Presentation on theme: "Classroom Case Studies of Technology-integrated Pedagogical Strategies (TiPS) Sara Hennessy, Kenneth Ruthven and Rosemary Deaney Faculty of Education,"— Presentation transcript:
Classroom Case Studies of Technology-integrated Pedagogical Strategies (TiPS) Sara Hennessy, Kenneth Ruthven and Rosemary Deaney Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge Becta Research Conference June 13, 2003
INTRODUCTION increased emphasis and spending on ICT - yet pedagogy and practice remain largely underdeveloped Phase 1: T & P focus group interviews while ICT helps to create conditions for success, mere presence is insufficient; effective pedagogy depends on deliberately exploiting technology
Phase 2: CASE STUDIES OF TiPS (Technology-integrated Pedagogical Strategies) Collaborative programme of 10 projects involving 15 volunteer T-Rs (BPRS); individuals & pairs Development, trialling and refinement of new pedagogic approaches, strategies and activities with pupils in yrs 7-12 in 6 curriculum areas: English, Geography, History, Classics, Science, Design Technology 5 diverse schools in research partnership; T research supported by university team
Phase 3: ANALYSES WITHIN AND ACROSS CASES (interacting) Analyses drew on our observations, interviews, T research reports, documentary evidence Q:How do teachers create the conditions which support subject learning with ICT?
EMERGING THEMES Established pedagogy without ICT remains pertinent but exploiting & harnessing technology new strategies Spectrum of pedagogical issues: focus on mediation of subject learning with technology
STRATEGIES FOR MEDIATING INTERACTIONS WITH ICT Context of changing T and P roles: less teacher direction and exposition more T-P interaction more pupil collaboration increased control, choice, responsibility
MEDIATING STRATEGIES Learning with ICT through guided participation (Rogoff, 1990) Circulating: support, guidance, probing, discussing, challenging, monitoring, informal assessment and immediate feedback to opportunistic queries I wasperhaps with them a little bit more often, walking round constantly. I needed to instigate the ideas… I was more looking just to try and focus them on particular aspects. There was certainly no formal teaching.
MEDIATING STRATEGIES MEDIATING STRATEGIES Supporting self-regulated, active and reflective learning opportunities for generating, testing, reworking ideas; research; manipulation; discussion, critical analysis prompting pupils to think for themselves: T is going around just probing them and giving them stimuli but not giving them answers
MEDIATING STRATEGIES Managing pupil participation through structuring and channelling of activity preparing focused tasks with clear objectives avoiding floundering and unrealistic expectations: the ICT itself does the teaching if you've got it structured correctly
MEDIATING STRATEGIES Pre-empting and overcoming difficulties: opacity, complexity, credulity, distraction Focusing on subject content and learning goals exploiting features and opportunities presented by ICT for salience of underlying concepts and processes e.g. electronic annotation; manipulating text / graphics avoiding pupil distraction by ICT itself e.g. keeping Ps on task; specific instructions; focussing on central issues first through thinking & discussion
Focusing research tasks: clear parameters for searches, pre-selecting range of websites, limiting research time & output accessible, focused and relevant information & skills for critical analysis All forms of focusing encourage pupil reflection, analysis and understanding MEDIATING STRATEGIES Pre-empting and overcoming difficulties
Integrating ICT use and balancing lesson activities, e.g. visual aids, text/note books Overcoming transience: Supporting learning and revision away from technology using printed / written resources and records MEDIATING STRATEGIES Pre-empting and overcoming difficulties
USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE TO FACILITATE THE UNDERSTANDING OF ELECTRONICS THEORY Design and Technology case study Yr 10 GCSE mixed ability group 10-week programme of practical and theory lessons 2 lessons observed pupils worked (mostly) singly in computer suite
USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE TO FACILITATE THE UNDERSTANDING OF ELECTRONICS THEORY Lesson (1) Investigating effects of relay switching constructing and testing simulated circuits producing illustrated notes in Word Lesson (2) Investigating logic functions exploring effects of different types of logic gates constructing simple truth tables completing illustrated notes working through software tutorial chapter on logic
Contribution of ICT to teaching and learning seen as enhancing students understanding of theoretical aspects through manipulation of simulated circuits enabling students to trial ideas and immediately see results of their actions eliminating organisational problems associated with using physical components increasing pupil motivation and engagement with the topic
CHANGING AND VARIED TEACHER ROLE CHANGING AND VARIED TEACHER ROLE Teacher freed from storekeeping to deal with what was going on in their minds Providing framework of support by: introducing topic: demonstration, task instruction facilitating: encouraging exploration; prompting pupils to find their own solutions and make mistakes and learn from it focusing: they can see what happens when things are connected wrongly; pupils less reliant on me to go round saying Thats not going to work, that is.
