Source: Tough Choices Tough Times, National Center on Education and the Economy
Forces of Technology and Globalization are altering the nature of work, the organization of firms, and where work is conducted
Today’s Youth Technologically literate
America’s Classrooms Does this connect with and engage today’s youth?
Successful Curriculum Reform Why Do we need to change schools? What Needs to be done? How Do we do it?
Curriculum should focus on what students need to Know Be Able to Do Be Like (Behaviors) for success in life and in a career
21 st Century Skills for Success Strong Academics Reading, Writing, Math, Science Career Skills Workplace Attitudes & Ethics Technology Skills Character Virtues Honesty, Responsibility, Integrity
CAREER DEVELOPMENT Self-knowledge Who am I? Career exploration Where am I going? Career Plan How do I get there? INTEGRATED LEARNING What am I learning? Why am I learning it? How can I use it? UNIVERSAL FOUNDATION SKILLS (SCANS) What do I need to know? What skills are important for me” knowledge application skills Questions students should be able to answer
The primary aim of education is not to enable students to do well in school, but to help them do well in the lives they lead outside of school.
Successful Curriculum Reform Why Do we need to change schools? What Needs to be done? How Do we do it?
ICLE Philosophy Rigor Relevance Relationships All Students
ICLE Philosophy Relationships Relevance Rigor All Students
A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Knowledge Application
Assimilation of knowledge Acquisition of knowledge Thinking Continuum Level of challenge of the learning for the student
KNOWLEDGE TAXONOMYWEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE “The recall of specifics and universals, involving little more than bringing to mind the appropriate material” Recall – Recall of a fact, information, or procedure (e.g., What are 3 critical skill cues for the overhand throw?) COMPREHENSION “Ability to process knowledge on a low level such that the knowledge can be reproduced or communicated without a verbatim repetition.” APPLICATION “The use of abstractions in concrete situations.” Basic Application of Skill/Concept – Use of information, conceptual knowledge, procedures, two or more steps, etc. (e.g., Explain why each skill cue is important to the overhand throw. “By stepping forward you are able to throw the ball further.”) ANALYSIS “The breakdown of a situation into its component parts.” Strategic Thinking – Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps; has some complexity; more than one possible answer; generally takes less than 10 minutes to do (e.g., Design 2 different plays in basketball and explain what different skills are needed and when the plays should be carried out.) SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION “Putting together elements & parts to form a whole, then making value judgments about the method.” Extended Thinking – Requires an investigation; time to think and process multiple conditions of the problem or task; and more than 10 minutes to do non-routine manipulations (e.g., Analyze 3 different tennis, racquetball, and badminton strokes for similarities, differences, and purposes. Then, discuss the relationship between the mechanics of the stroke and the strategy for using the stroke during game play.)
Acquisition of knowledge Application of knowledge Action Continuum Relevance of learning to life and work
Application Model 5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations 4 Application to real-world predictable situations 3 Application across disciplines 2 Application within discipline 1 Knowledge of one discipline course
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Teacher gives students a real-world question to answer or problem to solve High Low
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Students seek information to answer question or solve problem High Low
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework High Low Students test the relevancy of the information as it relates to the question or problem
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework High Low Students reflect on the potential use of the new information as a solution
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework High Low Students apply the information learned to answer the question or to solve the problem
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE AB D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Acquisition of knowledge / skills Motivation Creativity – Innovation - Problem Solving High Low Rigor - Critical Thinking Relevancy - Validation
Ways to Increase Rigor and Relevance Interdisciplinary Instruction Reading in the Content Area Use of Technology New Teaching Ideas / Strategies Challenging Assessments Professional Development Peer Teaching Observations / Reviews
Rigor and Relevance Handbook
Sharing Vetted Lessons
Feedback Reflection Student Learning Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Expected Student Performance Rigor/Relevance Instruction Assessment Actual Student Performance Rigor/Relevance Florida Standards Curriculum Outlines Student Learning Best Practices Industry Standards Advisory Committees Resources Learning Tasks Formative Summative Assessments
Rigor/ Relevance Framework Gold Seal Lessons
Verbs by Quadrant A name label define select identify list recite locate record memorize B apply sequence demonstrate interview construct solve calculate dramatize interpret illustrate C analyze compare examine contrast differentiate explain dissect categorize classify diagram discriminate D evaluate formulate justify rate recommend infer prioritize revise predict argue conclude
