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Finite Automata A simple model of computation

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata2 Outline Deterministic finite automata (DFA) –How a DFA works –How to construct a DFA Non-deterministic finite automata (NFA) –How an NFA works –How to construct an NFA Equivalence of DFA and NFA Closure properties of the class of languages accepted by FA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata3 Finite Automata (FA) CONTROL UNIT INPUT TAPE TAPE HEAD Finite set of states Move to the right one cell at a time Store input of the DFA Can be of any length Start state Final state(s) is in exactly one state at a time

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata4 What does an FA do? Read an input string from tape Determine if the input string is in a language Determine if the answer for the problem is “YES” or “NO” for the given input on the tape

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata5 How does an FA work? At the beginning, –an FA is in the start state (initial state) –its tape head points at the first cell For each move, FA –reads the symbol under its tape head –changes its state (according to the transition function) to the next state determined by the symbol read from the tape and its current state –move its tape head to the right one cell

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata6 When does an FA stop working? When it reads all symbols on the tape Then, it gives an answer if the input is in the specific language: –Answer “YES” if its last state is a final state –Answer “NO” if its last state is not a final state

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata7 Example of a DFA qa (q,a)(q,a) s0s s1f f0f f1s s f 01 0 1 Transition diagram Transition function

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata8 How to define a DFA a 5-tuple (Q, , , s, F), where –a set of states Q is a finite set –an alphabet is a finite, non-empty set –a start state s in Q –a set of final states F contained in Q –a transition function is a function Q Q See formal definition That’s why it’s called a finite automaton.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata9 How an FA works sf 01 0 1 Input: 001101 Input: 01001 00110101001 ACCEPT REJECT

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata10 Configurations Definition Let M =( Q, , , s, F ) be a deterministic finite automaton. A configuration of M is an element of Q configurations of M (s, ), (s, 00), (s, 01101), (f, ), (f, 0011011001), (f, 1111), (f, 011110) s f 01 0 1 Transition diagram of M Unread input string Current state

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata11 Yielding next configuration Definition Let M = ( Q, , , s, F ) be a deterministic finite automaton, and ( q 0, 0 ) and ( q 1, 1 ) be two configurations of M. We say ( q 0, 0 ) yields ( q 1, 1 ) in one step, denoted by ( q 0, 0 ) M ( q 1, 1 ), if ( q 0, a ) = q 1, and 0 =a 1, for some a . When a configuration yields another configuration, the first symbol of the string is read and discarded from the configuration. Once a symbol in an input string is read, it does not effect how the DFA works in the future.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata12 Example : yielding next configuration (s, 001101) M (s, 01101) M (s, 1101) M (f, 101) M (s, 01) M (s, 1) M (f, ) sf 01 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata13 Yield in zero step or more Definition Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be a DFA, and (q 0, 0 ) and (q 1, 1 ) be two configurations of M. (q 0, 0 ) yields (q 1, 1 ) in zero step or more, denoted by (q 0, 0 ) * M (q 1, 1 ), if –q 0 = q 1 and 0 = 1, or –(q 0, 0 ) M (q 2, 2 ) and (q 2, 2 ) * M (q 1, 1 ) for some q 2 and 2. This definition is an inductive definition, and it is often used to prove properties of DFA’s.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata14 Example: Yield in zero step or more (s, 001101) * M (f, 101) * M (s, 01) * M (f, ) s f 01 0 1 (s, 01001) * M (f, 001) * M (f, 1) * M (s, )

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata15 Accepting a string Definition Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be a DFA, and *. We say M accepts if (s, ) * M (f, ), when f F. Otherwise, we say M rejects . (s, 001101) * M (f, ) M accepts 001101 (s, 01001) * M (s, ) M rejects 01001

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata16 Language accepted by a DFA Let M = (Q, , , s, F ) be a DFA. The language accepted by M, denoted by L(M ) is the set of strings accepted by M. That is, L(M) = { *|(s, ) * M (f, ) for some f F } Example: L(M) = {x {0,1}* | the number of 1’s in x is odd}. s f 01 0 1

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata17 Example s 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0, 1 0

