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Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk Scientists for Cycling.

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Presentation on theme: "Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk Scientists for Cycling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk Scientists for Cycling Colloquium, University of South Australia, Adelaide, June 26, 2014

2 Macroperspective Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk Kiev Vienna Gdansk

3 Content 1.The serious decline of cycling and its re-birth in an on-going motorized world – three phenomena 2.Reasons for de-investing in cycling 3.Reasons for (re-)investing in cycling 4.From marginalised leisure activity to the mainstream of public policies – the golden triangle 5.Perspectives for further research and conclusions This presentation is based on content and structure of the paper by Manfred Neun, Piotr Kuropatwiński [2014]: Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’. Scientists for Cycling Colloquium, University of South Australia, Adelaide, June 26, 2014 Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk

4 Up & downs: 3 Phenomena The serious decline of cycling and its re-birth in an on- going motorized world – three phenomena 1.The phenomenon of the decline of the overwhelming competitor – the car 2.The phenomenon of the re-birth of cycling because of various reasons – new generations of bicycles and their users 3.The phenomenon of becoming a symbol for all- that’s-good Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 1 1

5 Up & downs in Cities The serious decline of cycling and its re- birth in an on-going motorized world: Big differences in European Cities How to explain them? Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 1 1 Source: Evolution of bicycle use in European cities [Albert de la Bruhèze, Verart, 1999], quoted after Alex Sully, 2010

6 Reasons for Declining Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 2 2 Institutional position of cycling and motorisation in transport planning (sustainable scenario) Large volumes of cycling Considerable amount of resources used to create cycling facilities Strong competitiveness of cycling Modest volumes of car transport Thoughtful development of car transport facilities Weak competitiveness of car transport

7 Reasons for Declining Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 2 2 Institutional position of cycling and motorisation in transport/urban planning (usually applied scenario) Modest volumes of cycling Modest resources used to create cycling facilities Weak competitiveness of cycling Large volumes of car transport Substantial resources devoted to improve car cdriving conditions Strong competitiveness of car transport Source: J. Kallioinen, 2003, with author’s modifications

8 Reasons for … (re-)investing 1.Critical incidents and political decisions to invest 2.Growth made by the industry: Bicycle innovations 3.The role of the governments: ‘the golden triangle’ 4.The impact of cycling in times of crises: key-issues, new terms and paradigms 5.Cycling as a system: the impact of cycling on the Sustainable Development Goals Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3 3

9 Critical incidents ….. and political decisions to invest: “Stop der Kindermord” in the NL - civic pressure oil crisis of 1973, 79 (plus 2000ff) Wake of human-oriented city-planning in Denmark Limitations of the car-oriented urban transport systems > fight against pollution and later: urban space constraints Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.1

10 The industry: Growth based on innovations The bike industry subsequent innovations as driving forces for development Neun, Manfred [2011]: Re-inventing the Bicycle for Creating Healthier and Wealthier Societies, University of Tampere. Key-note Speech, Sept 16 th 2011, Helsinki. Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.2 Leisure Bike MTB Bicycle Tourism E-bicycle Bike-share 1980 1990200020102020 1970 ? 1 2 3 4 5

11 All together: Growth based on Policy The bike industry subsequent innovations need now cycling advocacy for investments Neun, Manfred [2011]: Re-inventing the Bicycle for Creating Healthier and Wealthier Societies, University of Tampere. Key-note Speech, Sept 16 th 2011, Helsinki. Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.2 Leisure Bike MTB Bicycle Tourism 1980 1990200020102020 1970 Biycle Mobility 1 2 3 4 5 Active Mobility E-bicycle Bike-share

12 The industry: Growth based on innovations M. Neun [2013]: “Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling” Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013 Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk industryconsumers bikes people Bilateral market relationship in sport goods business, worked quite well in the bike industry, Confirmed validity in the case of the mountain bike revolution 3.2

13 For Governments: ‘The Golden Triangle’ M. Neun [2013]: “Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling” Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013 Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk industryconsumers governments bikes people Accessible. public space Accessible. public space 3.3

