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Xenophon’s Anabasis of cyrus Joseph Pecsenyicki COMP 261 Amanda McGuire Nov 20, 2013 [2, 3] [1]

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Presentation on theme: "Xenophon’s Anabasis of cyrus Joseph Pecsenyicki COMP 261 Amanda McGuire Nov 20, 2013 [2, 3] [1]"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Xenophon’s Anabasis of cyrus Joseph Pecsenyicki COMP 261 Amanda McGuire Nov 20, 2013 [2, 3] [1]

3 Joseph Pecsenyicki [4, 5] 2

4 3Joseph Pecsenyicki

5 401 B.C. The 30-year war between Athens and Sparta is over. Greece lies in ruins. An entire generation of men has been schooled in war. General Clearchus of Sparta has brought ten thousand of these desperate mercenaries to what is modern-day Turkey. They are to raid a rebellious tribe for a Persian governor, Cyrus the Younger. But Clearchus has not yet told them their true mission ― It is the only profession they know. 4Joseph Pecsenyicki [6]

6 MedusaOctopusSnake Triskelion Typical Shield Emblems 5Joseph Pecsenyicki [7]

7  20 thousand Persian troops join Greek mercenaries  But: Troops march past their objective! 6Joseph Pecsenyicki [8]

8  Clearchus now tells truth  Real mission: 1.Overthrow King of Persia! 2.Install employer (Cyrus the Younger) on throne 7Joseph Pecsenyicki

9 8  Cyrus the Younger = King’s brother

10 Joseph Pecsenyicki9  Follows example of father He killed own brother to become king, too! [9]

11 Joseph Pecsenyicki10 1.Ten Thousand want out  Much riskier than original job  Pay too low 2.But don’t leave  Potential loss of reputation  Shamed into staying  Offered more money [10]

12 Joseph Pecsenyicki11 March 1,700 miles (through Turkey, Syria & Iraq) [11] [12]

13 Joseph Pecsenyicki12 Meet King’s army near Babylon, Iraq Outnumbered 2:1 [13]

14 Cyrus killed by javelin to chest Joseph Pecsenyicki13 Greeks fight in phalanx formation Greeks win their part of battle Cyrus wins his part of battle Cyrus pursues retreating Persians [14, 15]

15 Joseph Pecsenyicki14 Aftermath:  Employer – dead  No hope of collecting salary  1,700 miles behind enemy lines  And...

16 Joseph Pecsenyicki15  Greek generals soon dead, too 1.Call a truce 2.Try to negotiate withdrawal 3.Killed by Persians  Clearchus among the dead

17 Joseph Pecsenyicki16 Ten Thousand response:  Elect new generals! [16]

18 Joseph Pecsenyicki17 New generals decide:  Not to go back the same route Persian cavalry can pick them off on flat land  Head north, through Armenian mountains

19 Joseph Pecsenyicki18 [12]

20 Joseph Pecsenyicki19  The Ten Thousand fight a number of battles Lose very few men

21 Joseph Pecsenyicki20 High point of story:  Eventually reach the Black Sea Out of reach of Persian Empire “The sea! The sea!” [18] [17]

22 Joseph Pecsenyicki21 One interesting event: Honey from one mountain village caused violent illness in most of men.  Small amount of honey: Vomiting Diarrhea Inability to stand Drunkenness [19]

23 Joseph Pecsenyicki22  Large amount of honey: Mad raving Victims near death [19]

24 Joseph Pecsenyicki23 Cause?

25 Joseph Pecsenyicki24 Rhododendron luteum [20] [21] [22]

26 Joseph Pecsenyicki25 (All recover within 3 days)

27 Joseph Pecsenyicki26 Conclusion The Anabasis of Cyrus by Xenophon:  Exciting story  About leadership & human nature  Historically-significant Used as blueprint for invasion of Persian Empire (70 yrs later)... 

