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Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Presentation prepared by Chris C. Romero CHAPTER 15 The Evolution of Microbial Life 張學偉 助理教授 生物醫學暨環境生物學系

2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The number of bacteria in one human’s mouth is greater than the total number of people who ever lived Each year more than 200 million people become infected with malaria

3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial fermentation is used to produce cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, and many types of sausage More than half of our antibiotics come from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces

4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings During the fall of 2001, five Americans died from the disease anthrax in a presumed terrorist attack BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY: BIOTERRORISM Figure 15.1

5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Animals, plants, fungi, and viruses have all served as weapons, but the most frequently employed biowarfare agents have been bacteria. History of BiowarfareHistory of Biowarfare (177K) Requires Flash [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bioterror/history.html#]Flashhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bioterror/history.html#] 參考來源 - 美國公共電視

6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings History for useing biological agents as weapons – The practical difficulties of controlling such weapons—and a measure of ethical repugnance— led the United States to end its bioweapons program in 1969 and to destroy its products – Although not all signatories have honored it, 103 nations have signed the Biological Weapons Convention, pledging never to develop or store biological weapons

7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Not all bacteria are harmful to humans – Nearly all life on Earth depends on bacteria and other microbial life in one way or another

8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Precam- brian First humans Extinction of dinosaurs Plants and symbiotic fungi colonize land Oldest animal fossils Origin of multicellular organisms Oldest eukaryotic fossils Accumulation of atmospheric oxygen from photosynthetic cyanobacteria Oldest prokaryotic fossils Earth cool enough for crust to solidify Origin of Earth Prokaryotes Eukaryotes BacteriaArchaea Protists PlantsFungiAnimals 1, , Figure 15.2 MAJOR EPISODES IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE

9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes – Appeared about 3.5 billion years ago Oxygen production – Began about 2.5 billion years ago Single-celled eukaryotic organisms – Evolved about 1.7 billion years ago Earth was born 4.5 billion years ago

10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Multicellular eukaryotes – Evolved about 1 billion years ago All the major phyla of animals – Evolved by the end of the Cambrian explosion, which began about 570 million years ago About 475 million years ago – Plants and fungi colonized land – Amphibians evolved from fish, and vertebrate life moved onto land

11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings We may never know how life began on Earth THE ORIGIN OF LIFE All life today arises by the reproduction of preexisting life, or biogenesis Resolving the Biogenesis Paradox

12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most biologists now think it is possible that chemical and physical processes on the early Earth produced simple cells Figure 15.3

13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Visual Summary 15.2 Inorganic compounds Organic monomers Complementary chain Membrane-enclosed compartment Polymer Abiotic synthesis Polymerization Self-replication Packaging A Four-Stage Hypothesis for the Origin of Life According to one hypothetical scenario, the first organisms were products of chemical evolution in four stages.

14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stanley Miller Stage 1: Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Monomers – Devised an experiment that produced small organic molecules in 1953 Figure 15.4

15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Researchers have observed polymerization of organic monomers in various situations Stage 2: Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers

16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Laboratory experiments have shown that short RNA molecules can assemble spontaneously Stage 3: Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules Figure 15.5 RNA monomers Formation of short RNA polymers: simple “genes” Assembly of a complementary RNA chain (pairing rules are G with C and A with U) Complementary chain serves as template for making copy of original “gene” Original “gene”

17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The properties of life emerge from an interaction of molecules organized into higher levels of order Stage 4: Formation of Pre-Cells Figure 15.6 Self-replication of RNA RNA Self-replicating RNA acts as template on which polypeptide forms Polypeptide Polypeptide acts as primitive enzyme that aids RNA replication Membrane Polypeptide

18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Laboratory experiments demonstrate that pre- cells could have formed spontaneously from abiotically produced organic compounds Figure 15.7 liposome Cooling polypeptide

19 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Over millions of years From Chemical Evolution to Darwinian Evolution – Natural selection favored the most efficient pre-cells – The first prokaryotic cells evolved

20 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes – Lived and evolved all alone on Earth for 2 billion years Figure 15.8 Fossilized prokaryotes 1-10mm: most prokaryotes size; mm: most eukaryotes

21 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes They’re Everywhere! – Are found wherever there is life – Outnumber all eukaryotes combined – Can cause disease – Can be beneficial

22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The majority of prokaryotes are bacteria. Prokaryote = Bacteria The Two Main Branches of Prokaryotic Evolution: Bacteria and Archaea

23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some archaea are “extremophiles” – Extreme halophiles thrive in salty environments Figure 15.9

24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Extreme thermophiles – Inhabit very hot water Methanogens – Inhabit the bottoms of lakes and swamps

25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotic cells The Structure, Function, and Reproduction of Prokaryotes – Lack nuclei (called nucleoid) – Lack other membrane-enclosed organelles – Have cell walls exterior to their plasma membranes

26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes come in several shapes Figure – Cocci – Bacilli – Spirochetes

27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most prokaryotes are unicellular and very small

28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some prokaryotes Figure – Form true colonies – Show specialization of cells – Are very large

29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Plasma membrane Cell wall Rotary movement of each flagellum About half of all prokaryotes are motile, using flagella

30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some prokaryotes Figure – Can survive extended periods of very harsh conditions – Form endospores

31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most prokaryotes can reproduce by binary fission at very high rates if conditions are favorable

32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes exhibit four major modes of nutrition The Nutritional Diversity of Prokaryotes Table 15.1

