Presentation on theme: "How to promote access to land for future generations Italian case studies Leonardo Gallico."— Presentation transcript:
How to promote access to land for future generations Italian case studies Leonardo Gallico
Contents Land trend in Italy (access, distribution, ownership) Case studies and proposal: -management of public land (coop. Agricoltura Nuova) -collective management of commons (usi civici) -access on land expropriated by the state who belonged to mafia members (“Libera Terra”) - renting of public land (belonging to Demanio) Conclusions
Land in Italy: an historical overview Agrarian Economy (1950) Industrial Economy (‘60- ‘70) Post industrial economy (‘90) Key sectorAgricultureIndustryServices Use of Land Major problems Policies on land Territorial management Agricultural Use Agricultural use Industrial and real estate Agricultural use Industrial real estate and environmental purpose Conflicts between owners and workers Conflicts between Urban and agricultural use Conflicts between Urban and agricultural use and environmental constraints Training and agrarian reform Supporting growth of farm dimension
Lost of Utilised Agriculture Area (UAA) in the last 40 years in Italy 1970: 17,5 MHa of UAA; 2007: 12,7 MHa of UAA; 1970/2007 lost of 27% of cultivable area Source ISTAT
Decrease in UAA by typology of farm size In the last 20 year land mobility has created and increase of land for farmers between 50 and 100 Ha. An important decrease interested the farms below 20 ha, not just in term of hectares but also in term of number of enterprises. Today in Italy 2,4 % of the farms, with more than 50 Ha, cultivate the 40% of the available land for agriculture purpose The 75% of the farms, which are with less than 5 ha, cultivate ONLY the 15% of the arable land. Source ISTAT
Source INEA Cost of land per Ha 2008
Who buy land in Italy? The problem of pressure over land originated by non- agricultural users needs a revised legal framework. The land market is characterized by a limited activity of sell and buying. In one year less than 2% of the total area changed ownership. Source: direct survey COLDIRETTI 2009
Land rent in Italy In the last 20 years the area rented has grown by 18% reducing the distance between Italy and EU. The total land rented in Italy is 28% compared with EU-15 where the average is 44 %
It’s a mix public/private area occupied in 1976 by landless and people who want to create employment in agriculture and maintain rural activities still vital; The farm is located in the peri-urban area of Rome, with an increasing pressure for real estate investment; the cooperative contributed to the creation of a regional park of 6.000 ha; The cooperative guaranteed the management of more than 320 ha. all rented at public authorities and private sector, giving employment to 50 people; http://www.agricolturanuova.it Case studies 1: the management of public land Cooperative Agricoltura Nuova
The farm enterprise model Cooperative with more than 50 active members; Inclusion of disable workers in daily activities since the ’80s, promoting a new welfare system in peri-urban area of Rome; Access to new market and promotion of direct selling and local market – Km0 – restaurant; Organic agriculture since 1995; Opened to the “world” of services which guarantee income and network: Hippo therapy Educational services with school (more than 10.000 children/year visit the farm) Renewable energy (Photovoltaic system has been installed) Tourism Restaurant http://www.agricolturanuova.it Case studies 1: the management of public land Cooperative Agricoltura Nuova
Communal land are traditionally used for forest and pasture, areas characterized by extensive agricultural activities; they play a key role in rural marginalized areas (mountains); In Lazio region there exist 500.000 Ha of communal land (50% of the total UAA in the region ), they clearly contribute for environmental purposes; Communal land without fragmentation (private ownership) contribute on the maintenance of extensive grazing and local races, which are the bases for the production of traditional food stuff productions registered as PDO and IGP; Commons today implies none management and abandonment of the land and less opportunities for rural population in managing natural capital; There is therefore the problem of “Knowledge management” or sharing of all competencies needed to address those schemes: lawyer, technicians and environmental questions; Case studies 2 collective management of communal land
Case study 3: Libera Terra The law 109/96 on the expropriation of goods belonging to “Mafia”, foreseen that these goods will be assigned to subject who will be able to manage the asset guarantying a social benefits for local communities. On this basis since 14 years in Italy, more than 5.500 goods have been expropriated (houses, land, apartments). The NGO “Libera Terra” manages now, in 2009, more than 800 Ha, all around the country particularly in southern Italy troughs 5 cooperatives which gave employment to 65 people and more 50 seasonal workers. On these land in 2009 were produced different kind of foods stuff: vegetable, horticulture, pasta, wine, etc.. Al products are sold trough direct selling schemes which guarantee more earning for the coops, and support from the consumers.
Case study 4: The public land in Italy ( DEMANIO’s land ) “Purpose to increase the supply of land on the market offering public land” (Minister for agriculture and fisheries Mr. Zaia - July 2009) The total amount of state managed area is 935.000 UAA, subdivided in to: Flat land 1% (about 10.000 ha) Hills 14%(about 140.000 ha) Mountain 85%(about 750.000 ha) Still not clear for which kind of beneficiaries and which target However the objective of this policy is to increase employment for young people in rural areas, through and increased offer of public land. The objective of this policy is to increase access to land through an increased offer of public land (creation of employment maybe 5.000 new young farmers)????
Access to land in Italy: conclusions conclusions for the characteristic of the Italian land market, the mobility of land, now can be promoted mainly supporting rent agreement ; there exists some good practices, as shown, and it’s important to support those practices trough second Pillar of CAP in the next future 2013/2020; From the other side the total amount of public land (Demanio, Commons, and land belonged to Mafia) could be a new opportunity to support the creation of new farmers in rural areas;