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QPA Review for 3 rd 9 Weeks. Ch.10 Fresh Water 1. What percent of Earth’s water is salty? What percent is fresh?

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Presentation on theme: "QPA Review for 3 rd 9 Weeks. Ch.10 Fresh Water 1. What percent of Earth’s water is salty? What percent is fresh?"— Presentation transcript:

1 QPA Review for 3 rd 9 Weeks

2 Ch.10 Fresh Water

3 1. What percent of Earth’s water is salty? What percent is fresh?

4 What percent of Earth’s water is salty? What percent is fresh? Earth: Oceans: 70% – Salty: 97% – Fresh: 3% Land: 30%

5 2. How has the amount of water on Earth changed throughout time?

6 How has the amount of water on Earth changed throughout time? Answer: It is a closed system, which means the amount of water in the water cycle has changed very little over time.

7 3. How does the sun affect the water cycle?

8 The sun affects the water cycle by heating up the waters in various places. When the water is heated and mixed with colder water, the weather will change all over the world.

9 4. What is groundwater?

10 Answer: water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers

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12 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions”? How do they help control flooding?

13 Answer: They act as filters- As water moves slowly through a wetland, some waste materials settle out, some wastes are absorbed by plants, and silt and mud are trapped by plant roots. Flood control: Wetlands help to lessen the impacts of flooding by absorbing water and reducing the speed at which flood waters flow during heavy rains. They also serve to store flood waters temporarily and release them slowly after the rain stops.

14 6. What is the difference between impermeable and permeable?

15 Impermeable Answer : Impermeable: : Layers that will not allow water to pass through (ex: Asphalt, Concrete, clay, granite Permeable Permeable: Layers that allow water to pass through easily.(ex: sand &Gravel)

16 7. Why would someone drill into an aquifer?

17 Answer : Definition: Any underground layer of rock or sediment that holds water. Someone might need to drill for a well.

18 8. What is someone doing when they conserve water?

19 Answer: Trying not to waste the fresh water we have.

20 Chapter 11 - Oceans

21 9.. Describe the topography of the ocean floor. What features would you find there?

22 9.. Describe the topography of the ocean floor. Answer: it is like land with mountain and hills, with valleys and river bed with plateau an volcano, etc. but only buried under sea.

23 9. What features would you find there? Answer: – Continental shelf – Continental slope – Abyssal plain – Seamount & volcanic islands – Mid-ocean ridge – Trench – Rift valley (deep ocean)

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25 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty? Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty?

26 10. Would a river entering the ocean make the water more or less salty? Less salty Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty? More salty

27 10. Would water freezing at the poles make the remaining water more or less salty?

28 Answer: A)More salty

29 11.What causes tides?

30 Answer : Interaction of the earth, sun and moon.

31 12. What is a surface current? What is a deep current?

32 12. What is a surface current? Answer: Surface current: occur at surface wind causes currents caused by friction between wind and water - wind pushes water Surface currents can be warm or cold.

33 12. What is a deep current? Answer: deep current: Deep below the ocean surface, these currents causes chilly waters to creep slowly across the ocean floor. These currents are caused by the differences in density of ocean water. Temperature causes water density differences. At the poles, colder denser water sinks. At the equator, warmer less dense water rises.

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36 13. How do surface currents affect climate? Answer: A COLD current makes an ocean city colder than it should be – Example: San Diego California A warm current makes an ocean city warmer than it should be -Example: the United Kingdom

37 14. Describe the two special tides. What affect do these tides have on Earth?

38 Neap Tide and Spring tide. The spring tide is when the tide's range is in the maximum and the neap is when it is at its minimum.

39 Chapter 12 – The Atmosphere

40 15.How does air pressure change as one travels higher in the atmosphere? Does density change too?

41 Answer: 1) Temperature gets lower (until thermosphere) 2) Air pressure decreases 3) Density decreases

42 16.What is the greenhouse effect and why is it necessary?

43 16.What is the greenhouse effect? Answer: Parts of our atmosphere act as an insulating blanket of just the right thickness, trapping sufficient solar energy to keep the global average temperature in a pleasant range.

44 16. Why is the greenhouse effect necessary? Answer: all solar energy would be reflected back into space and it will be too cold for life to exist. Greenhouse gases trap enough heat in order for life to exist

45 17.Which type of air tends to sink? Which type of air tends to rise?

46 17. Which type of air tends to sink? Answer: Just as with hot and cold ocean currents, cold air will sink.

47 17. Which type of air tends to rise? Answer: Just as with hot and cold ocean currents, hot air will rise.

48 18.What causes high and low air pressure?

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50 Answer: Air pressure is the result of the column of air that is above you. the result of low and high air pressure are caused by unequal heating across the Earth's surface Lows are usually associated with high winds, warm air. lows normally produce clouds, precipitation, and other bad weather such as tropical storms and cyclones. high pressure systems are usually associated with clear skies and calm weather.

51 High Atmospheric Pressure: A "high" is an area where the air's pressure is higher than the pressure of the surrounding air.

