Presentation on theme: "Pont du Gard Date: 20-16BC (Augustan) Built by: Marcus Agrippa (builder of the original Pantheon) Dimensions: 50m high and 275m long. Gradient: 1:3000."— Presentation transcript:
Pont du Gard Date: 20-16BC (Augustan) Built by: Marcus Agrippa (builder of the original Pantheon) Dimensions: 50m high and 275m long. Gradient: 1:3000 Construction: 3 levels of arches in local limestone (uncemented) Location: The river Gardon, 21km from Nimes (see Maison Carree), France. (Part of the old province of Gaul) Source: A mountain spring near Uzes Destination: Nimes About: The pont du Gard is one of the This aqueduct brings 20,000 tonnes of water daily from the Uzes springs 50km, mostly underground to Nimes for its domestic and civic use (eg fountains, drinking, baths, sewerage)
The system was made up of: -a channel supported by low walls, -underground piping, and -bridge aqueducts like the Pont du Gard. -Mostly underground -Gravity fed (1m drop for every 3km) -Supplied Nimes with water for its parks, fountains, baths etc Water Transport
General Features The vaults (thickness) of the arches get greater towards the bottom. [1,2,4] 35 arches 11 arches 8 arches Scaffolding supports called bosses allowed maintenance work The channel(where water flowed) was in the top level. A road bridge was added in the 1700s Three levels are economic in construction, structurally strong, and aesthetically pleasing.
Construction and Design 1ST LEVEL: The arches were all the same width, apart from a wider central arch across the river. (equivalent to four arches on 3rd level) – 4 vaults thick. 2ND LEVEL: Arches are parallel to those on the first level - same wooden frame could be used – 3 vaults thick. 3RD LEVEL: There were three arches per lower level arch - 1 vault thick. Three levels of Arch bosses people
Problem: WEIGHT Solution: arches reduce material and distribute the weight of the structure. Vaults make for greater strength at lower levels which support greater weight PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS Problem: THE RIVER Solution: central arch wider, bottom level 4 vaults thick, pointed piers for less water drag. Problem: THE WIND Solution: to reduce the force of the wind lower levels have v large arches, and top layer has many small arches Problem: Transporting the water across the aqueduct without leakage or erosion. Solution: channel waterproofed with 9cm of brick rubble and morter. Problem: COST. Solution: repetition of arches meant same scaffolding used over, and use of uncemented locally quarried limestone
Other Functions: The Pont du Gard also served propaganda functions: Encouraged the citizens of Nimes and surrounding areas to view Roman occupation positively. The Romans technological genius impressed locals and discouraged rebellion Such an architectural achievement also reflected well on its architect, Marcus Agrippa, and his father-in-law Augustus.