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New Zealand English.

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Presentation on theme: "New Zealand English."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Zealand English

2 New Zealand location

3 North Island South Island

4 Aspects of NZ social history have had special linguistic consequences:
1. Great sympathy for British values and institutions. 2. A growing sense of national identity, specially on the differences with Australia. 3. There has been a concern about the rights of the Maori people. A general conservatism, especially in relation to accents. This has draw attention to differences in the accents and motivated the use of distinctive NZ vocabulary This has resulted in an increased use of Maori words in NZ English.

5 INFLUENCES British American NZ English Australian Maori

6 How the influences are reflected on sociaty
Studies of language attitudes in NZ shows that RP is the most highly rated accent, in terms of educatedness and competence. However, local accents rate more highly in terms of solidarity and social attractiveness. American accents have been raked highly in some attitude studies, and there are signs of American influence in pronunciation and vocabulary. The question of a variety of Maori English is controversial. However, items of Maori origin are being treated with better levels of prominence and sensitivity.

7 Pronunciation: Several features of Australian English accent are also found in NZ:
The tendency to turn 1/i:/ and 9/u:/ into a diphthongs; as in mean /məIn/, shoot /∫əut/ and the use of 12/ə/ in unstressed syllables as in rocket /’rסkət/. Apart from that, some of the broader features of Australian pronunciation are not present in NZ.

8 The following are some of the features which have attracted attention:
/I/2 as in fish tends to move towards 12/ ə/, a contrast with Australian, where the movement is to 1/i/. NZers often think of Australians as saying “feesh and cheeps”, whereas Australians believe NZers say “sudney” for Sidney. /e/3 has a closer articulation, moving toward 1/i/, so that yes is heard “yis”. Likewise, 4/æ/ is around the position of 3/e/ so that outsiders may mishear bat as bet. The vowel in such pair as here /Iə/ and hair /eə/ vary greatly. /α:/5 is generally maintained in such word as castle and dance. It is commonly 4/æ/ in Australia.

9 Several individual words have local pronunciation
Several individual words have local pronunciation. NZ is often heard with a short 2/I/: /zIlənd/ not as RP /zi:lənd/. The first syllable of geyser has /aI/ not 1/i:/. Menu often has /i:/ not 3/e/. English is often heard without the /g/. Rising intonation is a feature of Australian and NZ speech that makes each sentence sound like a question. It is said to be more frequently used in NZ, and it may have originated there, transferring to Australia via Sydney which has many NZ residents.

10 -ise The most significant difference between NZ and British spelling is in the ending -ise or -ize. Although -ise is the more popular ending in both countries, some British dictionaries prefer the -ize ending. NZ dictionaries use the -ise ending almost exclusively. fiord In NZ English the spelling "fiord" is preferred over the spelling "fjord" used in most of the English-speaking world. This spelling is found in the name of the Fiordland National Park.

11 Vocabulary: The following are shared with Australia or other countries:
Claytons: low-quality imitation, not the real thing. Domain: as well as its common overseas uses can mean a public park, especially a small flat grassed area within urban surroundings. Footpath: pavement or sidewalk, shared by many countries outside US. Fag: a cigarette. Also used in the UK. Flash: stylish, expensive. G'day/ Gidday: standard NZ greeting ("good day"). Lolly: any sweet (candy). Iced lollies are "ice blocks". Onya: expression of approval. Short for "good on yer" (you). Pom: British person, usually English. Smoko: break during work (especially as smoking is totally banned in workplaces. Said smoke-o). Super: old age pension scheme (from superannuation). Sweet: fine with me. Ute: "utility vehicle"

12 These words are unique to NZ:
Aucklander: inhabitant of Auckland Bach: a small holiday home in the beach. Pronounced "batch". Barnes: walk, a diagonal walk at traffic lights Chilly bin: insulated food/drink box Chocolate fish: a type of sweet Chur bro: pronounced chair: usually a strong voicing of thanks but also a parting salutation. Shortened from "cheers brother" Chippies: or potato chips, as in US "chips" and UK "crisps" Choice!: excellent! Great idea! Cuzzie bro: close friend, commonly used by Māori. Short for cousin brother. Dairy: pronounced "deeeeeary", equivalent to the British term corner shop eh!: used for emphasis at the end of a sentence, eh. Fizz boat: speed boat Flat: a rented dwelling. Often a large multilevel home will be converted into an upstairs and downstairs flats.

13 Flatting: sharing a flat. Fulla: guy, from 'fellow'.
Golden Kiwi: the national lottery Hard case: a person who has a very good sense of humour, a comedian. Lamburger: burger made from minced lamb Lux: to use the vacuum cleaner, similar to British use of "hoover" OE or Big OE: Overseas Experience, time spent travelling and working overseas, usually beginning in London. Queen Street farmer: a usually pejorative term for an investor in rural land with no knowledge of land use. Section: building plot Sup: usually used by itself as a greeting (ie "sup?", as in "whatsup?"). Takeaway: take-out food. Pronouncing it as 'taakawhy' makes it sound Māori. Tutū: to have a play or fiddle with something. Kiwi: most commonly as an informal term for NZer, or an adjective instead of NZ.

14 Maori influence Maori pronunciation for word of Maori origin: words spelled with “wh” such a whangarei pronounced as /w/ by English, are now being given the Maori sound /f/. There are moves to devise an English orthography which better reflects the Maori sound system, like spelling long vowels with a macron or double letter: in Māori or Maaori NZ has more loan word from Polynesian language than any other variety of English, but only a handful (such kiwi and kauri) are known outside the country. Maori place names are widely used.

15 Maori words which are part of the NZ English
Haka: a dance of challenge (not always a war dance), popularised by the All Blacks rugby team, who perform it before the game in front of the opposition Hāngi: a method of cooking food in a hole on the ground; or the occasion at which food is cooked this way Hui: a meeting; increasingly being used by NZ media to describe business meetings relating to Māori affairs Iwi: tribe, or peoples Kia ora: hello, welcome, thank you (literally 'be healthy') Mana: reputation, a combination of authority, integrity, power and prestige Māoritanga: the sum of all Māori culture and existence. "Māori-ness". Pākehā: people of non-Māori origin, especially those of European origin Pōwhiri: ceremony of welcome Tāngata whenua: native people of a country, specifically the Māori in NZ (literally 'people of the land')

16 Aroha: love, affection hongi: traditional Māori greeting featuring the pressing together of noses ka pai: good; well done kapa haka: cultural gathering involving dance competitions kia kaha: 'be strong'; roughly "be of good heart, we are supporting you" mauri: spirituality te reo: the Māori language (literally, the language) waiata: song wairua: spirit whare: house.

17 Regional variation within NZ
North Island West coast East coast South Island

18 New Zealand English

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