Presentation on theme: "Pont du Gard Date: 20-16BC (Augustan)"— Presentation transcript:
1Pont du Gard Date: 20-16BC (Augustan) Built by: Marcus Agrippa (builder of the original Pantheon)Dimensions: 50m high and 275m long.Gradient: 1:3000Construction: 3 levels of arches in local limestone (uncemented)Location: The river Gardon, 21km from Nimes (see Maison Carree), France. (Part of the old province of Gaul)Source: A mountain spring near UzesDestination: NimesAbout: The pont du Gard is one of the This aqueduct brings 20,000 tonnes of water daily from the Uzes springs 50km, mostly underground to Nimes for its domestic and civic use (eg fountains, drinking, baths, sewerage)
2Water Transport The system was made up of: a channel supported by low walls,underground piping, andbridge aqueducts like the Pont du Gard.Mostly undergroundGravity fed (1m drop for every 3km)Supplied Nimes with water for its parks, fountains, baths etc
3General FeaturesScaffolding supports called bosses allowed maintenance workThe channel(where water flowed) was in the top level.Three levels are economic in construction, structurally strong, and aesthetically pleasing.35 archesA road bridge was added in the 1700s11 arches8 archesThe vaults (thickness) of the arches get greater towards the bottom. [1,2,4]
4Construction and Design Three levels of Arch3RD LEVEL: There were three arches per lower level arch - 1 vault thick.2ND LEVEL: Arches are parallel to those on the first level - same wooden frame could be used – 3 vaults thick.bossespeople1ST LEVEL: The arches were all the same width, apart from a wider central arch across the river. (equivalent to four arches on 3rd level) – 4 vaults thick.
5PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS Problem: WEIGHT Solution: arches reduce material and distribute the weight of the structure. Vaults make for greater strength at lower levels which support greater weightProblem: THE RIVERSolution: central arch wider, bottom level 4 vaults thick, pointed piers for less water drag.Problem: COST.Solution: repetition of arches meant same scaffolding used over, and use of uncemented locally quarried limestoneProblem: Transporting the water across the aqueduct without leakage or erosion.Solution: channel waterproofed with 9cm of brick rubble and morter.Problem: THE WINDSolution: to reduce the force of the wind lower levels have v large arches, and top layer has many small arches
6Other Functions: The Pont du Gard also served propaganda functions: Encouraged the citizens of Nimes and surrounding areas to view Roman occupation positively.The Romans technological genius impressed locals and discouraged rebellionSuch an architectural achievement also reflected well on its architect, Marcus Agrippa, and his father-in-law Augustus.