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Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach Understanding and Improving the Efficacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach Understanding and Improving the Efficacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach Phillip J. Bowman, Director and Professor National Center for Institutional Diversity University of Michigan Research Conference BUILDING BETTER STUDENTS: Preparation for life After High School Educational Testing Service/ College Board/American Educational Research Association December 10, 2010 Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, Washington, DC

2 Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: Introduction To promote America’s competitiveness in the 21 st century, there is increasing recognition of the importance of “pipeline interventions” during the PK-12 years and beyond to promote college readiness, retention, advanced studies and success in competitive career fields. In addition to a focus on “pipeline interventions” to reduce achievement gaps, there is also a growing emphasis on such interventions as strategic investments in talent development to increase the number of minorities, women, and other underrepresented students who succeed in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

3 I.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions The importance of growing external support for collaborative research to further “understand” and “improve” the efficacy of pipeline interventions for talented students from underrepresented backgrounds with restricted educational opportunities;

4 Ia.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: Growing External Support for Collaborative Research Evolving Rationale for Pipeline Interventions - K-12 & Beyond: 1.From “Racial/Ethnic” to “Multiple” Achievement Gaps” Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps - Underrepresented “Minorities” ? Female-Female Achievement Gaps – ie “Women & Girls” – STEM Fields? Socio-Economic Achievement Gaps – ie “First Generation” & Low Income? Multiple Achievement Gaps – ie “Diversity” & Diverse Student Populations? Cross-National Achievement Gaps – ie US vs. Other High Achieving Nations? 2.From Affirmative Action to “Diversity/Strategic National Action” Strong Opposition to “Race-Targeted” Affirmative Action & Interventions? Mixed Opposition to “Gender-based” Affirmative Action & Interventions? Strong Support for Class-based Affirmative Action & Interventions? Strong Support for Diversity & Multiple Achievement Gap Interventions? Strategic National Action - Cross-National Achievement Gap Interventions? (NAS - Raising Above the Gathering Strom: Rapidly Approaching Category 5)

5 Ib.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: Growing External Support for Collaborative Research Expansion of Pipeline Interventions & Related Research: 1.Stakeholders: Government, Universities, Foundations, Non-Profits, ETS, ACT, etc. 2.“Evaluation” vs. “Understanding” Interventions: Rigorous “Evaluation” of Intervention Efficacy Formative Evaluation – Implementation, Documentation, Fidelity, etc. Outcome Evaluation - Randomized & Quasi-Experimental Research Designs Intervention Benefits when Compared to Control Groups - Causal Inference “Understanding” Why Benefits Differ within Intervention Understanding Factors that Differentiate Success Within Intervention Growing Support for Theory-driven and Multidisciplinary Understanding From “Understanding” Benefits to “Improving” Intervention Efficacy “Translation” of Social Science Understanding to Improve Intervention Efficacy Application of Evidence-based Theory to Inform and Guide Innovation

6 Ic.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: Growing External Support for Collaborative Research Collaborative Workshops and Growing Federal Funding: 1.“Understanding Interventions” Workshop Series: (NIH, NSF, AAAS, NAS, NRC, HHS, ASCB, & OTHER COLLABORATORS) “Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers” “Building A Community of Research and Practice” “Broaden Participation in Research Careers: Embracing A Breadth of Purpose 2. Growing Federal Funding: i.e. NIH:“Understanding the Efficacy of Interventions” RFAs : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – 6 of : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – 4 of : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – of : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – * : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA – : i.e. NIH-NIGMS RFA –

7 II.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach A comprehensive social psychological approach can provide new insight into pivotal factors that impede or enhance the efficacy of exemplary pipeline interventions;

8 IIa.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach A comprehensive social psychological approach can provide new insight into pivotal factors that impede or enhance the efficacy of exemplary pipeline interventions;

9 IIb.Understanding and Improving the Efficacy of Pipeline Interventions: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach Strengths-based Role Strain and Adaptation Model Building on extensive social psychological theory and research, a comprehensive strength-based role stain and adaptation model focuses on two major concepts that may impede and enhance pipeline intervention efficacy: Student Role Strain - refers to objective role barriers (i.e. academic, financial barriers) and related subjective appraisals (i.e. role conflict, overload, ambiguity, discouragement) that may impede the efficacy of pipeline interventions. Student Role Adaptation - refers to the related process through which students, faced with role strain, mobilize adaptive social psychological strengths (i.e. perceived support, efficacy, engagement) that may enhance the efficacy of pipeline interventions.

10 IIc. COMPREHESIVE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH: A Role Strain and Adaptation Model of Pipeline Intervention Efficacy Adapted From: Bowman, P.J. (2006). Role strain and adaptation issues in the strength-based model: Diversity, multilevel, and life-span considerations. Counseling Psychologist, 34,

11 III.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: BRIDGING THEORY-DRIVEN RESEARCH & PROGRAM INNOVATION OVERVIEW: (NIH-NIGMS, ) This NIH-funded study can help to demonstrate the policy relevance of related intervention research to inform innovative strategies in a range of pipeline programs at critical transition periods (e.g., middle-to-high school, high school-to-college, community college- to-university, undergraduate-to-graduate school, college-to- professional career).

