4Aspects of NZ social history have had special linguistic consequences: 1. Great sympathy forBritish values andinstitutions.2. A growing sense ofnational identity, specially on the differences with Australia.3. There has been a concern about the rights of the Maori people.A general conservatism, especially in relation to accents.This has draw attention to differences in the accents and motivated the use of distinctive NZ vocabularyThis has resulted in an increased use of Maori words in NZ English.
6How the influences are reflected on sociaty Studies of language attitudes in NZ shows that RP is the most highly rated accent, in terms of educatedness and competence. However, local accents rate more highly in terms of solidarity and social attractiveness.American accents have been raked highly in some attitude studies, and there are signs of American influence in pronunciation and vocabulary.The question of a variety of Maori English is controversial. However, items of Maori origin are being treated with better levels of prominence and sensitivity.
7Pronunciation: Several features of Australian English accent are also found in NZ: The tendency to turn 1/i:/ and 9/u:/ into a diphthongs; as in mean /məIn/, shoot /∫əut/ and the use of 12/ə/ in unstressed syllables as in rocket /’rסkət/. Apart from that, some of the broader features of Australian pronunciation are not present in NZ.
8The following are some of the features which have attracted attention: /I/2 as in fish tends to move towards 12/ ə/, a contrast with Australian, where the movement is to 1/i/. NZers often think of Australians as saying “feesh and cheeps”, whereas Australians believe NZers say “sudney” for Sidney./e/3 has a closer articulation, moving toward 1/i/, so that yes is heard “yis”. Likewise, 4/æ/ is around the position of 3/e/ so that outsiders may mishear bat as bet.The vowel in such pair as here /Iə/ and hair /eə/ vary greatly./α:/5 is generally maintained in such word as castle and dance. It is commonly 4/æ/ in Australia.
9Several individual words have local pronunciation Several individual words have local pronunciation. NZ is often heard with a short 2/I/: /zIlənd/ not as RP /zi:lənd/. The first syllable of geyser has /aI/ not 1/i:/. Menu often has /i:/ not 3/e/. English is often heard without the /g/.Rising intonation is a feature of Australian and NZ speech that makes each sentence sound like a question. It is said to be more frequently used in NZ, and it may have originated there, transferring to Australia via Sydney which has many NZ residents.
10-iseThe most significant difference between NZ and British spelling is in the ending -ise or -ize. Although -ise is the more popular ending in both countries, some British dictionaries prefer the -ize ending. NZ dictionaries use the -ise ending almost exclusively.fiordIn NZ English the spelling "fiord" is preferred over the spelling "fjord" used in most of the English-speaking world. This spelling is found in the name of the Fiordland National Park.
11Vocabulary: The following are shared with Australia or other countries: Claytons: low-quality imitation, not the real thing.Domain: as well as its common overseas uses can mean a public park,especially a small flat grassed area within urban surroundings.Footpath: pavement or sidewalk, shared by many countries outside US.Fag: a cigarette. Also used in the UK.Flash: stylish, expensive.G'day/ Gidday: standard NZ greeting ("good day").Lolly: any sweet (candy). Iced lollies are "ice blocks".Onya: expression of approval. Short for "good on yer" (you).Pom: British person, usually English.Smoko: break during work (especially as smoking is totally banned inworkplaces. Said smoke-o).Super: old age pension scheme (from superannuation).Sweet: fine with me.Ute: "utility vehicle"
12These words are unique to NZ: Aucklander: inhabitant of AucklandBach: a small holiday home in the beach. Pronounced "batch".Barnes: walk, a diagonal walk at traffic lightsChilly bin: insulated food/drink boxChocolate fish: a type of sweetChur bro: pronounced chair: usually a strong voicing of thanks but also aparting salutation. Shortened from "cheers brother"Chippies: or potato chips, as in US "chips" and UK "crisps"Choice!: excellent! Great idea!Cuzzie bro: close friend, commonly used by Māori. Short for cousinbrother.Dairy: pronounced "deeeeeary", equivalent to the British term corner shopeh!: used for emphasis at the end of a sentence, eh.Fizz boat: speed boatFlat: a rented dwelling. Often a large multilevel home will be converted intoan upstairs and downstairs flats.
13Flatting: sharing a flat. Fulla: guy, from 'fellow'. Golden Kiwi: the national lotteryHard case: a person who has a very good sense of humour, a comedian.Lamburger: burger made from minced lambLux: to use the vacuum cleaner, similar to British use of "hoover"OE or Big OE: Overseas Experience, time spent travelling and workingoverseas, usually beginning in London.Queen Street farmer: a usually pejorative term for an investor in ruralland with no knowledge of land use.Section: building plotSup: usually used by itself as a greeting (ie "sup?", as in "whatsup?").Takeaway: take-out food. Pronouncing it as 'taakawhy' makes it soundMāori.Tutū: to have a play or fiddle with something.Kiwi: most commonly as an informal term for NZer, or an adjective insteadof NZ.
14Maori influenceMaori pronunciation for word of Maori origin: words spelled with “wh” such a whangarei pronounced as /w/ by English, are now being given the Maori sound /f/.There are moves to devise an English orthography which better reflects the Maori sound system, like spelling long vowels with a macron or double letter: in Māori or MaaoriNZ has more loan word from Polynesian language than any other variety of English, but only a handful (such kiwi and kauri) are known outside the country. Maori place names are widely used.
15Maori words which are part of the NZ English Haka: a dance of challenge (not always a war dance), popularised by theAll Blacks rugby team, who perform it before the game in front of theoppositionHāngi: a method of cooking food in a hole on the ground; or the occasionat which food is cooked this wayHui: a meeting; increasingly being used by NZ media to describe businessmeetings relating to Māori affairsIwi: tribe, or peoplesKia ora: hello, welcome, thank you (literally 'be healthy')Mana: reputation, a combination of authority, integrity, power and prestigeMāoritanga: the sum of all Māori culture and existence. "Māori-ness".Pākehā: people of non-Māori origin, especially those of European originPōwhiri: ceremony of welcomeTāngata whenua: native people of a country, specifically the Māori in NZ(literally 'people of the land')
16Aroha: love, affectionhongi: traditional Māori greeting featuring the pressing together of noseska pai: good; well donekapa haka: cultural gathering involving dance competitionskia kaha: 'be strong'; roughly "be of good heart, we are supporting you"mauri: spiritualityte reo: the Māori language (literally, the language)waiata: songwairua: spiritwhare: house.
17Regional variation within NZ North IslandWest coastEast coastSouth Island