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata18 How to construct a DFA Determine what a DFA need to memorize in order to recognize strings in the language. –Hint: the property of the strings in the language Determine how many states are required to memorize what we want. –final state(s) memorizes the property of the strings in the language. Find out how the thing we memorize is changed once the next input symbol is read. –From this change, we get the transition function.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata19 Constructing a DFA: Example Consider L= { {0,1}*| has both 00 and 11 as substrings}. Step 1: decide what a DFA need to memorize Step 2: how many states do we need? Step 3: construct the transition diagram

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata20 Example s 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0, 1 0 Got nothing Got 0 as substring Got 00 as substring Got 11 and got 0 Got 00 and 11 as substrings Got 1 as substring Got 11 as substring Got 00 and got 1 Got 11 and 00 as substrings

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata21 Constructing a DFA: Example Consider L= { {0,1}*| represents a binary number divisible by 3}. –L = {0, 00, 11, 000, 011, 110, 0000, 0011, 0110, 1001, 00000,...}. Step 1: decide what a DFA need to memorize –remembering that the portion of the string that has been read so far is divisible by 3 Step 2: how many states do we need? –2 states remembering that the string that has been read is divisible by 3 the string that has been read is indivisible by 3. –3 states remembering that the string that has been read is divisible by 3 the string that has been read - 1 is divisible by 3. the string that has been read - 2 is divisible by 3. Choose this!! Why?

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata22 Using 2 states Reading a string w representing a number divisible by 3. –Next symbol is 0. w 0, which is 2* w, is also divisible by 3. If w =9 is divisible by 3, so is 2* w =18. –Next symbol is 1. w 1, which is 2* w +1, may or may not be divisible by 3. If 8 is indivisible by 3, so is 17. If 4 is indivisible by 3, but 9 is divisible. Using these two states is not sufficient.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata23 Using 3 states Each state remembers the remainder of the number divided by 3. If the portion of the string that has been read so far, say w, represents the number whose remainder is 0 (or, 1, or 2), –If the next symbol is 0, what is the remainder of w 0? –If the next symbol is 1, what is the remainder of w 1?

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata24 How remainder changes Current number Current remainder Next symbol New number New remainder 3n006n0 3n016n+11 3n+1106n+22 3n+1116n+30 3n+2206n+41 3n+2216n+52

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata25 Transition table Current number Current remainder Next symbol New number New remainder 3n006n0 3n016n+11 3n+1106n+22 3n+1116n+30 3n+2206n+41 3n+2216n+52 Current state Next state

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata26 Example DFA Current state Next symbol Next state q0q0 0q0q0 q0q0 1q1q1 q1q1 0q2q2 q1q1 1q0q0 q2q2 0q1q1 q2q2 1q2q2 M = ({q 0, q 1, q 2 }, {0, 1}, , q 0, {q 0 }) q0q0 q1q1 q2q2 0 1 0 0 1 1

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata27 Nondeterministic Finite Automata Similar to DFA Nondeterministic move –On reading an input symbol, the automaton can choose to make a transition to one of selected states. –Without reading any symbol, the automaton can choose to make a transition to one of selected states or not. 0 0

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata28 How to define an NFA a 5-tuple (Q, , , s, F), where –a set of states Q is a finite set –an alphabet is a finite, non-empty set –a start state s in Q –a set of final states F contained in Q –a transition function is a function Q ( { }) 2 Q See formal definition