Product by Quadrant A definition worksheet list quiz test workbook true-false reproduction recitation B scrapbook summary interpretation collection annotation explanation solution demonstration outline C essay abstract blueprint inventory report plan chart investigation questionnaire classificatio n D evaluation newspaper estimation trial editorial play collage machine adaptation poem debate new game invention
Unwrapping Florida Sunshine State Science Standards
Reading Comprehension Strategies
Reading Instruction K Learn to Read Read to Learn Reading in the Content Area
College vs. Workplace Entry-level vs. Management-level High-stakes State Tests NCLB Legislation Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Academic Rigor Reading Comprehension Strategies Strategic Reading Skills Reading Research
Process for managing reading comprehension and reader progress Measures text readability and student reading ability; can match text with student reading level Determines difficulty of reading by word frequency and sentence length Most widely used reading measure Lexile Framework for Reading
Lexile measure reported in increments from 200L to 2000L Can be used in any curriculum content Tens of thousands of books, tens of millions of articles, hundreds of publishers, and all major standardized tests have Lexile measures
Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies Matching Text to Students Reading Level Assessing Critical Thinking Skills (Rigor) Using Collaborative Activities Using Technology Writing Before and After Reading READING COMPREHENSION CAN BE INCREASED BY
Lexile Literature On Ancient Medicine The Scarlet Letter Brown vs. Board of Ed War and Peace Pride and Prejudice Black Beauty Tom Swift in the Land of Wonders The Adventures of Pinocchio
Lexile Texts The Making of Memory: From Molecules to Mind Philosophical Essays; Hackett Publishing Psychology: An Introduction; Prentice Hall Business; Prentice Hall America: Pathways to Present; Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Gold Level; Prentice Hall World Cultures: A Global Mosaic; Prentice Hall Word 2000; Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Personal Reading Aetna Health Care Discount Form 1360L Medical Insurance Benefit Package 1280L Application for Student Loan 1270L Federal Tax Form W L Installing Your Child Safety Seat 1170L Microsoft Windows User Manual 1150L G.M. Protection Plan 1150L CD DVD Player Instructions 1080L
Newspapers NY Times 1380L Washington Post 1350L Wall Street Journal 1320L Chicago Tribune 1310L Associated Press 1310L USA Today 1200L
16 Career Clusters Department of Education
Agriculture / Natural Resources L Architecture / Construction L Business & Administration L Health Science L Hospitality / Tourism L Human Services L Law & Public Safety L Retail / Wholesale Sales L Transportation, Distribution L Entry-Level Occupational Reading Materials
Business and Administration
Architecture and Construction
Government & Public Administration
Lexile Framework ® for Reading Study Summary of Text Lexile Measures Text Lexile Measure (L) High School Literature College Literature High School Textbooks College Textbooks Military Personal Use Entry-Level Occupations SAT 1, ACT, AP* * Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)
Reading Comprehension Strategies increase student ’ s comprehension and retention of information activate student ’ s prior knowledge to connect with new information teach / reinforce skills that all good readers normally use
Teaching key reading comprehension strategies for only 15 minutes a week can significantly increase student achievement.
Increase Reading Comprehension by Instruction in and support for strategies Engaging discussion of reading content Set rigorous level for text, conversation, questions, and vocabulary Use practices to increase motivation and engagement with reading Use specific instructional strategies for learning and retention of content
Essential ELA Skills Preview text to anticipate content Identify, collect, select pertinent information while reading Discriminate important ideas from unimportant ideas while reading Apply, extend, and expand on information while reading
Tips for Reading Specific Text Brochures Classified Advertisements Editorials Electronic Mail Employee Handbooks Forms and Applications Graphs and Charts Instructions New Stories Operational Manuals Illustrations and Captions Primary Sources Reference Books Research Reports Secondary Sources Tables Textbooks Timelines Web Sites
Direct Reading Thinking Activity Reading Comprehension Strategy
DIRECTED READING / THINKING ACTIVITY (DR/TA) What I know I know: FOCUS FACTS SURE ABOUT What I think I know: FACTS AND ASSUMPTIONS I THINK I KNOW REVEALS MISINFORMATION UNCLEAR THINKING What I think I’ll learn: PREDICT FORECAST AROUSES INTEREST What I know I learned: FACTS LEARNED FROM: READING DISCUSSION
Rock Around The Clock Reading Comprehension Strategy
SQ3R Reading Comprehension Strategy
VENN DIAGRAM Reading Comprehension Strategy
K-W-L-S Reading Comprehension Strategy
K-W-L-S Chart K - What We Already Know W - What We Want to Learn L- What We Learned from Text S - Still Want to Know Extra Credit
Three Aspects of DTQ Literacy 1. Previewing the Document or Source 2. Understanding The Task 3. Completing the Process Document, Technological, and Quantitative Literacy Sills Adapted from: Mosenthal, Kirsch, Guthrie, deGeus, Reitman, and Kuzmich
K-W-L for Prose What do you know already? What do you want to know? What did you learn?
