Basic Programming Workshop Review Programming can not overcome poor robot and attachment design Think strategically with missions & attachments Use Bluetooth KISS it! Change ONE thing at a time Document changes Leapfrog development Save, Save, Save
NXT-Step Programming Workshop: Taking your programming to the NXT Level Adding on to the Basics: Create a script or a checklist for the competition This checklist should be run through each time you approach the table to ensure that EVERY ITEM is in it’s place and you are ready to go This checklist should be read by a non-robot handling student throughout the competition. This checklist can be as simple or as complex as needed to suit your team Things to include Check chassis Check wiring is secure NXT is “on” and set to it’s 1 st program/mission Attachments are assembled and ready for use Who is the robot handler, what mission are they doing (repeat as needed)
Default Ports Touch Sensor Default port 1 Sound Sensor Default port 2 Light Sensor Default port 3 Ultrasonic Sensor Default port 4 Attachment Motor Default port A Drive Motors Default ports B & C
Use the NXT to find accurate sensor readings “View” option Bluetooth can send sensor readings to PC select the sensor block readings will appear on the far left of the configuration panel Use that BRAIN!
Reading Sensors: Now it’s your turn… Objective… take sensor readings using your NXT Using your NXT and Bluetooth, we’re going to: Take rotation reading (only reads in degrees) Take light reading Calibrate NXT light readings Select “Calibrate” program from tools menu (it will download and run automatically). Run this program EVERY time you approach the board if you use light sensors
Multitasking! What is multitasking? Programming your robot to accomplish multiple tasks at the same time Why use it? SAVES TIME!! Example: Move forward and raise an attachment
Multitasking: Now it’s your turn… Objective… Program your NXT to walk and chew gum at the same time In NXT-G, we’re going to: Create a multiple sequence beam Program a standard move forward block Add a 2nd sequence beam, programming the attachment motor to raise or lower TIP: Add a move block below the 1 st sequence beam. Use “Shift” and click on the 1 st sequence beam, then drag down to connect to the move block, creating a new sequence beam.
Loops: Going in Circles… What’s a loop? Requires a task to be repeated a set number of times before moving to the next block Repeat (or continue) a task until a specific variable is met (using sensor input) Requires that specific conditions are met before moving on to the next block
Loops: Now it’s your turn… Objective… using a loop, learn to meet a specific condition before moving on to the next block Using a loop, we’re going to: Create a task that needs to repeat a set number of times before moving to the next block Continue a task until a specific variable is met (using sensor input)
Breaking and Entering: using a crow bar What’s a Crow Bar? A temporary block used to pry open a space within a loop or a switch
Crow Bar: Now it’s your turn… Objective… learn to manipulate blocks to pry open space for loops and switches Using a crow bar, we’re going to: Create a 2 nd sequence beam inside a loop Hint: The same process can be applied to a Switch
Can you count to ONE?: Single Count Loops Single Count Loops: Ensure that ALL tasks are met before leaving the loop Why use a Single Count Loop? It’s an insurance policy that everything is synchronized before moving on
Single Count Loops: Now it’s your turn… Objective… using a single count loop, learn to ensure ALL tasks are completed before leaving the loop Using a single count loop, we’re going to: Create a program that needs to meet a specific requirement before moving to the next block Hint: Use a crowbar to put everything in a Loop
Switches: If/Then Conditions What’s a Switch? If Condition A is met, then program chooses path 1 If Condition B is met, then program chooses path 2 Example: Condition A: If the Light Sensor reads above 50, NXT says “Light”; Condition B: If the Light Sensor reads below 50, NXT says “Dark”
Switches: Now it’s your turn… Objective… using a switch, teach your robot to make a choice between two actions Using a switch, we’re going to: Create a program that requires a if/then statement, dependent upon sensor input.
Data Wires: Playing Telephone with Your Programming Data Wires are: Data wires send information from one block to one or more blocks later in a program Three types of Data Wires: Numeric: integers (whole numbers), positive or negative Logic: one of two possible values, true or false Text: a string of letters “Hello”, “turn right”, “643cheese” Why use them? Could send a light reading to a variable block Could send a touch sensor reading to a move block Could send text to the NXT screen letting you know what a specific condition is (a light sensor reading) Must use a text block to convert a reading to text
Data Blocks: Information Overload Logic, Math & Compare Blocks: Blocks in which math calculations or comparisons are performed Range & Random Blocks: Looks for values in a given range or randomly selects a value Variable & Constant Blocks: Carry and hold information for later use Variable Blocks get information from other blocks Constant Blocks must have values, like numbers or a true/false, input manually by the programmer Why use them? So we can reference values later in a program
Data Wires and Data Blocks: Putting it all together See the Help section for specific color coding and other helpful information about data wires Uses math to calculate distance Data Wires Data Hub Constants
My Blocks: Space Saving Miracles My Blocks are: Customized collection of blocks condensed into a single block Why use a My Block? Saves screen space & simplifies look of your program Creates a “program” that can be used multiple times within a single block or program. Hints: If you change anything within a My Block, it changes that My Block throughout your programming. Double click the My Block to see what’s inside it.
My Blocks: Now it’s your turn… Objective: Learn to create a My Block We’re going to… Create a simple program and make it into a My Block
Telling your NXT where to go… Using the information that we’ve already learned… How can you use a loop to determine your NXT’s location on the board? Would it be more accurate if your robot had multiple Touch and Light Sensors? Why or why not? Hints: If you tell your robot to “square” to a wall or a line, is it in a more accurate position on the board than telling your robot to move X number of rotations? How does the position of the Light/Touch Sensor on the robot affect the programming?
Telling your NXT where to go… Using the information that we’ve already learned… How can you use a Touch Sensor with a loop to: Find a wall How can you use a Light Sensor with a loop to: Find a line
Telling your NXT where to go… Find a wall Find a line
Telling your NXT where to go… Using the information that we’ve already learned… Using 2 Touch Sensors can you modify your “Find a Wall” program to: Square to Wall
Telling your NXT where to go… Square to wall
Telling your NXT where to go… Using the information that we’ve already learned… Using 2 Light Sensors can you modify your “Find a Line” program to: Square to Line
Telling your NXT where to go… Square to line
Telling your NXT where to go… Using the information that we’ve already learned… How can you use a Light Sensor with a switch to: Follow a line
Telling your NXT where to go… Follow a line
Master Programs: The King of the NXT-G World (insert evil laugh here)… Master Programs are: A program that runs all the table top missions as a single mission It breaks the missions into individual sections, pausing between each, waiting for input from the NXT brick before proceeding to the next one. Why use a Master Program? Saves space Eliminates stressful searching for programs on NXT brick during competition
Kudos and credit where it’s due: We couldn’t do it without you… Cindy Bryden Dan Monroe Cougar FLL Team Programming Lego Mindstorms NXT by Owen Bishop uct uct Created October 2010 by: Nick and Sherri Behr