28 Joseph Pecsenyicki27 M-M-M-Macedonia! [23]

29 Joseph Pecsenyicki28 [7]

30 Joseph Pecsenyicki29 Sources [1] Xenophon. The Expedition of Cyrus (R. Waterfield, Trans.). Oxford, U.K. Oxford University Press. (Original work published c. 380 B.C.) [2] Johannsen, Cryn. “Education and Democracy: Jim Holbert Weighs In On The Discussion.” All Education Matters blog. October 11, [Online]. Available: and-democracy-jim-holbert.html. [Accessed 2011]. and-democracy-jim-holbert.html [3] My Free Textures website. “An Old And Worn Out Parchment Paper Background Texture.” n.d. [Online]. Originally available: (currently has broken image link). [Accessed September 15, 2013].

31 Joseph Pecsenyicki30 Sources [4] Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. “Twentieth Century Fox.” November 29, [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 22, 2013]. [5] Newman, Alfred. Twentieth Century Fox Fanfare From The Empire Strikes Back soundtrack (Special Edition). Available: Soundtrack/dp/B000003G8Z/ Soundtrack/dp/B000003G8Z/ [6] Theodorakis, Mikis. Iphigenia OST FM Records. Track 10 (music clip). [7] Photoshop brushes. [8] Freepik website. “Question Mark Icon.” n.d. [Online]. Available: icon_17851.htm. [Accessed November 23, 2013]. icon_17851.htm

32 Joseph Pecsenyicki31 Sources [9] Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. “Darius II.” October 30, [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 23, 2013]. [10] Wikimedia Commons. “EarlyAthenianCoin.jpg.” [Online]. Available: pg. [Accessed November 23, 2013] pg

33 Joseph Pecsenyicki32 Sources [11] The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge. “Anabasis.” n.d. [e-book]. p 252. Available: pg=PA252&dq=distance+sardis+to+cunaxa&source=bl&ots=t O- JT76Kx9&sig=iEx8JCW6YRseGiCgxxfQibFYB5g&hl=en&sa=X&e i=crmRUtOsIK2JiwKy7oDoCg&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepag e&q=distance%20sardis%20to%20cunaxa&f=false. [Accessed November 23, 2013]. pg=PA252&dq=distance+sardis+to+cunaxa&source=bl&ots=t O- JT76Kx9&sig=iEx8JCW6YRseGiCgxxfQibFYB5g&hl=en&sa=X&e i=crmRUtOsIK2JiwKy7oDoCg&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepag e&q=distance%20sardis%20to%20cunaxa&f=false [12] U.S. Military Academy. “Map of Persia and the March of the Ten Thousand.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. April 26, [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 23, 2013].http://www.ancient.eu.com/image/128/

34 Joseph Pecsenyicki33 Sources [13] Lendering, Jonah. “Cyrus the Younger.” Livius: Articles on Ancient History. n.d. [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 23, 2013]. [14] Bashapedia. “The Greek Phalanx.” n.d. [Online]. Available: Greek%20Phalanx. [Accessed November 24, 2013]. Greek%20Phalanx [15] Jones, Trevor. Dark City OST. February 24, TVT Records. Track 14: “You Have The Power” (music clip). [16] PBS. “460 B.C. – Pericles’ Rise To Power.” February 9, [Online]. Available: p4.html. [Accessed November 24, 2013] p4.html

35 Joseph Pecsenyicki34 Sources [17] Theodorakis, Mikis. Cinema Century Silva Screen Records Ltd. Track 10: Zorba The Greek (music clip). [18] Heritage History. “Xenophon.” n.d. [Online]. Available: history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=xe nophon.php. [Accessed November 27, 2013]. history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=xe nophon.php [19] Xenophon. The Expedition of Cyrus (R. Waterfield, Trans.). Oxford, U.K. Oxford University Press. (Original work published c. 380 B.C.) pp. 104, [20] The Organic Prepper. “Raw Honey: Liquid Gold In Your Pantry.” March 26, [Online]. Available: your-pantry [Accessed November 27, 2013] your-pantry

36 Joseph Pecsenyicki35 Sources [21] Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. “Rhododendron luteum.” November 27, [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 27, 2013]. [22] University of Bristol School of Chemistry. “Andromedotoxin-s.” June 7, [Online]. Available: dromedotoxin-s.gif. [Accessed November 27, 2013]. dromedotoxin-s.gif [23] YouTube. “Macedonia ("My Sharona" by the Knack).” January 25, [Online]. Available: [Accessed November 27, 2013].http://youtu.be/Idh5pWvr8yU


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