K-W-L for Documents = P-A-R (Purpose, Action, Results) What is the purpose of this document? What do you want to accomplish or what actions do you need to take? What were the results of your actions?
K-W-L for Quantitative Documents= P-A-R (Purpose, Action, Results) Why did the creators of this document set it up in this format or array? What do you know about the format and how can this help you accomplish your task or calculation? What are the pros and cons of your solution or conclusion?
Why Content Reading? Expose students to content rich vocabulary that is directly taught prior to reading to build comprehension. Use direct instruction for introducing new vocabulary terms. Enhance vocabulary instruction through interdisciplinary integration and real-world application
Why Content Reading? Wide reading opportunities each day in different subject areas exposes students to many more words than basal reader or direct vocabulary list instruction 750 – 1500 words vs. 350 words per year Marzano, 2004
The UPC, the most common version of the so-called bar code, wasn't as warmly embraced or as breathtaking as some emerging technologies, but its impact on retailing has been enormous. It saves $17 billion a year in inventory costs, by one estimate, not to mention carpal tunnel syndrome for countless cashiers. Other technologies, such as radio-frequency identification tags, may one day replace it, but the lowly UPC improved efficiency and supply-chain control almost invisibly. One of the few times it gained media notice at all was in 1992 when President George H.W. Bush marveled at it during a campaign visit to a grocers' convention in Florida. His reaction added to a perception that he was out of touch with the public, because many people were by then well acquainted with the technology. The rectangle of stripes and numbers has even fused its way into pop culture: In the former Fox television series "Dark Angel," Jessica Alba starred as a genetically altered fighting machine with a bar code branded on the back of her neck. Human bar-coding is thus far the stuff of science fiction, but the U.S. government uses the symbol in homeland security efforts, and airlines keep track of luggage with it. The Food and Drug Administration several months ago required a version of the bar code to be put on medications to cut errors.
Vocabulary Strategies Pair/Share: How do you teach vocabulary?
Vocabulary is the Gateway to Inferential Thinking Most of us learned to teach vocabulary by having students: Write the word several times Find the definition Write it in a sentence Meta-research from William Nagy, Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension, ERIC, 2000 reports that…
Verbal Rehearsal Connect with prior learning Association method Think-Pair-Share
Visual Clueing Post key words Color code or place with pictures, clip art
Larry Bell’s 12 Powerful Words 1. Trace List in steps 2. Analyze Break apart 3. Infer Read between the lines 4. Evaluate Judge 5. Formulate Create 6. Describe Tell all about 7. Support Back up with details 8. Explain Tell how 9. Summarize Give me the short version 10. Compare All the ways they are alike 11. Contrast All the ways they are different 12. Predict What will happen next
Graphic Organizers Brain friendly Creates patterns for the brain Supports concept development Multi-purpose Cross content application with little modification (101 Uses) Motivating to reluctant writers – small spaces
Frayer Method ExamplesNon-examples Non-linguistic Representation Use or Application – put in context Now write your own definition: Concept
Array Web Concept Parts or Characteristics
Vocabulary Strategies, Writing Strategies and Graphic Organizers Combine for High Payoff Add some cooperative grouping and you have instant results based learning
When Students Write They are obliged to organize concepts, to place concepts in their own language, and to connect concepts with their own analogies. Writing often, several times a week, provides constant reinforcement of the content.
Writing to Learn 1 to 3 minutes at the beginning, during, or at the end of class Several times a week - Daily Writing to Learn becomes a habit in the classroom.
Writing in response to course content helps students Think independently Develop insight Explore thoughts and feelings Develop intellectual courage
Examples of Quick Writes Learning Logs Entry and Exit Slips
Prompts for Exit / Entry Slips What one idea from today’s lesson most interested you? Why? What was the clearest point? The foggiest point? What are the main points we made today in class? If you had to restate the concept in your own terms, how would you do that? How does today’s discussion build on yesterday’s?
Advantages of Exit / Entry Slips Check for Student Understanding Judge if Lesson Needs Re-teaching Students Gain Confidence Chance to “Listen” to Students Develop a Dialogue with Students
May Your Moments be Many! “Educators are addicted to the moment when a student’s eyes light up, when the teaching becomes learning. May your days be filled with such moments.” Philip Patrick Horenstein
Instructional Strategies for Quadrant D Lessons