12 IIIa.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: BRIDGING THEORY-DRIVEN RESEARCH & PROGRAM INNOVATION OVERVIEW: (NIH-NIGMS, ) Specific Aims: Clarify pivotal role strain and adaptation mechanisms that impede and enhance the efficacy of two exemplary research career pipeline interventions (SROP, UROP, etc.) designed to promote academic success, Ph.D. degrees, and faculty research careers among underrepresented students; Background & Significance: Underrepresented students face higher academic risks in the high school to college transition, few earn Ph.D. degrees, and even fewer enter faculty research careers; social psychological studies: (a) identify modifiable risks and strengths that may moderate pipeline intervention efficacy; and (b) guide intervention program innovation to improve efficacy; Preliminary Studies: Related research supports: (a) the efficacy of research career pipeline interventions, and (b) social psychological studies support the explanatory power of pivotal role strain and adaptation mechanisms; Research Design & Methods: Mixed-methods combining secondary analysis with survey measurement development, quasi-experimental, and qualitative studies.

13 IIIb.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: PARTICIPANTS Advanced undergraduates, both URM and non-URM students, in the Summer Research Opportunity Program (SROP): An exemplary pipeline intervention based in 12 major research universities, with membership in the Committee for Institutional Cooperation (CIC) which promotes academic collaboration among Big 10 universities. First Year Undergraduates in the Undergraduate Research Program (UROP): An exemplary pipeline intervention based at the University of Michigan, which has also received national recognition.

14 IIIc.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: FORMAL CIC-SROP & UM-UROP ACTIVITIES CIC-SROP provides intensive activities to advanced undergraduates during the summer, while UM-UROP provides more extensive activities to 1 st year students throughout the entire academic year. However, both exemplary pipeline interventions provide very similar formal research-related opportunities including: 1) Hands-on research experience supervised by a faculty mentor; 2) Staff support and regularly scheduled skill development workshops; 3) Research reports and presentations based on their supervised projects; 4) Other structured enrichment activities to promote academic excellence, graduate studies, and research career socialization.

15 IIId.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: CIC-SROP DESIGN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 1. CIC-SROP Quasi-Experimental Survey Design: Interrupted Time-Series for PARTICIPANTS & APPLICANTS ======================================================================== Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 (Before/Early Program) (FALL Post-Program) (WINTER Post-Program) (SPRING Post-Program) INTERVENTION: CIC-SROP PARTICIPANTS 0 X CONTROL: CIC-SROP APPLICANTS ================================================================================================= _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

16 IIIe.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: UM-UROP DESIGN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 2: UM-UROP Quasi-Experimental Survey Design: Interrupted Time-Series for PARTICIPANTS, APPLICANTS, & COMPARSON ================================================================================================= Table 3: Interrupted Time-Series Design - UM-UROP PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROL GROUIPS Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 (Before/Early Program) (After 1 ST Semester) (After 2 ND Semester) (After 3 RD Semester) INTERVENTION: UM-UROP 1 ST Year PARTICIPANTS 0 X 0 X 0 0 ______________________________________________________________________________________ CONTROL I: UM-UROP 1 st Year APPLICANTS CONTROL II: UM-Multi-Ethnic 1st Year COMPARISON GROUP ==================================================================================================

17 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IIIf - UNDERSTANDING EXEMPLARY PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach - Role Strain & Adaptation (Related Sedlacek’s Non-Cognitive Predictors) I. INTERVENTION OUTCOMES A.Academic Performance C. Bio.-Beh. Sci. Research Career Plans/Outcome B. Ph.D. Degree Plans/Outcomes D. Faculty-Academic Career Plans/Outcomes II. EXEMPLARY RESEARCH CAREER PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS A.SROP: Intervention Participation C. UROP: Intervention Participation B.SROP: Formal Intervention Activities D. UROP: Formal Intervention Activities III. STUDENT ROLE STRAIN & ADAPTATION MODERATORS A. STUDENT ROLE STRAIN 1. OBJECTIVE ROLE STRAIN: - Academic Barriers - Race/Ethnic-Related Barriers - Financial Barriers- Gender-Related Barriers 2. SUBJECTIVE ROLE STRAIN: - Role Conflict - Role Discouragement - Role Overload - Race/Ethnic-Related Identity Threat - Role Ambiguity - Gender-Related Identity Threat B. ADAPTIVE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STRENGTHS 1. PERCEIVED INFORMAL SUPPORT (A Strong Support Person) : - SROP/UROP Faculty Mentor - Support Peer Support - SROP/UROP Staff Support - Extended Family Support 2. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE MOTIVATION : - Path-Goal Motivation (Long Term Goals) - Research Career Efficacy (Knowledge in a Field) - Academic Self-Efficacy (Self-Concept) - Resilient Problem-Solving (Realistic Self-Appraisal) 3. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT - Leadership Commitment (Leadership) - Diversity Commitment (Handling the System) - Service Commitment (Community Involvement)

