2 HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR LIBRARY? OPENING AND CLOSING TIMESLOCATIONSBOOK LOANSPENALTIESJOURNAL AND DATABASESHOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR LIBRARY?LIBRARY STAFFREFERENCE BOOKSLIBRARY CATALOGUEOPACCLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
3 LIBRARY RESEARCH HOW BOOKS ARE ORGANIZED IN LIBRARY? DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (DDC)LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SYSTEM (LLC)
4 a. DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (DDC) Use numbers from 000 to 999 to classify materials into 10 major groups by subject matter.General PhilosophyReligion Social ScienceLanguage ScienceUseful Arts Fine ArtsLiterature History
5 Each major grouping is further divided into 10 Science :510 Mathematics Astronomy530 Physics Chemistry550 Geology Fossils570 Life Sciences Botanical Sciences590 Zoology
6 Then they have further subdivision. 510 Mathematics :512 Algebra513 Arithmetic514 Topology515 Analysis/Calculus516 Geometry519 Probability/Statistics, NumericalAnalysis
7 Other Example 570 Life Sciences 574 Biology 574.1 Physiology 574.2 pathology574.3 Development and Maturation574.4 Anatomy574.5 Ecology574.6 Economy Biology
8 b. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SYSTEM (LLC) A - General works (Encyclopedias and otherreference)B - Philosophy, Psychology and ReligionC – History: Auxiliary sciences (archeology,genealogy, etc)D – History: General, non-AmericanE – American history (general)F – American history (local)
9 G – Geography/Anthropology H – Social sciences (sociology, business,economics)J – Political sciencesK – LawL – EducationM – MusicN – Fine arts (art and architecture)P – Language/Literature
11 Q Science QA Mathematics and Computing QC Physic QD Chemistry QE Geology
12 7 steps of research process: i. Identify and develop your topicState your topic idea as a question.Identify the main concepts or keywords in your question.ii. Find the background informationuse encyclopedias and dictionariesTIP: EXPLOIT BIBLIOGRAPHIESMichael Engle of Cornell University Librarysimple and effective strategy for finding information for a research paper and documenting the sources you find.e.g.If you are interested in the research about the use of alcholic beverages by university students.Set the topic into question as “ What are the effects of the usage of alcoholic beverages by university students?”ii help you understand the broader context of your research and tell you in general terms what is known about your topicmost common background sources are encyclopedias and dictionaries from the print and online reference collection- Look up your keywords in the indexes to subject encyclopedias.- Read articles in these encyclopedias to set the context for your research.- Note any relevant items in the bibliographies at the end of the encyclopedia articles.TIP: EXPLOIT BIBLIOGRAPHIES
13 iii.Use catalogs to find books and media Use keyword searching to find materials by topic or subjectwrite down the citation (author, title,etc.) and the location information (call number and library).Note the circulation status- find the location and call number of booksiii. pull the book from the shelf, scan the bibliography for additional sources.
14 iv. Use indexes to find periodical articles Periodicals are continuous publications such as journals, newspapers, or magazines. - use periodical indexes and abstracts to find citations to articlesv.Find internet resourcesUse search enginesiv. They are issued regularly (daily, weekly, monthly, or quarterly).
15 vi. Evaluate what you find critically analyze information sources Initial appraisal- author, date of publication, edition or revision, publisher, title of journalb. Content analysis- Intended audience, objective reasoning, coverage, writing style, evaluative reviewsBibliographic citations characteristically have three main components: author, title, and publication informationa. Initial appraisalAuthor- educational background, past writings, or experience? Is the book or article written on a topic in the author's area of expertise?- Has your instructor mentioned this author?Date of publication- When was the source published?- Is the source current or out-of-date for your topic?Edition or Revision- Is this a first edition of this publication or not?- Further editions indicate a source has been revised and updated to reflect changes in knowledge- many printings or editions may indicate that the work has become a standard source in the area and is reliablePublisher- If the source is published by a university press, it is likely to be scholarlyTitle of Journal- Is this a scholarly or a popular journal?b. Content AnalysisIntended Audience- What type of audience is the author addressing?- Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience?- Is this source too elementary, too technical, too advanced, or just right for your needs?Objective Reasoning- Is the information covered fact, opinion, or propaganda?- Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched- Are the ideas and arguments advanced more or less in line with other works you have read on the same topic?- Is the author's point of view objective and impartial?- Is the language free of emotion-arousing words and bias?Coverage- Does the work update other source or add new information?Writing Style- Is the publication organized logically?- Are the main points clearly presented?Evaluative Reviews- Do the various reviewers agree on the value or attributes of the book or has it aroused controversy among the critics?
16 vii. Cite what you find using a standard format gives proper credit to the authors of the materials usedallows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as references.* Knowingly representing the work of others as your own is plagarismvii. Citing or documenting the sources used in your research serves two purposes- proper credit to the authors of the materials used- allows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as referencesrepresenting the work of others as your own is plagarism
18 How to cite/reference material Different fields use different styles for formatting information:BooksConference Papers & ThesesReportsJournal ArticlesMagazine & NewspapersAudiovisualOthers (Webpages, Legal Materials, Course HandoutsFigures and Tables
19 APA REFERENCINGThe American Psychological Association reference style uses the Author-Date format.When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by author name and year of publication.If quoting directly, a location reference such as page number(s) or paragraph number is also required.
20 IN-TEXTDirect quotation – use quotation marks around the quote and include page numbersSamovar and Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p.188). Alternatively, “Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p.188).Indirect quotation/paraphrasing – no quotation marksAttaching meaning to symbols is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997).Citations from a secondary sourceAs Hall (1977) asserts, “culture also defines boundaries of different groups” (as cited in Samovar and Porter, 1997, p. 14).
21 EXAMPLES OF REFERENCES BY TYPE In a reference listIn-text citation1. Book with one authorKing, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking.(King, 2000) orKing (2000) compares Frame .2. Book with two to five authorsKrause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Thomson(Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne,2006)then(Krause et al., 2006)
22 He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever-proverb-