10 4. What is groundwater?Answer: water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
11 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions” 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions”? How do they help control flooding?
12 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions” 5. Why are wetlands considered “pollution solutions”? How do they help control flooding?Answer:They act as filters- As water moves slowly through a wetland, some waste materials settle out, some wastes are absorbed by plants, and silt and mud are trapped by plant roots.Flood control: Wetlands help to lessen the impacts of flooding by absorbing water and reducing the speed at which flood waters flow during heavy rains. They also serve to store flood waters temporarily and release them slowly after the rain stops.
13 6. What is the difference between impermeable and permeable?
14 6. What is the difference between impermeable and permeable? Answer: Impermeable: : Layers that will not allow water to pass through (ex: Asphalt, Concrete, clay, granitePermeable: Layers that allow water to pass through easily.(ex: sand &Gravel)
15 7. Why would someone drill into an aquifer? Answer: Definition: Any underground layer of rock or sediment that holds water.Someone might need to drill for a well.
16 8. What is someone doing when they conserve water? Answer: Trying not to waste the fresh water we have.
24 11. What causes tides?Answer:Interaction of the earth, sun and moon.
25 12. What is a surface current? Answer: Surface current: occur at surfacewind causes currentscaused by friction between wind and water - wind pushes waterSurface currents can be warm or cold.
26 12. What is a deep current?Answer: deep current: Deep below the ocean surface, these currents causes chilly waters to creep slowly across the ocean floor.These currents are caused by the differences in density of ocean water.Temperature causes water density differences.At the poles, colder denser water sinks. At the equator, warmer less dense water rises.
29 13. How do surface currents affect climate? Answer:A COLD current makes an ocean city colder than it should beExample: San Diego CaliforniaA warm current makes an ocean city warmer than it should be-Example: the United Kingdom
30 14. Describe the two special tides 14. Describe the two special tides. What affect do these tides have on Earth?Neap Tide and Spring tide. The spring tide is when the tide's range is in the maximum and the neap is when it is at its minimum.
32 15.How does air pressure change as one travels higher in the atmosphere? Does density change too? Answer:1) Temperature gets lower (until thermosphere)2) Air pressure decreases3) Density decreases
33 16.What is the greenhouse effect and why is it necessary?
34 16.What is the greenhouse effect? Answer: our atmosphere acts like a blanket trapping heat to keep our temperature in a pleasant range.
35 16. Why is the greenhouse effect necessary? Answer:all solar energy would be reflected back into space and it will be too cold for life to exist. Greenhouse gases trap enough heat in order for life to exist
36 17.Which type of air tends to sink? Which type of air tends to rise?
37 17. Which type of air tends to sink, rise? Answer:Just like ocean currents and the mantle, cold sinks and warm rises.Convection currents!
41 19. What causes wind? Answer: The uneven heating of the earth’s surface - warm air rises and cool air moves in (air moves from high pressure to lower pressure areas)
42 20. Explain the conditions necessary to form a sea breeze and land breeze.
43 20. How are sea breezes formed? A sea breeze is created when the surface of the land is heated sufficiently to start air rising. As air rises, it is replaced by air from the sea; you have now created a sea breeze.
46 20. How are land breezes formed? A land breeze is created when the land is cooler than the water such as at night and the surface winds have to be very light. When this happens the air over the water slowly begins to rise, as the air begins to rise the air over the surface of the ocean has to be replaced, this is done by drawing the air from the land over the water, thus creating a sea breeze.
51 21. What is humidity? Answer: Amount of water vapor, or moisture, in the air.Humidity is determined by air temperature1. warmer air holds more water2. cooler air holds less water
52 21. how do you measure humidity? Answer:With a psychrometerhas two thermometers – dry/wet bulb1. dry bulb – measure air temp.2. wet bulb – covered with damp clothAs air passes over damp cloth, water evaporates, energy transferred away, thermometer cools.
54 22. How does temperature affect humidity? as the temperature increases air can hold more moisture, so warm air is generally more humid than cold air.High air temperatures allow rainforests to become very humid
55 23. List and explain the three types of clouds.
56 23. List and explain the three types of clouds. Stratus: Form in layers and cover large areas of the skyNimbostratus – dark, produce drizzle rain or snowCirrus: Thin, feathery cloudsForm at high altitudesCumulus: Puffy, white clouds, flat bottomsLook like piles of cottonindicates fair weatherCumulonimbus – produce large storms
57 24. Explain each of the five types of precipitation.
58 24. The five types of precipitation. Answer: Rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, hail
59 25. What does the term maritime tell you about an air mass? Continental? Polar? Tropical? Answer:
60 maritime: forms over oceans maritime: forms over oceans. Water evaporates from the oceans, so the air can become very humid.continental: forms over land and has less exposure to large amounts of moisture from bodies of water.HumidityTempertureAir MassesTropical: Warm, forms in the tropics and has low air pressure.Polar: : Cold, forms north of 50° north latitude and south of 50° south latitude and has air pressure.
61 26. What types of fronts form when air masses interact?
62 26. What types of fronts form when air masses interact? Warm FrontThe leading edge of a warm, often humid air mass.Can bring light and steady rain for daysUsually followed by very warm, humid airCold FrontUsually replaced by cold, dry air
63 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane?
64 27. What is a Storm? A violent disturbance in the atmosphere Answer:A violent disturbance in the atmosphereSudden changes in air pressureRapid air movements
66 27. What is a storm? Are you able to explain the difference between a thunderstorm, tornado, and hurricane?Answer:A hurricane forms over warm water produces long periods of heavy rains and very strong winds, and is water fed. (they lose their power once they leave the ocean. And usually covers huge areas.A tornado forms over land from thunderstorms. is wind fed and more localizedThunderstorm: a short lived storm that produces brief downpours, thunder and lightning and sometimes hail. Thunderstorms form in warm and humid air either on land or water.