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata29 Example of NFA An NFA accepting { w {0,1} |w ends with 11 } 0,1 11 0 00 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 10 1 0 DFA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata30 Yielding next configuration Definition Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be a non-deterministic finite automaton, and (q 0, 0 ) and (q 1, 1 ) be two configurations of M. We say (q 0, 0 ) yields (q 1, 1 ) in one step, denoted by (q 0, 0 ) M (q 1, 1 ), if q 1 (q 0, a,), and 0 =a 1, for some a { }.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata31 Yield in zero step or more Definition Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be an NFA, and (q 0, 0 ) and (q 1, 1 ) be two configurations of M. (q 0, 0 ) yields (q 1, 1 ) in zero step or more, denoted by (q 0, 0 ) * M (q 1, 1 ), if –q 0 = q 1 and 0 = 1, or –(q 0, 0 ) M (q 2, 2 ) and (q 2, 2 ) * M (q 1, 1 ) for some q 2 and 2. Same as that for DFA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata32 Accepting a string Definition Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be an NFA, and *. We say M accepts if (s, ) * M (f, ), when f F. Otherwise, we say M rejects . Same as the definition for a DFA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata33 Language accepted by an NFA Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be an NFA. The language accepted by M, denoted by L(M) is the set of strings accepted by M. That is, L(M) = { *| (s, ) * M (f, ) for some f F } Same as the definition for a DFA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata34 How NFA’s work (s,01111) - (s,1111) - (s,111) - (s,11) - (s,1) - (s, ) (s,01111) - (s,1111) - (s, 111) - (s,11) - (s,1) - (q, ) (s,01111) - (s, 1111) - (s, 111) - (s,11) - (q,1) - (f, ) (s,01111) - (s, 1111) - (s, 111) - (q,11) - (f,1) (s,01111) - (s, 1111) - (q, 111) - (f,11) 0,1 11 s, 01111 sqf s, 1111 s, 111q, 111 s, 11 f, q, 1 q, 11 s, s, 1 q, f, 1 f, 11

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata35 Other examples of NFA { w {0,1}* | w has either 00 or 11 as substring} {w {0,1}* | w has 00 and 11 as substrings and 00 comes before 11 } 0,1 0 11 0 0 11 0

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata36 DFA and NFA are equivalent M d and M n are equivalent L(M d ) = L(M n ). DFA and NFA are equivalent For any DFA M d, there exists an NFA M n such that M d and M n are equivalent. (part 1) For any NFA M n, there exists a DFA M d such that M d and M n are equivalent. (part 2)

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata37 Part 1 of the equivalence proof For any DFA M d, there exists an NFA M n such that M d and M n are equivalent. Proof: Let M d be any DFA. We want to construct an NFA M n such that L(M n ) = L(M d ). From the definitions of DFA and NFA, if M is a DFA then it is also an NFA. Then, we let M n = M d. Thus, L(M d ) = L(M n ).

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata38 Part 2 of the equivalence proof For any NFA M n, there exists a DFA M d such that M d and M n are equivalent. Proof: Let M n = (Q, , , s, F) be any NFA. We want to construct a DFA M d such that L(M d ) = L(M n ). First define the closure of q, denoted by E(q). Second, construct a DFA M d =(2 Q, , ', E(s), F') Finally, prove f F (s, ) |- * Mn (f, ) f ' F ' (E(s), ) |- * Md (f ', ).

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata39 Eliminating transitions to multiple states sq f 0,1 11 s s,q 1 s,q,f 1 0 0 1 0

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata40 Eliminating empty-string transitions spq r f 0 0 0 ε,1 1 11 ε ε sp,q, r rp,q,r,f 0 0,1 1 1

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata41 Closure of state q Let M = (Q, , , s, F) be an NFA, and q Q. The closure of q, denoted by E(q), is –the set of states which can be reached from q without reading any symbol. –{p Q| (q, ) |- M * (p, )} If an NFA is in a state q, it can also be in any state in the closure of q without reading any input symbol.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata42 Example of closure sqf abc M=({s, q, f}, {a, b, c}, , s, {f}) where is defined below. L(M)={a i b j c k | i, j, k 0} stateclosure sqfs, q, f qfq, f ff

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata43 Another example of closure q0q0 q1q1 q2q2 q3q3 q4q4 1q1q1 q 2, q 3 q3q3 2 3 q(q,a,r)(q,b,r) (q, ,r) q0q0 q2q2 q1q1 q1q1 q 0,q 4 q2, q3q2, q3 q2q2 q4q4 q3q3 q4q4 q4q4 q3q3 q0q0 q1q1 q2q2 q3q3 q4q4 b a b a a

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata44 Constructing the equivalent DFA Let M n = (Q, , , s, F) be any NFA. We construct a DFA M d =(2 Q, , ', E(s), F'), where : – '(q',a) = {r E(p)| p (q,a) } and –F' = {f Q | f F }) q q' q pr a a ε ε ε DFA

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata45 Example of DFA construction E(q 0 ) E(q 1 ) E(q 2 )E(q 3 ) E(q 4 ) q 0, q 1, q 2, q 3 q 1, q 2, q 3 q2q2 q3q3 q 3,q 4 q0q0 q1q1 q2q2 q3q3 q4q4 b a b a a