14 The impact of cycling in times of crises: key-issues, terms & paradigms Agenda setting: 8 key issues about the impact of cycling Active and Passive Mobility – a complementary system for integrated transport The Human Rights approach... ‘Public Cycling‘ ? Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.4

15 The development of Mobility Pyramids Sources: Nahmobilität 2.0, www,fahrradfreundlich.nrw.de, AGFS 2012 p. 13, Lasse Schelde, Bicycle Innovation Lab, The future of intermodality, presentation given at the 4th Congress of Active Mobility in Gdansk Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.4 Passive mobility Active mobility Hybrid E-mobility

16 The development of Mobility Pyramids Sources: Nahmobilität 2.0, www.fahrradfreundlich.nrw.de, AGFS 2012 p. 13 ’Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.4 Ideal Modal Split – Pyramid A tool for integrated transport planning and a reminder to use the impact of intermodality.

17 The impact of cycling for SDGs Sustainable Development Goals Cycling may fruitfully contribute to the achievement of all three dimensions of sustainable development Economic – creating revenues and jobs Social – contributing to social cohesion Environmental – reducing/reversing the impact of non-sustainable transport and suburbanisation (urban sprawl) development processes. Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 3.5

18 From Margin to the Mainstream 1.Basic economic analysis: comparison of marginal costs and marginal benefits speak for investing in cycling – providing the highest ROI ratios. 2.The Cycling Economy concept, however, implies widening the frame of reference supplying arguments coming from outside narrowly understood economics 3.The Cycling Economy 2.0, the Human Rights Approach and “The Cycling Economy Grid” – bring it all together Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 4 4

19 b Cycling in numbers enefits of cycling economy 19 4 4 The Seville example : A functioning cycling network cost 32 million euros, and transports 66,000 people daily. In comparison, Seville’s single-line metro system cost 600 million Euro and carries only 40,000 people daily … and its motorways cost 6 million Euro per kilometer. (see www.cyclingmobility.com/feature/the-circle-of-life)

20 Economic benefits of cycling 20 in EU-27 in 2010 4 4 Health€ 121.0 bn Congestion-easing€ 24.0 bn Fuel savings€ 6.0 bn Reduced CO2 emission€ 3.0 bn Reduced air pollution€ 1.0 bn Reduced noise pollution€ 0.3 bn Tourism industry€ 44.0 bn Bicycle manufacture€ 18.0 bn Combined total€ 217.3 bn

21 Financial costs of motoring 21 4 4 Average yearly cost of operating a sedan in 2012 USD 8.946 (AAA, Dec.2013) assuming 15,000 miles of annual driving -Median Income in US in 2012 : USD 51,017 (PBS) -Quotient: 17.5% I n 2012 each car (on average) cost 1/6th to 1/5th of median income Average car owner working 5-day week -worked about 1 day for his car -Source: Mansfield, Sam, The American culture of automobility: Whorfian effects? in the USA in 2012

22 Cycling economy Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 4 4 the 5 most important tools 1.Active Mobility streets – based on the 30 km/h recommendation – mixed use – human friendly street design 2.Cycle Highways 3.Active E-mobility with pedelecs 4.Bike sharing > public cycling 5.Cargo cycling Source: M. Neun [2013]: “Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013

23 Cycling economy – public cycling Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 4 4 Source: The Bike Sharing Planning Guide, ITDP, www.idtp.org p.11

24 “The Cycling Economy Grid” Matrix for better decision making to invest in cycling mobility. Neun, Manfred [2013]: “Cycling Economy 2.0”; p. 86 in: Urban Cycling Cultures. Velo-city Vienna 2013 Conference Magazine, Vienna. Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 4 4

25 Perspectives for further research + Conclusions Re-investing in cycling assures the highest marginal productivity in urban mobility development Mainstreaming of cycling requires institutional repositioning of cycling and cycling research The economic perspective provides a sustainable contribution to all key-issues of the S4C agenda Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk 5 5

26 THANK YOU Dr Piotr Kuropatwiński – University of Gdańsk ECF vice-president pkuropatwinski@pswe.org


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