CHANGING AND VARIED TEACHER ROLE CHANGING AND VARIED TEACHER ROLE harnessing other agencies: peer tutoring; electronic help; electronic tutorial they can help themselves and move on at their own pace keeping pupils on task: attention to peer grouping; unproductive playing; generating neat nonsense integrating resources: having actual switches to show them; augmenting pupil notes with handouts: they can look... What does it say in here? and they do have something to revise from.
USING INTERNET RESOURCES AND ICT TOOLS TO SUPPORT THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY Project centred on 20-lesson unit with Y9 top sets. Emphasis was on issues of interpreting evidence. Set tasks involved analysing a range of documents and artefacts relating to the First World War. In the two lessons observed: Pairs analysed on-screen sources from the Internet, offering contrasting accounts of a key battle. Pairs examined on-screen images from different artists depicting war and the experience of battle.
PROVIDING STRUCTURE AND SUPPORT FOR LEARNING WHILE PRESERVING PUPIL AGENCY Internet resources were selected and adapted to create a virtual archive on the school intranet. Pupils were able to dictate to some extent the pace of work on tasks, and a lot of the time they were free to discuss, at whichever level. But teachers also noted their own contribution in going around… and feeding them ideas, asking questions and trying to move them on. Having on-going work on-screen facilitated teacher joining discussion between pupil pairs. Overall, the teachers perceived themselves as far less didactic in [their] approach within lessons.
ENLARGING EVIDENCE AND EXPERIENCE THROUGH AUTHENTIC RESOURCES AND NON-TEXTUAL MEDIA Material from the Internet was seen as greatly enhancing the unit, for example in the form of contrasting accounts of the battle at Vimy Ridge. The use of non-textual media and authentic resources was seen as promoting a more multisensory and empathetic understanding. In the observed lessons: An impending visit to the battlefield helped give import and urgency to the analysis taking place. Care was taken to create a sense of contact with a wider world through a virtual art exhibition.
ENHANCING DISCUSSION AND ARGUMENTATION THROUGH ICT- SUPPORTED APPROACHES Teachers pointed to how ICT had been used to interact with materials and analyse evidence. You can almost use the computer like a notepad, marking things on[-screen]. The ability to manipulate the pictures was important… enlarging… to home in on details. Creating tables helped pupils to classify their ideas and allowed them to manipulate what they had found out more easily.
CONCLUSIONS New strategies and forms of activity emerging focusing on subject learning through: exploiting unique opportunities handling difficulties/constraints imposed by ICT focusing research tasks guiding, structuring, prompting; supporting active learning pupils own role in structuring instruction balance between over- and under-directive (P agency vs. confusion)
CONCLUSIONS proactive and responsive strategies emerging for mediating and optimising conditions for learning pedagogy evolving: T role is complex and demanding, especially in managing P participation support for practitioners
TiPS website: - download teacher-researchers reports articles on T and P focus group data forthcoming: case study papers Current ESRC Project: exemplary practice in maths & science OUTCOMES
interactive teaching and learning through modelling, discussion and evaluation (groups/whole class) teaching P skills for information handling and critical literacy; collaboration Scope for development of mediating strategies
ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR LESSON SUCCESS offering technical support and troubleshooting back-up plans and resources (from mouse balls to textbooks) realistic lesson pacing – balancing efficiency, focus and task completion with time for discussion, consolidation and closure trialling lesson plans, building in flexibility managing the physical environment of technology use attracting and maintaining the attention of pupils sitting at computer monitors managing collaboration in adverse room layout