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata46 Example of DFA construction q 0,q 1,q 2,q 3 q 0,q 1,q 2,q 3,q 4 q 2,q 3,q 4 q 3,q 4 a b b a a b b a a,b E(q 0 ) E(q 1 ) E(q 2 )E(q 3 ) E(q 4 ) q 0, q 1, q 2, q 3 q 1, q 2, q 3 q2q2 q3q3 q 3,q 4 (q,a,r)(q,b,r) (q, ,r) q0q0 q2q2 q1q1 q1q1 q 0 q 4 q 2 q 3 q2q2 q4q4 q3q3 q4q4 q4q4 q3q3

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata47 Prove property of and ' Let M n = (Q, , , s, F) be any NFA, and M d = (2 Q, , ', E(s), F') be a DFA, where – '(q', a) = {r E(p)| p (q,a)} and –F' = {f Q | f F } Prove , f F (s, ) |- * Mn (f, ) f ' F ' (E(s), ) |- * Md (f', ) and f f' by induction. Prove a more general statement , p, q Q (p, ) |- * Mn (q, ) (E(p), ) |- * Md (q', ) and q q'. q q'

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata48 Proof Part I: For any string in Σ *, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q such that (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) and r R.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata49 Proof Basis: Let be a string in Σ*, q and r be states in Q, and (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in 0 step. Because (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in 0 step, we know (1) q=r, and (2) = ε. Then, (E(q), ) = (E(r), ε). Thus, (E(q), ) * Md (E(r), ε). That is, there exists R=E(r) such that r R and (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε).

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata50 Proof Induction hypothesis: For any non-negative integer k, string in Σ *, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q : ( q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in k steps -> (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) and r R. Induction step: Prove, for any non-negative integer k, string in Σ *, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q : (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in k +1 steps -> (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) and r R.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata51 Proof Let be a string in Σ *, q and r be states in Q, and (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in k +1 steps. Because (q, ) * Mn (r, ε) in k +1 steps and k 0, there exists a state p in Q and a string Σ * such that (q, ) * Mn (p, a) in k steps and (p, a) Mn (r, ε) for some a Σ {ε}.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata52 Proof From the induction hypothesis and (q, ) * Mn (p, a) in k steps, we know that there exists P Q such that (E(q), ) * Md (P, a) and p P. Since (p, a) Mn (r, ε), r (p, a). From the definition of of M d, E( (p, a)) (P, a) because p P. Because r (p, a) and E( (p, a)) (P, a), r (P, a). Then, for R= (P, a), (P, a) * Md (R, ε) and r R. Thus, (E(q), ) * Md (P, a) * Md (R, ε) and r R.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata53 Proof Part II: For any string in Σ*, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q such that r R and (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) -> (q, ) * Mn (r, ε). E(q) R q r rRrR

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata54 Proof Basis: Let be a string in Σ *, q and r be states in Q, R be a subset of Q such that r R and (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in 0 step. Because (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in 0 step, E(q)=R and =ε. From the definition of E, (q, ε)=R because E(q)=R. Then, for any r R, (q, ) * Mn (r, ε). That is, there exists R=E(q) such that r R and (q, ) * Mn (r, ε).

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata55 Proof Induction hypothesis: For any non-negative integer k, string in Σ *, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q such that r R and: (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in k steps ->(q, ) * Mn (r, ε). Induction step: Prove, for any non-negative integer k, string in Σ *, and states q and r in Q, there exists R Q such that r R : ( E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in k +1 steps ->(q, ) * Mn (r, ε).