33 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Photoautotrophs – Are photosynthetic organisms – Include the cyanobacteria Chemoautotrophs – Need CO 2 as a carbon source – Extract energy from inorganic substances

34 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Photoheterotrophs – Use light to generate ATP – Must obtain their carbon in organic form Chemoheterotrophs – Must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon

35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes The Ecological Impact of Prokaryotes – Have a major impact on the Earth and its inhabitants

36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathogens Bacteria That Cause Disease – Are bacteria and other microorganisms that cause disease Figure 15.14

37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most pathogenic bacteria – Cause disease by producing poisons Exotoxins – Are poisonous proteins secreted by bacterial cells Endotoxins – Are chemical components of the cell walls of certain bacteria

38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The best defenses against bacterial disease are – Sanitation – Antibiotics – Education

39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lyme disease – Is caused by bacteria carried by ticks Figure 萊姆症 ( 又稱萊姆關節炎, 由扁蝨傳染, 症狀有紅斑、頭疼、發燒等等 )

40 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes play essential roles Prokaryotes and Chemical Recycling – In chemical cycles in the environment – In the breakdown of organic wastes and dead organisms

41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bioremediation is the use of organisms to remove pollutants from water, air, and soil Prokaryotes and Bioremediation – A familiar example is use of prokaryotic decomposers in sewage treatment

42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Liquid wastes Rotating spray arm Rock bed coated with aerobic bacteria and fungi Outflow

43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Certain bacteria can decompose petroleum and are useful in cleaning up oil spills Figure 15.17

44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protists PROTISTS ( 單細胞生物 ) – Are eukaryotic – Evolved from prokaryotes

45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryotic cells evolved through the combination of two processes The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells 1.Cell with nucleus and endomembrane system 2.Photosynthetic eukaryotic cell

46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In one process, the eukaryotic cell’s endomembrane system evolved from inward folds of the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell Figure 15.18a DNA Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Ancestral prokaryote Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Nucleus (a)Cell with nucleus and endomembrane system

47 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (b) Photosynthetic eukaryotic cell Photosynthetic prokaryote (Some cells) Chloroplast Mitochondrion Aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote The second process, endosymbiosis, generated mitochondria and chloroplasts Figure 15.18b

48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings All protists are eukaryotes The Diversity of Protists – Most are unicellular

49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoans – Live primarily by ingesting food

50 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoans include Figure 15.19a – Flagellates, with flagella (a) Trypanosomes (flagellates) 睡病蟲, 錐體蟲 RBC

51 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings – Amoebas, with pseudopodia Figure 15.19b, c – Forams ( 有孔蟲 ) (b) An amoeba ingesting food (c) A foram

52 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings – Apicomplexans( 頂覆蟲 ) Figure 15.19d, e – Ciliates ( 纖毛蟲 ), with cilia (d) An apicomplexan: Plasmodium 瘧原蟲 (e) Paramecium

53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slime molds ( 黴菌 ) Slime Molds – Resemble fungi ( 真菌 ) in appearance and lifestyle

54 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasmodial slime molds Figure A slime mold (Physarum polycephalum), showing a creeping mass of yellowish protoplasm called a plasmodium ( 變形體 )

55 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Sluglike colony Amoeboid cells Reproductive structure Cellular slime molds – Have an interesting and complex life cycle spore reference

56 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Algae Unicellular Algae – Are photosynthetic protists [ 單細胞生物 ] – Are found in plankton ( 浮游生物總稱 )

57 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unicellular algae include Figure 15.22a, b – Dinoflagellates ( 二鞭毛藻 ), components of phytoplankton – Diatoms ( 矽藻 ), which have glassy walls

58 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings – Green algae, unicellular and colonial Figure 15.22c, d

59 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seaweeds – Are large, multicellular marine algae – Grow on rocky shores and just offshore – Are often edible

60 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The three major groups of seaweeds Figure (a) Green algae (b) Red algae (c) Brown algae

61 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Multicellular organisms EVOLUTION CONNECTION: THE ORIGIN OF MULTICELLULAR LIFE – Are different from unicellular ones – Have specialized cells

62 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The evolutionary links between unicellular and multicellular organisms were probably colonial protists Figure Unicellular protist Colony Locomotor cells Food- synthesizing cells Early multicellular organism with specialized, interdependent cells Gamete Somatic cells Later organism with gametes and somatic (non-reproductive) cells 1 2 3

63 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Major Episodes in the History of Life SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS Visual Summary 15.1 Millions of years ago ,000 1,700 2,500 3,500 4,500 Major Episode Plants and fungi colonize land All major animal phyla established First multicellular organisms Oldest eukaryotic fossils Accumulation of atmospheric 0 2 Oldest prokaryotic fossils Origin of Earth

64 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Four-Stage Hypothesis for the Origin of Life Visual Summary 15.2 Inorganic compounds Organic monomers Complementary chain Membrane-enclosed compartment Polymer Abiotic synthesis Polymerization Self-replication Packaging

65 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Two Main Branches of Prokaryotic Evolution: Bacteria and Archaea Visual Summary 15.3 Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea (e.g., extremophiles)

66 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nutritional Diversity of Prokaryotes Visual Summary 15.4 Nutritional Mode Photoautotroph Photoheterotroph Chemoheterotroph Sunlight Inorganic chemicals Sunlight Organic compounds Carbon Source CO 2 Organic compounds Chemoautotroph Energy Source


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