when it is at its minimum.
40 15.How does air pressure change as one travels higher in the atmosphere? Does density change too?
41 15.How does air pressure change as one travels higher in the atmosphere? Does density change too? Answer:1) Temperature gets lower (until thermosphere)2) Air pressure decreases3) Density decreases
42 16.What is the greenhouse effect and why is it necessary?
43 16.What is the greenhouse effect? Answer: Parts of our atmosphere act as an insulating blanket of just the right thickness, trapping sufficient solar energy to keep the global average temperature in a pleasant range.
44 16. Why is the greenhouse effect necessary? Answer:all solar energy would be reflected back into space and it will be too cold for life to exist. Greenhouse gases trap enough heat in order for life to exist
45 17.Which type of air tends to sink? Which type of air tends to rise?
46 17. Which type of air tends to sink? Answer:Just as with hot and cold ocean currents, cold air will sink.
47 17. Which type of air tends to rise? Answer: Just as with hot and cold ocean currents, hot air will rise.
50 18. What causes high and low air pressure? Answer:Air pressure is the result of the column of air that is above you.the result of low and high air pressure are caused by unequal heating across the Earth's surfaceLows are usually associated with high winds, warm air. lows normally produce clouds, precipitation, and other bad weather such as tropical storms and cyclones.high pressure systems are usually associated with clear skies and calm weather.
51 High Atmospheric Pressure: A "high" is an area where the air's pressure is higher than the pressure of the surrounding air.
52 Low Atmospheric Pressure A "low' is where the air pressure is lower. Meteorologists don't have any particular number that divides high from low pressure; it's the relative differences that count.The pressure is high at the surface where air is slowly descending - much to slowly to feel. And, this is going on over a large area, maybe a few hundred square miles. As air descends, it warms, which inhibits the formation of clouds. This is why high pressure is generally - but not quite always - associated with good weather.The air that descends in high pressure areas, has to get to high altitudes in some way, and that way is by rising in areas where the pressure at the surface is low.
56 20. Explain the conditions necessary to form a sea breeze and land breeze.
57 20. How are sea breezes formed? A sea breeze is created when the surface of the land is heated sufficiently to start air rising. As air rises, it is replaced by air from the sea; you have now created a sea breeze. Sea breezes tend to be much stronger and can produce gusty winds as the sun can heat the land to very warm temperatures, thereby creating a significant temperature contrast to the water. Speeds of 10 to 20 knots is not uncommon for a sea breeze.
61 20. How are land breezes formed? A land breeze is created when the land is cooler than the water such as at night and the surface winds have to be very light. When this happens the air over the water slowly begins to rise, as the air begins to rise the air over the surface of the ocean has to be replaced, this is done by drawing the air from the land over the water, thus creating a sea breeze. Usually land breezes are light and reach only 5 to 8 knots.
66 21. What is humidity? Answer: Amount of water vapor, or moisture, in the air.Humidity is determined by air temperature1. warmer air holds more water2. cooler air holds less water
67 21. how do you measure humidity? Answer:With a psychrometerhas two thermometers – dry/wet bulb1. dry bulb – measure air temp.2. wet bulb – covered with damp clothAs air passes over damp cloth, water evaporates, energy transferred away, thermometer cools.
69 22. How does temperature affect humidity? as the temperature increases air can hold more moisture, so warm air is generally more humid than cold air.High air temperatures allow rainforests to become very humid
70 23. Clouds are classified based on their: ShapeAltitudeEach cloud is associated with a different type of weather.
71 23. List and explain the three types of clouds.
72 23. List and explain the three types of clouds. Answer:Stratus:Form in layers and cover large areas of the skyStrato means “spread out”Near the ground called fogNimbostratus – dark, produce drizzle rain or snownimbo or –nimbus means may produce precipitationCirrus:Thin, feathery cloudsForm at high altitudes – therefore they are made of small ice crystalsThick and low can indicate bad weatherCumulus:Puffy, white cloudsLook like piles of cottonForm when warm air rises and indicates fair weatherCumulonimbus – produce large storms/thunderstorms
73 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation.
74 24. The five types of precipitation. Answer: Rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, hail
75 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer:Rain: Rain is liquid precipitation that reaches the surface in the form of drops that are greater than 0.5 millimeters in diameter. The intensity of rain is determined by the accumulation over a given time.
76 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer ; Snow:Ice crystals, Made of six sides Snow is an aggregate of ice crystals that form into flakes. Snow forms at temperatures below freezing. For snow to reach the earth's surface the entire temperature profile in the troposphere needs to be at or below freezing.
77 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer ; Sleet: Rain drops fall through very cold air and freeze into ice particlesSmaller than 5mm in diameter
78 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer; freezing rain: Rain drops fall through cold air and freeze after they touch a cold surface.
79 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer; Hail: Forms only in cumulonimbus clouds during thunderstormsIce pellet that is larger than 5mm in diameterUpdrafts carry the pellet up and downEach time it is carried up a new layer of ice forms on the outsideEventually the pellet is too heavy and falls to Earth
81 25. . What does the term maritime tell you about an air mass? Continental? Polar? Tropical?
82 25. What does the term maritime tell you about an air mass? Continental? Polar? Tropical? Answer:
83 maritime: forms over oceans maritime: forms over oceans. Water evaporates from the oceans, so the air can become very humid.continental: forms over land and has less exposure to large amounts of moisture from bodies of water.HumidityTempertureAir MassesTropical: Warm, forms in the tropics and has low air pressure.Polar: : Cold, forms north of 50° north latitude and south of 50° south latitude and has air pressure.
85 26. What types of fronts form when air masses interact?
86 26. What types of fronts form when air masses interact? Answer:Maritime – formed over water (humid)Continental – formed over land (dry)3) Tropical – formed near equator (hot)4) Polar – formed near poles (cold)
87 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane?
89 27. What is a Storm? A violent disturbance in the atmosphere Answer:A violent disturbance in the atmosphereSudden changes in air pressureRapid air movements
90 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane?Answer:A hurricane forms over warm water produces long periods of heavy rains and very strong winds, and is water fed. (they lose their power once they leave the ocean. And usually covers huge areas.A tornado forms over land from thunderstorms. is wind fed and more localizedThunderstorm: a short lived storm that produces brief downpours, thunder and lightning and sometimes hail. Thunderstorms form in warm and humid air either on land or water.