18 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IIIf1 - UNDERSTANDING EXEMPLARY PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS: INTERVENTION EFFICACY: EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION ON OUTCOMES I.INTERVENTION OUTCOMES A. Academic Performance B. Ph.D. Degree Plans/Outcomes C. Bio.-Beh. Science Research Career Plans/Outcomes D. Faculty-Academic Career Plans/Outcomes II.EXEMPLARY RESEARCH CAREER PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS SROP: Intervention Participation SROP: Formal Intervention Activities UROP: Intervention Participation UROP: Formal Intervention Activities

19 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IIIf2 - UNDERSTANDING EXEMPLARY PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach - Role Strain & Adaptation ROLE STRAIN EFFECTS: MODERATOR AND MEDIATOR MECHANISMS ? III. STUDENT ROLE STRAIN & ADAPTATION VARIABLES A. STUDENT ROLE STRAIN 1. Objective Role Strain: “Moderators”? -Academic Barriers -Financial Barriers -Race/Ethnic-Related Barriers -Gender-Related Barriers 2. Subjective Role Strain: “Moderators & Mediators”?? -Role Conflict -Role Overload -Role Ambiguity -Role Discouragement -Race/Ethnic-Related Identity Threat -Gender-Related Identity Threat

20 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IIIf3 - UNDERSTANDING EXEMPLARY PIPELINE INTERVENTIONS: A Comprehensive Social Psychological Approach - Role Strain & Adaptation ADAPTIVE STRENGTHS: MODERATOR AND MEDIATOR MECHANISMS?? B. ADAPTIVE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STRENGTHS 1. Perceived Informal Support (Support Person): Moderators? -SROP/UROP Faculty Mentor Support -SROP/UROP Staff Support -Friend Support -Extended Family Support 2. Social-Cognitive Motivation: Moderators & Mediators?? -Path-Goal Motivation (Long Term Goals) -Academic Self-Efficacy (Positive Self-Concept) -Research Career Efficacy (Knowledge in a Field) -Resilient Problem-Solving (Realistic Self-Appraisal) 3. Social-Cognitive Engagement -Leadership Commitment (Leadership Experience) -Service Commitment (Community Involvement) -Diversity Commitment (Handling the System)

21 IIIg.A Mixed-Method Study of Exemplary Research Opportunity Interventions: Major Intervention Research Questions INTERVENTION EFFICACY: Do SROP and UROP Interventions have significant effects on participants’ successful development outcomes - academic performance, Ph.D. degree plans/outcomes, research career plans, and faculty-academic career plans? ROLE STRAIN: Is intervention efficacy “impeded” by objective student role strain, related cognitive appraisals and psychosocial risks? ROLE ADAPTATION: Is intervention efficacy “enhanced” by perceived informal support and other adaptive social psychological strengths? BUFFERING: In addition to formal intervention effects, can social psychological strengths buffer deleterious relationships between role strain and program outcomes? MEDIATION: In addition to formal intervention effects, are positive effects of perceived informal support mediated by other social psychological mechanisms such as social-cognitive motivation and engagement?

22 MODERATOR VS. MEDIATION HYPOTHESES: HYPOTHETICAL MEDIATION ANALYSIS EXAMPLE? How effects of role strain and intervention-based support on successful program outcomes may be “mediated” by adaptive social psychological strengths.

23 From “Understanding” Benefits to “Improving” Intervention Efficacy UNIQUE COLLABORTIVE STUDY INCLUDES NCID-BASED “STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS: NCID-CIC-SROP NCID-UM-UROP PROMOTE STUDY “TRANSLATION” AND “APPLICATION” Inform and Guide Innovation To Improve Intervention Efficacy

24 From “Understanding” Benefits to “Improving” Intervention Efficacy In general, this comprehensive social psychological approach and NIH study implicate several “innovative strategies” to further improve the efficacy of exemplary pipeline interventions: 1) Systematic Assessment - Pivotal Role Strain & Adaptation Variables; 2) Formal Support Activities – to Address Objective Role Barriers (i.e. academic, financial, race-related, and gender-related); (3) Strategies to Promote Informal Support (i.e. mentors, staff, peers, family); (4) Strategies to Promote Social-Cognitive Motivation (i.e. path-goal beliefs, academic, career, and resilient problem-solving efficacies); and (5) Strategies to Promote Social-Cognitive Engagement (i.e. leadership, service, diversity commitments) Implications of this comprehensive social psychological approach and NIH study for other policy-relevant intervention research to further improve efficacy in a wide range of pipeline programs at critical education transitions (e.g., middle-to-high school, high school-to- college, community college-to-university, undergraduate-to-graduate school, college-to-professional career)?

25 Thank You! Phillip J. Bowman, Ph.D. Principal Investigator Director and Professor National Center for Institutional Diversity University of Michigan www. ncid.umich.edu


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