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata56 Proof Let be a string in Σ *, q and r be states in Q, and (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in k +1 steps. Because (E(q), ) * Md (R, ε) in k +1 steps and k 0, there exists P 2 Q (i.e. P Q ) and a string Σ * such that = a, (E(q), ) * Md (P,ε) in k steps and (P, a) Md (R, ε) for some a Σ. E(q) R q r rRrR P k+1 steps a

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata57 Proof From the induction hypothesis and (E(q), ) * Md (P, ε) in k steps, we know that there exists p P such that (q, ) * Mn (p,ε) (i.e. (q, a) * Mn (p, a) ). Since (P, a) Md (R, ε), there exists r R such that r= (p, a). Then, for some r R, (p, a) * Mn (r, ε). Thus, (q, ) * Mn (p, a) * Mn (r, ε) for some r R. E(q)E(q) R q r rRrR P p pPpP k +1 steps a a

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata58 Closure Properties The class of languages accepted by FA’s is closed under the operations –Union –Concatenation –Complementation –Kleene’s star –Intersection

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata59 Closure Property under Union The class of languages accepted by FA is closed under union. Proof: Let M A = (Q A, Σ, A, s A, F A ) and M B = (Q B, Σ, B, s B, F B ) be any FA. We construct an NFA M = (Q, Σ, , s, F) such that –Q = Q A Q B {s} – = A A {(s, ε, {s A, s B })} –F = F A F B sAsA sBsB We prove that L(M) = L(M A ) L(M B ). s ε ε

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata60 Proof To prove L(M) = L(M A ) L(M B ), we prove: I.For any string Σ * L(M A ) or L(M B ) L(M) & II.For any string Σ * L(M A ) and L(M B ). L(M) For I, consider (a) L(M A ) or (b) L(M B ). For (a), let L(M A ). From the definition of strings accepted by an FA, there is a state f A in F A such that ( s A, ) |-* MA ( f A, ε). Because A , (s A, ) |-* M (f A, ε) also. Because s A (s,ε), (s, ) |- M (s A, ). Thus, (s, ) |- M (s A, ) |-* M (f A, ε). Because f A F, L(M). Similarly for (b). s sAsA sBsB ε ε

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata61 Proof For (II), let L(M A ) L(M B ). Because (s, ε, {s A, s B }) , either (s, ) |- M (s A, ) or (s, ) |- M (s B, ) only. Because L(M A ), there exists no f A in F A such that (s A, ) |-* MA (f A,ε). Because L(M B ), there exists no f B in F B such that (s B, ) |-* MB (f B, ε). Since there is no transition between states in Q A and Q B in M, there exists no state f in F=F A F B such that (s, ) |- M (s A, ) |-* M (f A, ε) or (s, ) |- M (s B, ) |-* M (f B, ε). That is, L(M). Thus, L(M) = L(M A ) L(M B ). s sAsA sBsB ε ε

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata62 Closure under concatenation ε ε ε sAsA MAMA sBsB MBMB

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata63 Closure under complementation sAsA MAMA DFA only

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata64 Closure under Kleene’s star sAsA fAfA s f

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata65 Closure under intersection The class of languages accepted by FA is closed under intersection. Proof: Let L 1 and L 2 be languages accepted by FA. L 1 L 2 = ( L 1 L 2 ) By the closure property under complementation, there are FA accepting L 1 and L 2. By the closure property under union, there is an FA accepting L 1 L 2. By the closure property under complementation, there is an FA accepting( L 1 L 2 ). Thus, the class of languages accepted by FA is closed under intersection.

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata66 DFA accepting the intersection of two languages Let M A = (Q A, Σ, A, s A, F A ) and M B = (Q B, Σ, B, s B, F B ) be any FA. We construct an NFA M = (Q, Σ, , s, F) such that –Q = Q A Q B – = A A (i.e. ((q A,q B ),a) = A (q A,a) B (q B,a)) –s = (s A, s B ) –F = F A F B

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata67 Example q0q0 q1q1 q2q2 0 1 0 0 1 1 0,1 11 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p 0,q 1 p 0,q 0 p 0,q 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 p 1,q 1 1 p 1,q 0 1 p 1,q 2 1 p 2,q 0 1 p 2,q 1 1 p 2,q 2 1

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Jaruloj Chongstitvatana 2301379Chapter 2 Finite Automata68 Check list Basic Explain how DFA/NFA work (configuration, yield next configuration) Find the language accepted by DFA/NFA Construct DFA/NFA accepting a given language Find closure of a state Convert an NFA into a DFA Prove a language accepted by FA Construct FA from other FA’s Advanced Prove DFA/NFA accepting a language Prove properties of DFA/NFA Configuration change Under some modification etc. Prove some properties of languages accepted by DFA/NFA Under some modification Surprise!

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