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© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle twitch fibres Muscle twitch fibres occur in different proportions in different people. This proportion is mainly to do with the genes you inherit. The proportion can be altered to some extent by training. Suggest a mix for the sportspeople shown below.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle strength Strength means the maximum force that muscles can exert when they contract. There are three different types of strength: Static strength The amount of force that muscles can apply to a stationary object. Dynamic strength The amount of force that muscles can apply to move a heavy object. Explosive strength The amount of force that muscles can exert in one fast movement. © EMPICS Ltd
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle strength
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Isotonic contractions The different types of strength are related to the different types of muscular contractions. Isotonic contractions occur when using dynamic and explosive strength. When a contraction is isotonic, movement is created. The contracting muscle shortens and fattens. This shortening action pulls on the bones, causing them to move. Isotonic contractions are generally the more important type of contraction for sportspeople, especially games players. They produce both speed and power. Fast-paced games require isotonic contractions.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Isometric contractions Isometric contractions do not create movement – the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens. Isometric contractions produce static strength. This type of contraction occurs in several situations: To support a weight in a stationary position. To hold the body in a particular position (e.g., in gymnastics). To stabilize part of the body so movement can occur elsewhere. Isometric contractions occur in a rugby scrum © EMPICS Ltd
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Strength training The strength of muscles can be increased through training. Strength training makes muscles grow thicker, allowing them to contract with more force. Strength training involves repeatedly lifting, pushing or pulling against a large resistance. This kind of exercise can usually only be repeated a small number of times, because it is extremely tiring. When muscles increase in size, it is called hypertrophy. When muscles waste away it is called atrophy.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle endurance training Muscular endurance means the ability of muscles to repeatedly contract without getting tired. Muscular endurance can be improved by moving a lighter weight many times. Muscles become better at using oxygen and long-term energy stores (especially fat) and work better over long periods of time. Muscular endurance is important in events like long distance running, cycling and rowing which take a long time to complete.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle training
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle training – everyday tasks Improving muscle strength and endurance through training can make everyday tasks easier. Many everyday tasks like gardening, moving furniture and ironing require physical exertion. If you are stronger and have better muscular endurance, you will find these tasks less tiring. Muscular endurance is generally more important in everyday life – most people rarely have to lift something that is very heavy. People who do very physical jobs, for example, farmers and builders, may need higher levels of strength.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle training – rehabilitation Strength training can also assist recovery after an injury. Light weights are used at first to prevent further injury. Gradually the performer lifts heavier weights as the injury heals and the muscles strengthen. Strength training can also help to prevent injuries – strong muscles can take higher stresses without being damaged. A performer who has suffered a joint injury may use a programme of weight training to strengthen the muscles, tendons and ligaments around the joint in order to reduce the risk of the injury reoccurring.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle tone and posture Muscles almost never fully relax – even when you sleep, there are always some fibres in a state of partial tension. This is called muscle tone. Exercise improves your muscle tone – it causes more of your muscle fibres to be slightly tensed, ready for action. Poor muscle tone leads to poor posture and slouching. Maintaining muscle tone requires energy. Rounded shoulders Curved back
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Posture If you have good posture… But if you have poor posture… Your internal organs, like your heart and digestive system, will function more effectively because good posture creates more space in the chest and abdomen. Straight shoulders allow more room in the chest, so lung capacity is increased. Good posture helps prevent strain and injury in everyday activity and sport. Other muscles have to work harder to compensate for weak muscles. You will get tired sooner. You dont look as good. This may damage your self- esteem.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Muscle quiz
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Exam-style questions 1.This picture shows part of the muscular system. a)Name muscles a–e. a b c d e Janine exercises her deltoids by lifting heavy weights. She raises her arms out to the sides until her hands are level with her shoulders. b)What type of movement is occurring at the shoulder? c)What type of muscle contraction is involved? Janine changes her exercise to holding the weights out to the sides at shoulder level for 10 seconds at a time. d)What type of strength will this improve?
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Exam-style questions 2.Explain what is meant by an antagonistic pair and give one example. 3.Muscular endurance can be improved by training. Andrew is trying to improve his muscular endurance. He performs five biceps curls a day with a very heavy weight. Andrews muscular endurance is not increasing much. a)What is meant by muscular endurance? b)How is muscular endurance important in everyday life? c)Suggest how he could change his exercise so that he achieves better results.
© Boardworks Ltd of 33 Can you remember all these keywords? Voluntary muscle Involuntary muscle Cardiac muscle Antagonistic pair Origin Insertion Extensor Flexor Fast twitch Slow twitch Isotonic contraction Isometric contraction Hypertrophy Atrophy Resistance Muscular endurance Muscle tone Posture
© Boardworks Ltd of 30 Principles of Training © Boardworks Ltd of 30 These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are.
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