52 Low Atmospheric Pressure A "low' is where the air pressure is lower. Meteorologists don't have any particular number that divides high from low pressure; it's the relative differences that count. The pressure is high at the surface where air is slowly descending - much to slowly to feel. And, this is going on over a large area, maybe a few hundred square miles. As air descends, it warms, which inhibits the formation of clouds. This is why high pressure is generally - but not quite always - associated with good weather. The air that descends in high pressure areas, has to get to high altitudes in some way, and that way is by rising in areas where the pressure at the surface is low.

53 19.What causes wind?

54 Answer: The uneven heating of the earth’s surface - warm air rises and cool air moves in (air moves from high pressure to lower pressure areas)

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56 20. Explain the conditions necessary to form a sea breeze and land breeze.

57 20. How are sea breezes formed? A sea breeze is created when the surface of the land is heated sufficiently to start air rising. As air rises, it is replaced by air from the sea; you have now created a sea breeze. Sea breezes tend to be much stronger and can produce gusty winds as the sun can heat the land to very warm temperatures, thereby creating a significant temperature contrast to the water. Speeds of 10 to 20 knots is not uncommon for a sea breeze.

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61 20. How are land breezes formed? A land breeze is created when the land is cooler than the water such as at night and the surface winds have to be very light. When this happens the air over the water slowly begins to rise, as the air begins to rise the air over the surface of the ocean has to be replaced, this is done by drawing the air from the land over the water, thus creating a sea breeze. Usually land breezes are light and reach only 5 to 8 knots.

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64 Chapter 13 Weather

65 21.What is humidity and how do you measure it?

66 21. What is humidity? Answer: Amount of water vapor, or moisture, in the air. Humidity is determined by air temperature 1. warmer air holds more water 2. cooler air holds less water

67 21. how do you measure humidity? Answer: With a psychrometer has two thermometers – dry/wet bulb 1. dry bulb – measure air temp. 2. wet bulb – covered with damp cloth As air passes over damp cloth, water evaporates, energy transferred away, thermometer cools.

68 22. How does temperature affect humidity?

69 as the temperature increases air can hold more moisture, so warm air is generally more humid than cold air. High air temperatures allow rainforests to become very humid

70 23. Clouds are classified based on their: – Shape – Altitude – Each cloud is associated with a different type of weather.

71 23. List and explain the three types of clouds.

72 Answer: Stratus: Form in layers and cover large areas of the sky Strato means “spread out” Near the ground called fog Nimbostratus – dark, produce drizzle rain or snow nimbo or –nimbus means may produce precipitation Cirrus: Thin, feathery clouds Form at high altitudes – therefore they are made of small ice crystals Thick and low can indicate bad weather Cumulus: Puffy, white clouds Look like piles of cotton Form when warm air rises and indicates fair weather Cumulonimbus – produce large storms/thunderstorms

73 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation.

74 24. The five types of precipitation. Answer: Rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, hail

75 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Answer: Rain Rain: Rain is liquid precipitation that reaches the surface in the form of drops that are greater than 0.5 millimeters in diameter. The intensity of rain is determined by the accumulation over a given time.

76 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Snow Answer ; Snow: Ice crystals, Made of six sides Snow is an aggregate of ice crystals that form into flakes. Snow forms at temperatures below freezing. For snow to reach the earth's surface the entire temperature profile in the troposphere needs to be at or below freezing.

77 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Sleet: Answer ; Sleet: Rain drops fall through very cold air and freeze into ice particles – Smaller than 5mm in diameter

78 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. freezing rain Answer; freezing rain: Rain drops fall through cold air and freeze after they touch a cold surface.

79 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation. Hail: Answer; Hail: Forms only in cumulonimbus clouds during thunderstorms – Ice pellet that is larger than 5mm in diameter – Updrafts carry the pellet up and down – Each time it is carried up a new layer of ice forms on the outside – Eventually the pellet is too heavy and falls to Earth

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81 25.. What does the term maritime tell you about an air mass? Continental? Polar? Tropical?

82 25. What does the term maritime tell you about an air mass? Continental? Polar? Tropical? Answer:

83 Air Masses Humidity Temperture maritime: forms over oceans. Water evaporates from the oceans, so the air can become very humid. continental: forms over land and has less exposure to large amounts of moisture from bodies of water. Tropical: Warm, forms in the tropics and has low air pressure. Polar: : Cold, forms north of 50° north latitude and south of 50° south latitude and has air pressure.

84 Warm maritime Tropical = _warm & humid______________ maritime Polar = _cold & humid______________ continental Tropical = __warm & dry____________ continental Polar = ___cold & dry_______________ Temperature maritime continental Tropical (mT) (cT) maritime continental Polar (mP) (cP) We t Dry Cold

85 26. What types of fronts form when air masses interact?

86 Answer: 1)Maritime – formed over water (humid) 2)Continental – formed over land (dry) 3) Tropical – formed near equator (hot) 4) Polar – formed near poles (cold)

87 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane?

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89 27. What is a Storm? Answer: A violent disturbance in the atmosphere – Sudden changes in air pressure – Rapid air movements

90 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane? Answer: hurricane A hurricane forms over warm water produces long periods of heavy rains and very strong winds, and is water fed. (they lose their power once they leave the ocean. And usually covers huge areas. tornado A tornado forms over land from thunderstorms. is wind fed and more localized Thunderstorm Thunderstorm: a short lived storm that produces brief downpours, thunder and lightning and sometimes hail. Thunderstorms form in warm and humid air either on land or water.

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